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Title: An Account of Two Voyages to New-England

Made During the Years 1638, 1663

Author: John Josselyn
Editor: William Veazie
Release Date: December 11, 2021 [eBook #66922]
Language: English
Character set encoding: UTF-8
Produced by: Steve Mattern, John Campbell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive)


This book was published in 1865. It was, as the Preface notes, a “literal” and “exact” copy of the original book published in 1674, and so retained the spelling, the punctuation and the copious italicizing of the original. (The errata in the 1674 book were applied.)

This etext maintains this careful reproduction of the 1674 text, with some exceptions that are noted at the end of the book.

The page numbers of the 1674 book are embedded in the text and etext in [ ] brackets; for example [p. 75.]

The 1865 publisher inserted two corrections in [ ] brackets; they have been retained in this etext without change:
page 9: “the Ships trine [trim?] a foot by the stern”
page 157: “20 English miles, [leagues?] or 60 miles”.

The dates in the book of course accord with the Julian calendar. Dual dating was (sometimes) used for events between January 1st and March 25th (the end of a Julian year), for example on page 204: “the 24 of January 1659/60 landed at”.

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

Decorative banner





Made during the years 1638, 1663.





Two Hundred and Fifty Copies printed, Small Quarto.

Riverside, Cambridge:

Printed by H. O. Houghton & Co.

[Pg v]


The work published by Josselyn in 1672, entitled “New England’s Rarities discovered,” which has been reprinted in a similar form, and as a companion volume to the present, contains a full and detailed account of the family of the author, with many curious facts relating to the personal history of this early explorer of New England; but it has been thought expedient to prefix to his narrative a genealogical chart of the family, copied from a paper among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, the substance of which has been printed in the “New England Historical and Genealogical Register,” and which is now kindly furnished for publication by Samuel G. Drake, Esq. The table now published will be found generally to confirm the information given in the account of the family already published.

The first of the “Two Voyages” of Josselyn, of which he gives an account in the present work, was undertaken[vi] in the year 1638, only eight years after the settlement of Boston, and when, to use his own words, “it was rather a village than a town, there being not above twenty or thirty houses;” while the second visit of the author to New England took place in 1663, after an absence of twenty-five years, and when the town had assumed the proportions of a flourishing seaport. On this occasion he appears to have remained in New England for eight years, the principal part of which was spent on the plantation of his brother, Henry Josselyn, at Black Point.

This work is the latest of the author’s productions, and was not given to the public until 1674. It was reprinted by the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1833, and may be found in the third volume of the third series of their collections. Josselyn’s observations on the natural history of the country, his descriptions of the various plants and notices of their medicinal effects, are more full and exact in the present work than in the “New England’s Rarities,” printed two years earlier, and must be considered as among the most valuable of those given by the early botanists of New England.

The political and theological opinions of Josselyn were not in accordance with those generally received in the Colonies, particularly in the later years of his life. On this subject, Prof. Tuckerman, in his Introduction to the work last mentioned, remarks that, “In the account of his first voyage, there is no appearance of that dislike to the[vii] Massachusetts government and people which is observable in the narrative of the second; and may there not unfairly be connected with his brother’s political and religious differences with Massachusetts.” There is sufficient evidence in this work to show that the sympathies of the author were enlisted in the royal cause, and there appears to be little ground for admitting his supposed complicity in the fruitless insurrection in the north of England in 1663, or his identity with the “Capt. John Jossline” mentioned by the late Rev. Joseph Hunter in his account of the family.

The chronological table appended to his “New-England’s Rarities” is greatly enlarged in the present work, and continued to the year 1674.

In reprinting this rare and curious volume, great care has been taken to make it a literal and exact copy of the original, the proofs having been carefully collated with a copy of the work belonging to the Library of Harvard College.

Boston, June 15, 1865.







Wherein you have the setting out of a Ship, With the charges; The prices of all necessaries for furnishing a Planter & his Family at his first coming; A Description of the Country, Natives and Creatures; The Government of the Countrey as it is now possessed by the English, &c. A large Chronological Table of the most remarkable passages from the first discovering of the Continent of America, to the year 1673.

By John Josselyn Gent.

The Second Addition.

Memner. distich rendred English by Dr. Heylin.

Heart, take thine ease,
Men hard to please
Thou haply might’st offend,
Though one speak ill
Of thee, some will
Say better; there’s an end.

London Printed for G. Widdowes at the Green Dragon in St.
Pauls Church-yard, 1675.



Roger L’estrange,

Novemb. the
28. 1673.






President & Fellows


Royal Society:

The following Account of Two




Is Most Humbly presented

By the Authour

John Josselyn.

[Pg 5]







The first Voyage.

Anno Dom. 1638. April the 26th being Thursday, I came to Gravesend and went aboard the New Supply, alias, the Nicholas of London, a Ship of good force, of 300 Tuns burden, carrying 20 Sacre and Minion, man’d with 48 Sailers, the Master Robert Taylor, the Merchant or undertaker Mr. Edward Tinge, with 164 Passengers men, women and children.

[p. 2.] At Gravesend I began my Journal, from whence we departed on the 26. of April, about Six of the clock at night, and went down into the Hope.

The 27. being Fryday, we set sail out of the Hope, and about Nine of the clock at night we came to an Anchor in Margaret-Road in three fathom and a half water: by the way we past a States man of war, of 500 Tun, cast[6] away a month before upon the Goodwin, nothing remaining visible above water but her main mast top, 16 of her men were drowned, the rest saved by Fishermen.

The 28. we twined into the Downs, where Captain Clark one of His Majesties Captains in the Navy, came aboard of us in the afternoon, and prest two of our Trumpeters. Here we had good store of Flounders from the Fishermen, new taken out of the Sea and living, which being readily gutted, were fry’d while they were warm; me thoughts I never tasted of a delicater Fish in all my life before.

The Third of May being Ascension day, in the afternoon we weighed out of the Downs, the wind at E. and ran down into Dover Road, and lay by the lee, whilst they sent the Skiffe ashore for one of the Masters mates: by the way we past Sandwich in the [p. 3.] Hope, Sandown-Castle, Deal; So we steered away for Doniesse, from thence we steered S. W. ½S. for the Beachie, about one of the clock at night the wind took us a stayes with a gust, rain, thunder and lightning, and now a Servant of one of the passengers sickned of the small pox.

The Fifth day in the afternoon we Anchored, the Isle of Wight W. N. W. 10 leagues off, Beachie E. N. E. 8 leagues off, rode in 32 fathom water at low water, at 8 of the clock at night the land over the Needles bore N. W. 4 leagues off, we steered W. afore the Start, at noon the Boult was N. W. by W. about 3½ leagues off, we were becalmed from 7 of the clock in the morning, till 12 of the clock at noon, where we took good store of Whitings, and half a score Gurnets, this afternoon an infinite number of Porpisces shewed themselves above water[7] round about the Ship, as far as we could kenn, the night proved tempestuous with much lightning and thunder.

The Sixth day being Sunday, at five of the clock at night the Lizard was N. W. by W. 6 leagues off, and the Blackhead which is to the westward of Falmouth was N. W. about 5 leagues off.

The Seventh day the uttermost part of Silly was N. E. 12 leagues off, and now we began to sail by the logg.

[p. 4.] The Eighth day, one Boremans man a passenger was duck’d at the main yards arm (for being drunk with his Masters strong waters which he stole) thrice, and fire given to two whole Sacree, at that instant. Two mighty Whales we now saw, the one spouted water through two great holes in her head into the Air a great height, and making a great noise with puffing and blowing, the Seamen called her a Soufler; the other was further off, about a league from the Ship, fighting with the Sword-fish, and the Flail-fish, whose stroakes with a fin that growes upon her back like a flail, upon the back of the Whale, we heard with amazement: when presently some more than half as far again we spied a spout from above, it came pouring down like a River of water; So that if they should light in any Ship, she were in danger to presently sunk down into the Sea, and falleth with such an extream violence all whole together as one drop, or as water out of a Vessel, and dured a quarter of an hour, making the Sea to boyle like a pot, and if any Vessel be near, it sucks it in. I saw many of these spouts afterwards at nearer distance. In the afternoon the Mariners struck a Porpisce, called also a Marsovius or Sea-hogg, with an harping[8] Iron, and hoisted her aboard, [p. 5.] they cut some of it into thin pieces, and fryed, it tasts like rusty Bacon, or hung Beef, if not worse; but the Liver boiled and soused sometime in Vinegar is more grateful to the pallat. About 8 of the clock at night, a flame settled upon the main mast, it was about the bigness of a great Candle, and is called by our Seamen St. Elmes fire, it comes before a storm, and is commonly thought to be a Spirit; if two appear they prognosticate safety: These are known to the learned by the names of Castor and Pollux, to the Italians by St. Nicholas and St. Hermes, by the Spaniards called Corpos Santos.

The Ninth day, about two of the clock in the afternoon, we found the head of our main mast close to the cap twisted and shivered, and we presently after found the fore-top-mast crackt a little above the cap; So they wolled them both, and about two of the clock in the morning 7 new long Boat oars brake away from our Starboard quarter with a horrid crack.

The Eleventh day, they observed and made the Ship to be in latitude 48 degrees 46 minuts, having a great Sea all night; about 6 of the clock in the morning we spake with Mr. Rupe in a Ship of Dartmouth, which came from Marcelloes; and now is Silly N. E. by E. 34 leagues off; [p. 6.] about 9 of the clock at night we sounded, and had 85 fathom water, small brownish pepperie sand, with a small piece of Hakes Tooth, and now we are 45 leagues off the Lizard, great Seas all night, and now we see to the S. W. six tall Ships, the wind being S. W.

The Twelfth day being Whitsunday, at prayer-time we[9] found the Ships trine [trim?] a foot by the stern, and also the partie that was sick of the small pox now dyed, whom we buried in the Sea, tying a bullet (as the manner is) to his neck, and another to his leggs, turned him out at a Port-hole, giving fire to a great Gun. In the afternoon one Martin Ivy a stripling, servant to Captain Thomas Cammock was whipt naked at the Cap-stern, with a Cat with Nine tails, for filching 9 great Lemmons out of the Chirurgeons Cabbin, which he eat rinds and all in less than an hours time.

The Thirteenth day we took a Sharke, a great one, and hoisted him aboard with his two Companions (for there is never a Sharke, but hath a mate or two) that is the Pilot-fish or Pilgrim, which lay upon his back close to a long finn; the other fish (somewhat bigger than the Pilot) about two foot long, called a Remora, it hath no scales and sticks close to the Sharkes belly. [p. 7.] So the Whale hath the Sea-gudgeon, a small fish for his mate, marching before him, and guiding him; which I have seen likewise. The Seamen divided the Sharke into quarters, and made more quarter about it than the Purser, when he makes five quarters of an Oxe, and after they had cooked him, he proved very rough Grain’d not worthy of wholesome preferment; but in the afternoon we took store of Bonitoes, or Spanish Dolphins, a fish about the size of a large Mackarel, beautified with admirable varietie of glittering colours in the water, and was excellent food.

The Fourteenth day we spake with a Plimouth man (about dinner time) bound for New-found-land, who having gone up west-ward sprang a leak, and now bore back[10] for Plimouth. Now was Silly 50 leagues off, and now many of the passengers fall sick of the small Pox and Calenture.

The Sixteenth Mr. Clarke, who came out of the Downs with us, and was bound for the Isle of Providence, one of the summer Islands; the Spaniards having taken it a little before, though unknown to Clarke, and to Captain Nathaniel Butler going Governour, they departed from us the Wind N. W. great Seas and stormie winds all night.

[p. 8.] The Seventeenth day, the wind at N. W. about 8 of the clock we saw 5 great Ships bound for the Channel, which was to the Westward of us, about two leagues off, we thought them to be Flemmings; here we expected to have met with Pirates, but were happily deceived.

The One and twentieth day, the wind S. by W. great Seas and Wind, in’d our courses, and tryed from 5 of the clock afternoon, till 4 in the morning, the night being very stormie and dark; we lost Mr. Goodlad and his Ship, who came out with us, and bound for Boston in New-England.

The Eight and twentieth day, all this while a very great grown Sea and mighty winds.

June the first day in the afternoon, very thick foggie weather, we sailed by an inchanted Island, saw a great deal of filth and rubbish floating by the Ship, heard Cawdimawdies, Sea-gulls and Crowes, (Birds that always frequent the shoar) but could see nothing by reason of the mist: towards Sunset, when we were past the Island, it cleared up.


The Fourteenth day of June, very foggie weather, we sailed by an Island of Ice (which lay on the Star-board side) three leagues in length mountain high, in form of [p. 9.] land, with Bayes and Capes like high clift land, and a River pouring off it into the Sea. We saw likewise two or three Foxes, or Devils skipping upon it. These Islands of Ice are congealed in the North, and brought down in the spring-time with the Current to the banks on this side New-found-land, and there stopt, where they dissolve at last to water; by that time we had sailed half way by it, we met with a French Pickeroon. Here it was as cold as in the middle of January in England, and so continued till we were some leagues beyond it.

The Sixteenth day we sounded, and found 35 fathom water, upon the bank of New-found-land, we cast out our hooks for Cod-fish, thick foggie weather, the Codd being taken on a Sunday morning, the Sectaries aboard threw those their servants took into the Sea again, although they wanted fresh victuals, but the Sailers were not so nice, amongst many that were taken, we had some that were wasted Fish, & it is observable and very strange, that fishes bodies do grow slender with age, their Tails and Heads retaining their former bigness; Fish of all Creatures have generally the biggest heads, and the first part that begins to taint in a fish is the head.

The Nineteenth day, Captain Thomas Cammock [p. 10.] (a near kinsman of the Earl of Warwicks) now had another lad Thomas Jones, that dyed of the small pox at eight of the clock at night.

The Twentieth day, we saw a great number of Sea-bats, or Owles, called also flying fish, they are about the bigness[12] of a Whiting, with four tinsel wings, with which they fly as long as they are wet, when pursued by other fishes. Here likewise we saw many Grandpisces or Herring-hogs, hunting the scholes of Herrings, in the afternoon we saw a great fish called the vehuella or Sword fish, having a long, strong and sharp finn like a Sword-blade on the top of his head, with which he pierced our Ship, and broke it off with striving to get loose, one of our Sailers dived and brought it aboard.

The One and twentieth day, we met with two Bristow men bound for New-England, and now we are 100 and 75 leagues off Cape-Sable, the sandy Cape, for so Sable in French signifieth, off of which lyeth the Isle of Sable, which is beyond New-found-land, where they take the Amphibious Creature, the Walrus, Mors, or Sea-Horse.

The Two and twentieth, another passenger dyed of a Consumption. Now we passed by the Southern part of New-found-land, [p. 11.] within sight of it; the Southern part of New-found-land is said to be not above 600 leagues from England.

The Six and twentieth day, Capt. Thomas Cammock went aboard of a Barke of 300 Tuns, laden with Island Wine, and but 7 men in her, and never a Gun, bound for Richmonds Island, set out by Mr. Trelaney, of Plimouth, exceeding hot weather now.

The Eight and twentieth, one of Mr. Edward Ting’s the undertakers men now dyed of the Phthisick.

The Nine and twentieth day, sounded at night, and found 120 fathome water, the head of the Ship struck against a rock; At 4 of the clock we descryed two sail bound for New-found-land, and so for the Streights, they[13] told us of a general Earth-quake in New-England, of the Birth of a Monster at Boston, in the Massachusets-Bay a mortality, and now we are two leagues off Cape Ann.

The Thirtieth day proved stormie, and having lost the sight of the Land, we saw none untill the morning; doubtfully discovering the Coast, fearing the Lee-shore all night we bore out to Sea.

July the first day, we sounded at 8 of the clock at night, and found 93 fathome water, descried land.

The Third day, we Anchored in the Bay of [p. 12.] Massachusets before Boston. Mr. Tinges other man now dyed of the small pox.

The Tenth day, I went a shore upon Noddles Island to Mr. Samuel Maverick (for my passage) the only hospitable man in all the Countrey, giving entertainment to all Comers gratis.

Now before I proceed any further, it will not be Impertinent to give the intending planter some Instructions for the furnishing of himself with things necessary, and for undertaking the Transport of his Family, or any others.

To which end observe, that a Ship of 150 Tuns, with 2 Decks and a half, and 26 men, with 12 pieces of Ordnance, the charge will amount per moneth, with the Mariners, to 120 pound per moneth. It is better to let the Owners undertake for the Victualling of the Mariners, and their pay for Wages, and the Transporter only to take care of the passengers.


The common proportion of Victuals for the Sea to a Mess, being 4 men, is as followeth;

Two pieces of Beef, of 3 pound and ¼ per piece.

Four pound of Bread.

One pint ½ of Pease.

[p. 13.] Four Gallons of Bear, with Mustard and Vinegar for three flesh dayes in the week.

For four fish dayes, to each mess per day.

Two pieces of Codd or Habberdine, making three pieces of a fish.

One quarter of a pound of Butter.

Four pound of Bread.

Three quarters of a pound of Cheese.

Bear as before.

Oatmeal per day, for 50 men, Gallon 1. and so proportionable for more or fewer.

Thus you see the Ships provision, is Beef or Porke, Fish, Butter, Cheese, Pease, Pottage, Water-gruel, Bisket, and six shilling Bear.

For private fresh provision, you may carry with you (in case you, or any of yours should be sick at Sea) Conserves of Roses, Clove-Gilliflowers, Wormwood, Green-Ginger, Burnt-Wine, English Spirits, Prunes to stew, Raisons of the Sun, Currence, Sugar, Nutmeg, Mace, Cinnamon, Pepper and Ginger, White Bisket, or Spanish rusk, Eggs, Rice, juice of Lemmons well put up to cure, or prevent the Scurvy. Small Skillets, Pipkins, Porrengers, and small Frying pans.


To prevent or take away Sea sickness, Conserve of Wormwood is very proper, but these following Troches I prefer before it.

First make paste of Sugar and Gum-Dragagant mixed together, then mix therewith [p. 14.] a reasonable quantitie of the powder of Cinnamon and Ginger, and if you please a little Musk also, and make it up into Roules of several fashions, which you may gild, of this when you are troubled in your Stomach, take and eat a quantity according to discretion.

Apparel for one man, and after the rate for more.

l. s. d.
One Hatt 0 3 0
One Monmouth Cap 0 1 10
Three falling bands 0 1 3
Three Shirts 0 7 6
One Wastcoat 0 2 6
One suit of Frize 0 19 0
One suit of Cloth 0 15 0
One suit of Canvas 0 7 6
Three pair of Irish Stockins 0 5 0
Four pair of Shoos 0 8 0
One pair of Canvas Sheets 0 8 0
Seven ells of course Canvas to make a bed at Sea for two men, to be filled with straw } 0 5 0
One course Rug at Sea for two men 0 6 0
Sum Total. 4 0 0


[p. 15] Victuals for a whole year to be carried out of England for one man, and so for more after the rate.

  l.   s.   d.
Eight bushels of Meal 2 0 0
Two bushels of Pease at three shillings a bushel 0 6 0
Two bushels of Oatmeal, at four and six pence the bushel } 0 9 0
One Gallon of Aqua vitæ 0 2 6
One Gallon of Oyl 0 3 6
Two Gallons of Vinegar 0 2 0


Of Sugar and Spice, 8 pound make the stone, 13 stone and an half, i. e. 100 pound maketh the hundred, but your best way is to buy your Sugar there, for it is cheapest, but for Spice you must carry it over with you.

  l.   s.   d.
A Hogshead of English Beef will cost 5 0 0
A Hogshead of Irish Beef will cost 2 10 0
A Barrel of Oatmeal 0 13 0
A Hogshead of Aqua vitæ will cost 4 0 0
A Hogshead of Vinegar 1 0 0
A bushel of Mustard-seed 0 6 0

[p. 16.] A Kental of fish, Cod or Habberdine is 112 pound, will cost if it be merchantable fish, Two or three and thirty Rials a Kental, if it be refuse you may have it for 10 or 11 shillings a Kental.


Wooden Ware.

  l.   s.   d.
A pair of Bellowes 0 2 0
A Skoope 0 0 9
A pair of Wheels for a Cart, if you buy them in the Countrey, they will cost 3 or 4 pound } 0 14 0
Wheelbarrow you may have there, in England they cost } 0 6 0
A great pail in England will cost 0 0 10
A Boat called a Canow, will cost in the Countrey (with a pair of Paddles) if it be a good one } 3 0 0
A short Oake ladder in England will cost but 0 0 10
A Plough 0 3 9
An Axletree 0 0 8
A Cart 0 10 0
For a casting shovel 0 0 10
For a shovel 0 0 6
For a Sack 0 2 4
For a Lanthorn 0 1 3

For Tobacco pipes short steels, and great bouls 14 pence and 16 pence the grose.

[p. 17.] For clipping an hundred sheep in England }   0   4   6
For winding the Wool 0 0 8
For washing them 0 2 0
For one Garnish of Peuter 2 0 0


Prizes of Iron Ware.

Arms for one man, but if half of your men have Armour it is sufficient so that all have pieces and swords.

  l.   s.   d.
One Armour compleat, light 0 17 0
One long piece five foot, or five and a half near Musket bore } 1 2 0
One Sword 0 5 0
One Bandaleer 0 1 6
One Belt 0 1 0
Twenty pound of powder 0 18 0
Sixty pound of shot or lead, pistol and Goose shot } 0 5 0

Tools for a Family of Six persons, and so after the rate for more.

Five broad howes at two shillings a piece 0 10 0
Five narrow howes at 16 pence a piece 0 6 8
[p. 18.] Five felling Axes at 18 pence a piece 0 7 6
Two steel hand-sawes at 16 pence the piece 0 2 8
Two hand-sawes at 5 shillings a piece 0 10 0
One whip saw, set and filed with box 0 10 0
A file and wrest 0 0 10
Two Hammers 12 pence a piece 0 2 0
Three shovels 18 pence a piece shod 0 4 6
Two spades 18 pence a piece 0 3 0
Two Augars 0 1 0
Two broad Axes at 3 shillings 8 pence a piece[19] 0 7 4
Six Chissels 0 3 0
Three Gimblets 0 0 6
Two Hatchets One and twenty pence a piece 0 3 6
Two froues to cleave pail at 18 pence a piece 0 3 0
Two hand-bills at 20 pence a piece 0 3 4
Nails of all sorts to be valued 2 0 0
Two pick-Axes 0 3 0
Three Locks, and 3 pair of Fetters 0 5 10
Two Currie Combs 0 0 11
For a Brand to brand Beasts with 0 0 6
For a Chain and lock for a Boat 0 2 2
For a Coulter weighing 10 pound 0 3 4
For a Hand-vise 0 2 6
[p. 19.] For a Pitch-fork 0 1 4
For one hundred weight of Spikes 2 5 0
Nails and pins 120, to the hundred
For a share 0 2 11

Houshould Implements for a Family of six persons, and so for more or less after the rate.

One Iron Pot 0 7 0
For one great Copper Kettle 2 0 0
For a small Kettle 0 10 0
For a lesser Kettle 0 6 0
For one large Frying-pan 0 2 6
For a small Frying-pan 0 1 8
For a brass Morter 0 3 0
For a Spit 0 2 0
For one Grid-Iron 0 10 0
For two Skillets 0 5 0
Platters, dishes, & spoons of wood[20] 0 4 0
For Sugar, Spice, and fruits at Sea for six men 0 12 10
The fraught will be for one man half a Tun.

Having refreshed my self for a day or two upon Noddles-Island, I crossed the Bay in a small Boat to Boston, which then was rather a Village, than a Town, there being not [p. 20.] above Twenty or thirty houses; and presenting my respects to Mr. Winthorpe the Governour, and to Mr. Cotton the Teacher of Boston Church, to whom I delivered from Mr. Francis Quarles the poet, the Translation of the 16, 25, 51, 88, 113, and 137. Psalms into English Meeter, for his approbation, being civilly treated by all I had occasion to converse with, I returned in the Evening to my lodging.

The Twelfth day of July, after I had taken my leave of Mr. Maverick, and some other Gentlemen, I took Boat for the Eastern parts of the Countrie, and arrived at Black point in the Province of Main, which is 150 miles from Boston, the Fourteenth day, which makes my voyage 11 weeks and odd dayes.

The Countrey all along as I sailed, being no other than a meer Wilderness, here and there by the Sea-side a few scattered plantations, with as few houses.

About the Tenth of August, I hapned to walk into the Woods, not far from the Sea-side, and falling upon a piece of ground over-grown with bushes, called there black Currence, but differing from our Garden Currence, they being ripe and hanging in lovely bunches; I set up my piece against a stately Oake, with a resolution to fill my [p. 21.] belly, being near half a mile from the house; of[21] a sudden I heard a hollow thumping noise upon the Rocks approaching towards me, which made me presently to recover my piece, which I had no sooner cock’d, than a great and grim over-grown she-Wolf appears, at whom I shot, and finding her Gor-belly stuft with flesh newly taken in, I began presently to suspect that she had fallen foul upon our Goats, which were then valued (our she Goats) at Five pound a Goat; Therefore to make further discovery, I descended (it being low water) upon the Sea sands, with an intent to walk round about a neck of land where the Goats usually kept. I had not gone far before I found the footing of two Wolves, and one Goat betwixt them, whom they had driven into a hollow, betwixt two Rocks, hither I followed their footing, and perceiving by the Crowes, that there was the place of slaughter, I hung my piece upon my back, and upon all four clambered up to the top of the Rock, where I made ready my piece and shot at the dog Wolf, who was feeding upon the remainder of the Goat, which was only the fore shoulders, head and horns, the rest being devoured by the she-Wolf, even to the very hair of the Goat: and it is very observable, that when [p. 22.] the Wolves have kill’d a Beast, or a Hog, not a Dog-Wolf amongst them offers to eat any of it, till the she-Wolves have filled their paunches.

The Twenty fourth of September, being Munday about 4 of the clock in the afternoon, a fearful storm of wind began to rage, called a Hurricane. It is an impetuous wind that goes commonly about the Compass in the space of 24 hours, it began from the W. N. W. and continued till next morning, the greatest mischief it did us, was the[22] wracking of our Shallop, and the blowing down of many tall Trees, in some places a mile together.

December the Tenth, happened an Eclipse of the Moon at 8 of the clock at night, it continued till after 11, as near as we could guess; in old England it began after midnight, and continued till 4 of the clock in the morning; if Seamen would make observation of the time, either of the beginning or ending of the Eclipse, or total darkness of Sun and Moon in all places where they shall happen to be, and confer their observations to some Artist, hereby the longitude of all places might be certainly known, which are now very uncertainly reported to us.

1639. May, which fell out to be extream hot and foggie, about the middle of May, I [p. 23.] kill’d within a stones throw of our house, above four score Snakes, some of them as big as the small of my leg, black of colour, and three yards long, with a sharp horn on the tip of their tail two inches in length.

June the Six and twentieth day, very stormie, Lightning and Thunder. I heard now two of the greatest and fearfullest thunder-claps that ever were heard, I am confident. At this time we had some neighbouring Gentlemen in our house, who came to welcome me into the Countrey; where amongst variety of discourse they told me of a young Lyon (not long before) kill’d at Piscataway by an Indian; of a Sea-Serpent or Snake, that lay quoiled up like a Cable upon a Rock at Cape-Ann: a Boat passing by with English aboard, and two Indians, they would have shot the Serpent but the Indians disswaded them, saying, that if he were not kill’d out-right, they would be all in danger of their lives.


One Mr. Mittin related of a Triton or Mereman which he saw in Cascobay, the Gentleman was a great Fouler, and used to goe out with a small Boat or Canow, and fetching a compass about a small Island, (there being many small Islands in the Bay) for the advantage of a shot, was encountred [p. 24.] with a Triton, who laying his hands upon the side of the Canow, had one of them chopt off with a Hatchet by Mr. Mittin, which was in all respects like the hand of a man, the Triton presently sunk, dying the water with his purple blood, and was no more seen. The next story was told by Mr. Foxwell, now living in the province of Main, who having been to the Eastward in a Shallop, as far as Cape-Ann a Waggon in his return was overtaken by the night, and fearing to land upon the barbarous shore, he put off a little further to Sea; about midnight they were wakened with a loud voice from the shore, calling upon Foxwell, Foxwell come a shore, two or three times: upon the Sands they saw a great fire, and Men and Women hand in hand dancing round about it in a ring, after an hour or two they vanished, and as soon as the day appeared, Foxwell puts into a small Cove, it being about three quarters floud, and traces along the shore, where he found the footing of Men, Women and Children shod with shoes; and an infinite number of brands-ends thrown up by the water, but neither Indian nor English could he meet with on the shore, nor in the woods; these with many other stories they told me, the credit whereof I will neither impeach nor inforce, but shall [p. 25.] satisfie my self, and I hope the Reader hereof, with the saying of a wise, learned and honourable Knight, that there are many Stranger things in the world, than are to be seen between London and Stanes.


September the Sixth day, one Mr. John Hickford the Son of Mr. Hickford a Linnen-Draper in Cheapside, having been some time in the province of Main, and now determined to return for England, sold and kill’d his stock of Cattle and Hoggs, one great Sow he had which he made great account of, but being very fat, and not suspecting that she was with pig, he caused her to be kill’d, and they found 25 pigs within her belly; verifying the old proverb, As fruitful as a white sow. And now we were told of a sow in Virginia that brought forth six pigs; their fore-parts Lyons, their hinder-parts hogs. I have read that at Bruxels, Anno 1564. a sow brought forth six pigs, the first whereof (for the last in generating is always in bruit beasts the first brought forth) had the head, face, arms and legs of a man, but the whole trunck of the body from the neck, was of a swine, a sodomitical monster is more like the mother than the father in the organs of the vegetative soul.

The Three and twentieth, I left Black-point, and came to Richmonds Island about [p. 26.] three leagues to the Eastward, where Mr. Tralanie kept a fishing, Mr. John Winter a grave and discreet man was his Agent, and imployer of 60 men upon that design.

The Four and twentieth day being Munday, I went aboard the Fellowship of 100 and 70 Tuns a Flemish bottom, the Master George Luxon of Bittiford in Devonshire, several of my friends came to bid me farewell, among the rest Captain Thomas Wannerton who drank to me a pint of kill-devil alias Rhum at a draught, at 6 of the clock in the morning we weighed Anchor, and set sail for the Massachusets-bay.


The Seven and twentieth day being Fryday, we Anchored in the afternoon in the Massachusets-bay before Boston. Next day I went aboard of Mr. Hinderson, Master of a ship of 500 Tuns, and Captain Jackson in the Queen of Bohemia a privateer, and from thence I went ashore to Boston, where I refreshed my self at an Ordinary. Next morning I was invited to a fisherman’s house somewhat lower within the Bay, and was there by his Wife presented with a handful of small Pearl, but none of them bored nor orient. From thence I crost the Bay to Charles-town, where at one Longs Ordinary I met with Captain Jackson and others, walking on the back side we spied a rattle [p. 27.] Snake a yard and half long, and as thick in the middle as the small of a mans leg, on the belly yellow, her back spotted with black, russet, yellow and green, placed like scales, at her tail she had a rattle which is nothing but a hollow shelly buffiness joynted, look how many years old she is, so many rattles she hath in her tail, her neck seemed to be no bigger than ones Thumb; yet she swallowed a live Chicken, as big as one they give 4 pence for in England, presently as we were looking on. In the afternoon I returned to our Ship, being no sooner aboard but we had the sight of an Indian-Pinnace sailing by us made of Birch-bark, sewed together with the roots of spruse and white Cedar (drawn out into threads) with a deck, and trimmed with sails top and top gallant very sumptuously.

The Thirtieth day of September, I went ashore upon Noddles-Island, where when I was come to Mr. Mavericks he would not let me go aboard no more, until the Ship was ready to set sail; the next day a grave and sober[26] person described the Monster to me, that was born at Boston of one Mrs. Dyer a great Sectarie, the Nine and twentieth of June, it was (it should seem) without a head, but having horns like a Beast, and ears, scales on a rough skin like a fish [p. 28.] called a Thornback, legs and claws like a Hawke, and in other respects as a Woman-child.

The Second of October, about 9 of the clock in the morning, Mr. Mavericks Negro woman came to my chamber window, and in her own Countrey language and tune sang very loud and shril, going out to her, she used a great deal of respect towards me, and willingly would have expressed her grief in English; but I apprehended it by her countenance and deportment, whereupon I repaired to my host, to learn of him the cause, and resolved to intreat him in her behalf, for that I understood before, that she had been a Queen in her own Countrey, and observed a very humble and dutiful garb used towards her by another Negro who was her maid. Mr. Maverick was desirous to have a breed of Negroes, and therefore seeing she would not yield by perswasions to company with a Negro young man he had in his house; he commanded him will’d she nill’d she to go to bed to her, which was no sooner done but she kickt him out again, this she took in high disdain beyond her slavery, and this was the cause of her grief. In the afternoon I walked into the Woods on the back side of the house, and happening into a [p. 29.] fine broad walk (which was a sledgway) I wandered till I chanc’t to spye a fruit as I thought like a pine Apple plated with scales, it was as big as the crown of a Womans hat; I made bold to step unto it, with an intent to have gathered it, no sooner had I toucht[27] it, but hundreds of Wasps were about me; at last I cleared my self from them, being stung only by one upon the upper lip, glad I was that I scaped so well; But by that time I was come into the house my lip was swell’d so extreamly, that they hardly knew me but by my Garments.

The Tenth of October, I went aboard and we fell down to Nantascot, here Mr. Davies (Mr. Hicks the Apothecarie in Fleet-streets Son-in-law) dyed of the Phthisick aboard on a Sunday in the afternoon. The next day Mr. Luxon our Master having been ashore upon the Governours Island gave me half a score very fair Pippins which he brought from thence, there being not one Apple-tree, nor Pear planted yet in no part of the Countrey, but upon that Island.

The Fifteenth day, we set sail from Nantascot.

The Sixteenth day Mr. Robert Foster, one of our passengers Preached aboard upon [p. 30.] the 113 Psalm; The Lord shall preserve thy going out, & thy coming in; The Sectaries began to quarrel with him, especially Mr. Vincent Potter, he who was afterwards questioned for a Regicide.

The Seventeenth day, towards Sun-set a Lanner settled upon our main Mast-top, when it was dark I hired one of the Sailers to fetch her down, and I brought her into England with much ado, being fain to feed her with hard Eggs. After this day, we had very cold weather at Sea, our deck in a morning ore-spread with hoarie frost, and dangling Isickles hung upon the Ropes. Some say the Sea is hotter in winter, than in summer; but I did not find it so.

November the Fifth day, about three of the clock in the[28] afternoon, the Mariners observed the rising of a little black cloud in the N. W. which increasing apace, made them prepare against a coming storm, the wind in short time grew to boisterous, bringing after us a huge grown Sea, at 5 of the clock it was pitchie dark.

And the bitter storm augments; the wild winds wage
War from all parts; and joyn with the Seas rage.
[p. 31.] The sad clouds sink in showers; you would have thought,
That high-swoln-seas even unto Heaven had wrought;
And Heaven to Seas defended: no star shown;
Blind night in darkness, tempests, and her own
Dread terrours lost; yet this dire lightning turns
To more fear’d light; the Sea with lightning Burns.
The Pilot knew not what to chuse or fly,
Art stood amaz’d in Ambiguity.

The storm augmenting still, the next day about 4 of the clock afternoon we lost our Rudder, and with that our hopes, so necessary a part it is, that a ship without it, is like a wild horse without a bridle; yet Aristotle that[29] Eagle-ey’d Philosopher could not give a reason, why so small a thing as a Helm should rule the ship.

[p. 32.] The Seventh day at night, the wind began to dye away, the next day we had leasure to repair our breaches; it continued calm till the 13 day, and all the while we saw many dead bodies of men and women floating by us.

The Four and twentieth, we arrived before Bittiford, having past before under Lundee-Island.


The Second

I have heard of a certain Merchant in the west of England, who after many great losses, walking upon the Sea-bank in a calm Sun-shining day; observing the smoothness of the Sea, coming in with a chequered or dimpled wave: Ah (quoth he) thou flattering Element, many a time hast thou inticed me to throw my self and my fortunes into thy Arms; but thou hast hitherto proved treacherous; thinking to find thee a Mother of encrease, I have found thee to be the Mother of mischief and wickedness; yea the Father of prodigies; therefore, being now secure, I will trust thee no more: But mark this mans resolution a while after, periculum maris spes lucri superat. So fared it with me, that having escaped the dangers of one Voyage, must needs put on a resolution for a second, wherein I plowed many a churlish billow [p. 34.] with little or no advantage, but rather to my loss and detriment. In the setting down, whereof I purpose not to insist in a methodical way, but according to my quality, in a plain and brief relation as I have done already; for I perceive, if I used all the Art that possibly I could, it would be difficult to please all, for all mens eyes, ears, faith, judgement, are not of a size. There be a sort of stagnant stinking spirits, who, like flyes, lye sucking at the[31] botches of carnal pleasures, and never travelled so much Sea, as is between Heth-ferry, and Lyon-Key; yet notwithstanding, (sitting in the Chair of the scornful over their whists and draughts of intoxication) will desperately censure the relations of the greatest Travellers. It was a good proviso of a learned man, never to report wonders, for in so doing, of the greatest he will be sure not to be believed, but laughed at, which certainly bewraies their ignorance and want of discretion. Of Fools and Madmen then I shall take no care, I will not invite these in the least to honour me with a glance from their supercilious eyes; but rather advise them to keep their inspection for their fine-tongu’d Romances, and playes. This homely piece, I protest ingenuously, is prepared for such only who well know how to make use of their [p. 35.] charitable constructions towards works of this nature, to whom I submit my self in all my faculties, and proceed in my second voyage.

Anno 1663. May the Three and twentieth, I went down to Gravesend, it being Saturday I lay ashore till Monday the fifth, about 11 a clock at night, I went aboard the Society belonging to Boston in the Massachusets a Colony of English in New-England, of 200 and 20 Tun, carrying 16 Iron Guns most unserviceable, man’d with 33 sailers, and 77 passengers, men, women and children.

The Six and twentieth day, about 6 of the clock in the morning we weighed Anchor, and fell down with the tide three or four miles below Gravesend.

The Seven and twentieth in the afternoon, we weighed Anchor and came into the Hope before Deal-Castle, here we were wind bound till


The 30 day, we set sail out of the Downs, being Saturday about 9 of the clock in the morning, about 4 of the clock in the afternoon we came up with Beachy by W. at Nore.

The One and thirtieth at 4 of the clock in the morning we came up with the Isle of Wight, at 4 of the clock in the afternoon [p. 36.] we had Portland N. N. W. of us, 6 leagues off, the wind being then at N. W. by N. at 5 of the clock we came to Dartmouth, the wind W. S. W.

June the first day, being Monday about 4 of the clock Plimouth was about 9 leagues off, our course W. S. W. the Start bore North distant about 6 leagues from whence our reckonings began; the wind now E. N. E. a fair gale.

The second day the Lizard bore N. N. W. in the latitude 51. 300 leagues from Cape-Cod in New England, our course W. and by S. One of our passengers now dyed of a Consumption.

The Fifth day we steered S. W. observed and found the ship in latitude 47 degrees, and 44 minutes.

The Tenth day observed and found the ship in latitude 49 degrees, and 24 minutes.

The Five and twentieth day, about 3 of the clock in the morning we discovered land, about 6 of the clock Flowers, so called from abundance of flowers, and Corvo from a multitude of Crowes; two of the Azores or western Islands, in the Atlantique Ocean not above 250 leagues from Lisbon bore N. W. of us some 3 leagues off, we steered away W. by W. observed and found Flowers to be in the Southern part in latitude 39 [p. 37.] degrees 13 minuts, we descryed a Village and a small Church or Chappel seated in a pleasant valley to the Easter-side of[33] the Island, the whole Island is rockie and mountanious about 8 miles in compass, stored with Corn, Wine and Goats, and inhabited by outlaw’d Portingals, the Town they call Santa Cruz. Corvo is not far from this, I supposed two or three leagues, a meer mountain, and very high and steep on all sides, cloathed with tall wood on the very top, uninhabited, but the Flowreans here keep some number of Goats.

The Seven and twentieth day, 30 leagues to the westward of these Islands we met with a small Vessel stoln from Jamaico, but 10 men in her, and those of several nations, English, French, Scotch, Dutch almost famish’d, having been out as they told us, by reason of calms, three moneths, bound for Holland.

July the sixth, calm now for two or three dayes, our men went out to swim, some hoisted the Shallop out and took divers Turtles, there being an infinite number of them all over the Sea as far as we could ken, and a man may ken at Sea in a clear Air 20 miles, they floated upon the top of the water being a sleep, and driving gently upon them with the Shallop, of a sudden [p. 38.] they took hold of their hinder legs and lifted them into the boat, if they be not very nimble they awake and presently dive under water; when they were brought aboard they sob’d and wept exceedingly, continuing to do so till the next day that we killed them, by chopping off their heads, and having taken off their shells (that on their back being fairest, is called a Gally patch) we opened the body and took out three hearts in one case, and (which was more strange) we perceived motion in the hearts ten hours after they were taken out. I have observed in England in my[34] youthful dayes the like in the heart of a Pike, and the heart of a Frog, which will leap and skip as nimbly as the Frog used to do when it was alive from whom it was taken. Likewise the heart of a Pig will stir after it is exenterated. Being at a friends house in Cambridg-shire, the Cook-maid making ready to slaughter a Pig, she put the hinder parts between her legs as the usual manner is, and taking the snout in her left hand with a long knife she stuck the Pig and cut the small end of the heart almost in two, letting it bleed as long as any bloud came forth, then throwing of it into a Kettle of boyling water, the Pig swom twice round about the kettle, when taking of it out to [p. 39.] the dresser she rub’d it with powdered Rozen and stript off the hair, and as she was cutting off the hinder pettito, the Pig lifts up his head with open mouth, as if it would have bitten: well, the belly was cut up, and the entrails drawn out, and the heart laid upon the board, which notwithstanding the wound it received had motion in it, above four hours after; there were several of the Family by, with my self, and we could not otherwayes conclude but that the Pig was bewitched; but this by the way. Of the Sea Turtles there be five sorts, first the Trunck-turtle which is biggest, Secondly, the Loggerhead-turtle. Thirdly, the Hawkbill-turtle, which with its bill will bite horribly. Fourthly, the Green-turtle which is best for food, it is affirmed that the feeding upon this Turtle for a twelve moneth, forbearing all other kind of food will cure absolutely Consumptions, and the great pox; They are a very delicate food, and their Eggs are very wholesome and restorative, it is an Amphibious Creature going ashore, the male throws the female on her back when he couples with[35] her, which is termed cooting, their Eggs grown to perfection the female goes ashore again and making a hole in the Sand, there layes her Eggs which are numerous, I have seen a peck [p. 40.] of Eggs taken out of one Turtle; when they have laid they cover the hole again with sand, and return to the Sea never looking after her Eggs, which hatching in the sand and coming to some strength break out and repair to the Sea. Having fill’d our bellies with Turtles and Bonito’s, called Spanish Dolphins excellently well cooked both of them, the wind blowing fair,

The Eighth day we spread our sails and went on our voyage, after a while we met with abundance of Sea-weeds called Gulf-weed coming out of the Bay of Mexico, and firr-trees floating on the Sea, observed and found the Ship to be in 39 degrees and 49 minuts.

The Fifteenth day we took a young Sharke about three foot long, which being drest and dished by a young Merchant a passenger happened to be very good fish, having very white flesh in flakes like Codd but delicately curl’d, the back-bone which is perfectly round, joynted with short joynts, the space between not above a quarter of an inch thick, separated they make fine Table-men, being wrought on both sides with curious works.

The One and twentieth thick hasie weather.

The Five and twentieth we met with a [p. 41.] Plimouth man come from St. Malloes in France, 10 weeks out, laden with cloath, fruit, and honey, bound for Boston in New-England.

The Six and twentieth we had sight of land.

The Seven and twentieth we Anchored at Nantascot, in the afternoon I went aboard of a Ketch, with some[36] other of our passengers, in hope to get to Boston that night; but the Master of the Ketch would not consent.

The Eight and twentieth being Tuesday, in the morning about 5 of the clock he lent us his Shallop and three of his men, who brought us to the western end of the town where we landed, and having gratified the men, we repaired to an Ordinary (for so they call their Taverns there) where we were provided with a liberal cup of burnt Madera-wine, and store of plum-cake, about ten of the clock I went about my Affairs.

Before I pursue my Voyage to an end, I shall give you to understand what Countrie New-England is. New-England is that part of America, which together with Virginia, Mary land, and Nova-scotia were by the Indians called (by one name) Wingadacoa, after the discovery by Sir Walter [p. 42.] Rawleigh they were named Virginia, and so remained untill King James divided the Countrey into Provinces. New-England then is all that tract of land that lyes between the Northerly latitudes of 40 and 46, that is from De-la-ware-Bay to New-found-land, some will have it to be in latitude from 41 to 45. in King Jame’s Letters Patents to the Council of Plimouth in Devonshire from 40 to 48 of the same latitude, it is judged to be an Island, surrounded on the North with the spacious River of Canada, on the South with Mahegan or Hudsons River, having their rise, as it is thought, from two great lakes not far off one another, the Sea lyes East and South from the land, and is very deep, some say that the depth of the Sea being measured with line and plummet, seldom exceeds two or three miles, except in some places near the Swevian-shores, and about Pontus, observed by[37] Pliny. Sir Francis Drake threw out 7 Hogsheads of line near Porto-bello and found no bottom, but whether this be true or no, or that they were deceived by the Currants carrying away their lead and line, this is certainly true, that there is more Sea in the Western than the Eastern Hemisphere, on the shore in more places than one at spring-tides, that is at the full or new of the moon, [p. 43.] the Sea riseth 18 foot perpendicular, the reason of this great flow of waters I refer to the learned, onely by the way I shall acquaint you with two reasons for the ebbing and flowing of the Sea; the one delivered in Common conference, the other in a Sermon at Boston in the Massachusets-Bay by an eminent man; The first was, that God and his spirit moving upon the waters caused the motion; the other, that the spirit of the waters gathered the waters together; as the spirit of Christ gathered souls.

The shore is Rockie, with high cliffs, having a multitude of considerable Harbours; many of which are capacious enough for a Navy of 500 sail, one of a thousand, the Countrie within Rockie and mountanious, full of tall wood, one stately mountain there is surmounting the rest, about four score mile from the Sea: The description of it you have in my rarities of New-England, between the mountains are many ample rich and pregnant valleys as ever eye beheld, beset on each side with variety of goodly Trees, the grass man-high unmowed, uneaten and uselesly withering; within these valleys are spacious lakes or ponds well stored with Fish and Beavers; the original of all the great Rivers in the Countrie, of which there are many with lesser [p. 44.] streams (wherein are an infinite of fish) manifesting the goodness of the soil which is black,[38] red-clay, gravel, sand, loom, and very deep in some places, as in the valleys and swamps, which are low grounds and bottoms infinitely thick set with Trees and Bushes of all sorts for the most part, others having no other shrub or Tree growing, but spruse, under the shades whereof you may freely walk two or three mile together; being goodly large Trees, and convenient for masts and sail-yards. The whole Countrie produceth springs in abundance replenished with excellent waters, having all the properties ascribed to the best in the world.

Swift is’t in pace, light poiz’d, to look in clear,
And quick in boiling (which esteemed were)
Such qualities, as rightly understood
Withouten these no water could be good.

One Spring there is, at Black-point in the Province of Main, coming out of muddy clay that will colour a spade, as if hatcht with silver, it is purgative and cures scabs and Itch, &c.

Isa. 45. 3.

The mountains and Rocky Hills are richly furnished with mines of Lead, Silver, [p. 45.] Copper, Tin, and divers sorts of minerals, branching out even to their summits, where in small Crannies you may meet with threds of perfect silver; yet have the English no maw to open any of them, whether out of ignorance or fear of bringing a forraign Enemy upon them, or (like the dog in the manger) to keep their Soveraign from partaking of the benefits, who certainly may claim an interest in them as his due, being eminently a gift proceeding from divine bounty to him; no person can pretend interest in Gold, Silver, or Copper by the law of Nations,[39] but the Soveraign Prince; but the subjects of our King have a right to mines discovered in their own Lands and inheritances; So as that every tenth Tun of such Oar is to be paid to the proprietors of such lands, and not to the state, if it be not a mine-Royal: if it prove to be a mine-Royal, every fifth Tun of all such Oar as shall hold Gold or Silver worth refining, is to be rendered to the King. The learned Judges of our Kingdom have long since concluded, that although the Gold or Silver conteined in the base mettals of a mine in the land of a Subject, be of less value than the baser mettal; yet if the Gold or Silver do countervail the charge of refining it, or be more worth than the base mettal spent [p. 46.] in refining it, that then it is a mine-Royal, and as well the base mettal as the Gold and Silver in it belongs by prerogative to the Crown.

The stones in the Countrey are for the most mettle-stone, free-stone, pebble, slate, none that will run to lime, of which they have great want, of the slate you may make Tables easie to be split to the thickness of an inch, or thicker if you please, and long enough for a dozen men to sit at. Pretious stones there are too, but if you desire to know further of them, see the Rarities of New-England; onely let me add this observation by the way, that Crystal set in the Sun taketh fire, and setteth dry Tow or brown Paper on fire held to it. There is likewise a sort of glittering sand, which is altogether as good as the glassie powder brought from the Indies to dry up Ink on paper newly written. The climate is reasonably temperate, hotter in Summer, and colder in Winter than with us, agrees with our Constitutions better than hotter Climates, these are limbecks to our bodies, forraign heat will extract[40] the inward and adventitious heat consume the natural, so much more heat any man receives outwardly from the heat of the Sun, so much more wants he the same inwardly, which is one reason why [p. 47.] they are able to receive more and larger draughts of Brandy, & the like strong spirits than in England without offence. Cold is less tolerable than heat, this a friend to nature, that an enemy. Many are of opinion that the greatest enemies of life, consisting of heat and moisture, is cold and dryness; the extremity of cold is more easie to be endured than extremity of heat; the violent sharpness of winter, than the fiery raging of Summer. To conclude, they are both bad, too much heat brings a hot Feaver, too much cold diminisheth the flesh, withers the face, hollowes the eyes, quencheth natural heat, peeleth the hair, and procureth baldness.

Astronomers have taken special knowledge of the number of 1024 of the principal apparent noted Stars of all the rest, besides the 7 Planets, and the 12 Signs, and it is agreed upon that there are more Stars under the Northern-pole, than under the Southern, the number of Stars under both poles are innumerable to us; but not to the Almighty Creator of Heaven and Earth, who calleth them all by their names. Isai. 40. Levate in excelsum oculos vestros & videte quis creavit hæc? quis educit in numero militiam eorum & omnia suis nominibus vocat? In January 1668. two Suns appeared and two Moons. The year before was published the Suns prerogative, vindicated by [p. 48.] Alexander Nowel a young studient at Harvard-Colledge in the Massachusets Colony, which was as followeth.

Mathematicians have that priviledge, above other Philosophers,[41] that their foundations are so founded upon, and proved by demonstration, that reason volens nolens must approve of them, when they are once viewed by the eye of the intellect, ipso facto it grants a probatum est; if upon those foundations he raises famous Architectures, which are inseparably joynted in, and joyned to their ground-works, yet are not their Elements of such vast extensions, as to have their dimensions adequated with the machine of the primum mobile, and so include the Fabrick of created beings; but there are sphears above the sphear of their Activity, and Orbs placed above the reach of their Instruments, which will non-plus the most acute inquisitors, at least in reference to an accurate scrutiny: hence dissentions about Celestial bodies, whether the planets have any natural light, has been a question, proving that they borrow their light from the Sun: he being the primitive, they derivatives; he the Augmentum primum, they Orta, who though they have light in se, yet not ex se. This assertion is not expugned by Geocentricks who produce sense and Antiquity to support their suppositions; nor oppugned by Heliocentricks, [p. 49.] who deduce their Hypothesis from reason, and new observations: for, quicquid in ambitu alicujus circuli actu diffusum, comprehenditur, id in centro ejusdem continetur potentia collectum. Should I put the question to the vote, questionless the major part of modern Astronomers would carry it affirmatively; but a testimony being Inartificialis Argumentum, I shall found my position upon a more Artificial Basis. As for the multiplication of Eclipses which some fear, it’s needless, for the extent of the Cone of the earths shaddow (à Centro terræ) being 250 Semidiameters, it cannot reach Mars; Venus and Mercury never oppose the Sun. It has been[42] observed by the help of Optick Tubes, that Venus has divers faces, according to her diverse position to the Sun. Some affirm the same of Mercury, but he’s not so liable to observation, being seldom clear of the radiancy of the Sun. The superior Planets being above the Sun, turn the same side to the Sun, as they do to us. Venus and Mars are more lucid in their Parhelion, than in their Aphelion. The Telescope may convince us of this truth; Evincit enim crassa, opaca & dissimilium plane partium corpora, planctas esse. Lastly God made the Sun and Moon, the two greater lights (though not the greater lucid bodies) that the Moons light is adventitious, followes from her invisibilitie [p. 50.] in a central Eclipse: hence the other planets are destitute of native light; nam à majore ad minus valet consequentia negativé.

In the year 1664. a Star or Comet appeared in New-England in December in the South-East, rising constantly about one of the clock in the morning, carrying the tail lower and lower till it came into the West, and then bare it directly before it; the Star it self was of a duskish red, the tail of the colour of via lactea, or the milkie way. A fortnight after it appeared again rising higher near the Nadir or point over our heads, of the same form and colour; of which hear the former Scholar.

Comets (say Naturalists) proceed from natural causes, but they oft proceed preternatural effects. That they have been Antecedents to strange consequents is an universal truth, and proved by particulars, viz. That which hung over Hierusalem before its extirpation by Vespatian, that vertical to Germany, before those bloudy Wars &c. So that experience Attests, and reason Assents, that they have served for sad Prologues to Tragical Epilogues. For the future[43] preludiums to what events they’l prove, may be proved by consequence, if they han’t suffered a privation of their powerful Energie. Dr. Ward to salve Contests, distinguishes between Cometæidæ, which are [p. 51.] Sublunary exhalations, and Cometæ, which are heavenly bodies, coevous with the Stars; the cause of the inequality of whose motion, is their Apoge and Periges. Concerning the height of the late Comets Orb, because of the deficiency of Instruments, here’s pars deficiens. As for its motion December 10. ’twas about the middle of Virgo. Jan. 24. 26 deg. Aries. Some observe that Comets commonly follow a Conjunction of the superiour planets. Astronomers attribute much to the predominancy of that planet which rules it, which they judge by the Colour; a dull leaden colour, claims Saturn for his Lord; bright, Jupiter; Red, Mars; Golden, Sol; Yellow, Venus; variable, Mercury; pale, Luna. Also to the Aspects it receives from other planets, the sign it is in, and the house of the Heavens in which it first was. Hence some may judge a scheam of the Heavens necessary, but unless Calculated for its certain rise (which is uncertain) it’s adjudged by the judicious, superfluous. Some put much trust or virtue in the tail, terming it the Ignomon, &c. But that is probable of all, which has been observed of some, that it’s alwayes opposite to the Sun; hence when the Sun is at the Meridian of the Antipodes it turns, &c. Which Regiomont observed of that in 1475. and Keckerman of that in 1607. Longomontanus observes of that in 1618. that its first [p. 52.] appearance was vertical to Germany and went Northward, so its effect began there, and made the like progress: it’s rational, that as a cause, it should operate most powerfully on those in whose Zenith it is, as the[44] meridional Altitude; nor is it irrational, that as a sign, it should presage somewhat to all those, in whose Horizon it appears; for in reason, Relata se mutuo inferunt, hence signum infers signatum, and the signifier implies a signified. Diverse desire to be certified of the event; but he is wise that knowes it. Some presume prophetically to specificate from generals truths; others desperately deny generals and all; of all whom it’s a truth, Incidunt in Scyllam, &c. Noble Ticho concludes, (with whom I conclude) that it’s not rational particularly to determine the sequel; for should any, it would be only in a contingent Axiom, and proceed from fancie; therefore of no necessary consequence, and would produce only opinion.

A friend of mine shewed me a small Treatise written and printed in the Massachusets-Bay by B. D. Intituled An Astronomical description of the late Comet, or Blazing-Star, as it appeared in New-England in the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and the beginning of the Twelfth moneth, 1664. printed at Cambridge by Samuel Green 1665. An ingenious piece, but because I could not perswade [p. 53.] my friend to part with it, I took out some short notes being straitned in time, which are as followes.

Comets are distinguished in respect of their figure, according to the divers aspects of the Sun, into Barbate, Caudate, and Crinite. 1. When the stream like a beard goes before the body. 2. When the stream followes the body. 3. When the stream goes right up into the Heavens.

A Comet is said to be Vertical to any people, when the body of the Comet passeth over their heads.

The light of the Comet alters and varies according to the diverse Aspects of the Sun enlightning it.


Some took notice of it in the beginning of November.

In Anno Dom. 1668. July the Fifteenth happened an Eclipse of the moon from 9 of the clock at night, till after 11, digits 9, and 35 minutes.

In November following appeared a Star between the horns of the Moon in the midst.

In Anno Dom. 1669. about the middle of June at 4 of the clock in the afternoon, appeared a Rain-bow reverst, and at night about 10 of the clock we had a Lunar Rain-bow.

[p. 54.] The Indians so far as I could perceive have but little knowledge of the Stars and Planets, observing the Sun and Moon only, the dividers of time into dayes and years: they being nearer to the Equinoctial-line by 10 degrees, have their dayes and nights more equally divided, being in Summer two hours shorter, in Winter two hours longer than they are in England. The 11 of June the Sun riseth at 4 and 26 minutes, and setteth at 7 & 34 minutes: in December, the 13 the shortest day, the Sun riseth at 7 and 35 minutes, and setteth at 4 and 27 minutes.

Mid-March their Spring begins, in April they have Rain and Thunder; So again at Michaelmas, about which season they have either before Michaelmas or after outrageous storms of Wind and Rain. It’s observable that there is no part of the World, which hath not some certain times of out-rageous storms. We have upon our Coast in England a Michaelmas flaw, that seldom fails: in the West-Indies in August and September the forcible North-wind, which though some call Tuffins or Hurricanes we must distinguish, for a right Hurricane is (as I have said[46] before) an impetuous wind that goes about the Compass in the space of 24 hours, in such a storm the Lord Willoughby [p. 55.] of Parham Governour of the Barbadoes was cast away, going with a fleet to recover St. Christophers from the French, Anno Dom. 1666. July. Cold weather begins with the middle of November, the winter’s perpetually freezing, insomuch that their Rivers and salt-Bayes are frozen over and passable for Men, Horse, Oxen and Carts: Æquore cum gelido zephyrus fere xenia Cymbo. The North-west wind is the sharpest wind in the Countrie. In England most of the cold winds and weathers come from the Sea, and those seats that are nearest the Sea-coasts in England are accounted unwholsome, but not so in New-England, for in the extremity of winter the North-East and South-wind coming from the Sea produceth warm weather, only the North-West-wind coming over land from the white mountains (which are alwayes (except in August) covered with snow) is the cause of extream cold weather, alwayes accompanied with deep snowes and bitter frosts, the snow for the most part four and six foot deep, which melting on the superficies with the heat of the Sun, (for the most part shining out clearly every day) and freezing again in the night makes a crust upon the snow sufficient to bear a man walking with snow-shoos upon it. And at this [p. 56.] season the Indians go forth on hunting of Dear and Moose, twenty, thirty, forty miles up into the Countrie. Their Summer is hot and dry proper for their Indian Wheat; which thrives best in a hot and dry season, the skie for the most part Summer and Winter very clear and serene; if they see a little black cloud in the North-West, no bigger than a man may cover with his Hat,[47] they expect a following storm, the cloud in short time spreading round about the Horizon accompanied with violent gusts of wind, rain, and many times lightning and terrible thunder. In all Countries they have observations how the weather will fall out, and these rules following are observable in New-England. If the Moon look bright and fair, look for fair weather, also the appearing of one Rainbow after a storm, is a known sign of fair weather; if mists come down from the Hills, or descend from the Heavens, and settle in the valleys, they promise fair hot weather; mists in the Evening shew a fair hot day on the morrow: the like when mists rise from waters in the Evening. The obscuring of the smaller Stars is a certain sign of Tempests approaching; the oft changing of the wind is also a fore-runner of a storm; the resounding of the Sea from the shore, and murmuring of [p. 57.] the winds in the woods without apparent wind, sheweth wind to follow: shooting of the Stars (as they call it) is an usual sign of wind from that quarter the Star came from. So look whether the resounding of the Sea upon the shore be on the East or West side of the dwelling, out of that quarter will the wind proceed the next day. The redness of the sky in the morning, is a token of winds, or rain or both: if the Circles that appear about the Sun be red and broken, they portend wind; if thick and dark, wind, snow and rain; the like may be said of the Circles about the moon. If two rain-bowes appear, they are a sign of rain; If the Sun or Moon look pale, look for rain: if a dark cloud be at Sun-rising, in which the Sun soon after is hid, it will dissolve it, and rain will follow; nebula ascendens indicat imbres, nebula descendens serenitatem. If the Sun seem[48] greater in the East, than in the West about Sun-setting, and that there appears a black cloud, you may expect rain that night, or the day following.

Serò rubens Cælum cras indicat esse serenum,
Sed si manè rubet venturos indicat Imbres.

[p. 58.] To conclude; if the white hills look clear and conspicuous, it is a sign of fair weather; if black and cloudy, of rain; if yellow, it is a certain sign of snow shortly to ensue.

In Anno Dom. 1667. March, appeared a sign in the Heavens in the form of a Sphear, pointing directly to the West: and in the year following on the third day of April being Friday, there was a terrible Earthquake, before that a very great one in 1638. and another in 58 and in 1662/3. January 26, 27, & 28. (which was the year before I came thither) there were Earthquakes 6 or 7 times in the space of three dayes. Earthquakes are frequent in the Countrie; some suppose that the white mountains were first raised by Earthquakes, they are hollow as may be guessed by the resounding of the rain upon the level on the top. The Indians told us of a River whose course was not only stopt by an Earthquake in 1668. (as near as I can remember) but the whole River swallowed up. And I have heard it reported from credible persons, that (whilst I was there in the Countrie) there happened a terrible Earthquake amongst the French, rending a huge Rock asunder even to the center, wherein was a vast hollow of an immeasurable depth, out of which came many infernal Spirits. I shall [p. 59.] conclude this discourse of Earthquakes,[49] with that which came from the Pen of our Royal Martyr King Charles the First; A storm at Sea wants not its terrour, but an Earthquake, shaking the very foundation of all, the World hath nothing more of horrour. And now I come to the plants of the Countrie.

The plants in New-England for the variety, number, beauty, and vertues, may stand in Competition with the plants of any Countrey in Europe. Johnson hath added to Gerard’s Herbal 300. and Parkinson mentioneth many more; had they been in New-England they might have found 1000 at least never heard of nor seen by any Englishman before: ’Tis true, the Countrie hath no Bonerets, or Tartarlambs, no glittering coloured Tuleps; but here you have the American Mary-Gold, the Earth-nut bearing a princely Flower, the beautiful leaved Pirola, the honied Colibry, &c. They are generally of (somewhat) a more masculine vertue, than any of the same species in England, but not in so terrible a degree, as to be mischievous or ineffectual to our English bodies. It is affirmed by some that no forraign Drugg or Simple can be so proper to Englishmen as their own, for the quantity of Opium which Turks do safely take will kill four Englishmen, and that which will [p. 60.] salve their wounds within a day, will not recure an Englishman in three. To which I answer that it is custom that brings the Turks to the familiar use of Opium. You may have heard of a Taylor in Kent, who being afflicted with want of sleep ventured upon Opium, taking at first a grain, and increasing of it till it came to an ounce, which quantitie he took as familiarly as a Turk, without any harm, more than that he could not sleep without it. The English in New-England[50] take white Hellebore, which operates as fairly with them, as with the Indians, who steeping of it in water sometime, give it to young lads gathered together a purpose to drink, if it come up they force them to drink again their vomit, (which they save in a Birchen-dish) till it stayes with them, & he that gets the victory of it is made Captain of the other lads for that year. There is a plant likewise, called for want of a name Clownes wound wort by the English, though it be not the same, that will heal a green wound in 24 hours, if a wise man have the ordering of it. Thus much for the general, I shall now begin to discover unto you the plants more particularly, and I shall first begin with Trees, and of them, first with such as are called in Scripture Trees of God, that is great [p. 61.] Trees, that grow of themselves without planting. Psal. 104. 16, 17. Satiantur arbores Jehovæ, cedri Libani quas plantavit; (ubi aviculæ nidificent) abietes domicilia ciconiæ. The Herons take great delight to sit basking upon the tops of these Trees. And I shall not be over large in any, having written of them in my Treatise of the rarities of New-England, to which I refer you.

The Oake I have given you an account of, and the kinds; I shall add the ordering of Red Oake for Wainscot. When they have cut it down and clear’d it from the branches, they pitch the body of the Tree in a muddy place in a River, with the head downward for some time, afterwards they draw it out, and when it is seasoned sufficiently, they saw it into boards for Wainscot, and it will branch out into curious works.

There is an admirable rare Creature in shape like a Buck, with Horns, of a gummy substance, which I have[51] often found in the fall of the leaf upon the ground amongst the withered leaves; a living Creature I cannot call it; having only the sign of a mouth and eyes: seldom or never shall you meet with any of them whole, but the head and horns, or the hinder parts, broken off from the rest; the Indians call them Tree Bucks, and have a superstitious saying (for I believe [p. 62.] they never see any of them living) that if they can see a Tree-Buck walking upon the branches of an Oake when they go out in a morning to hunt, they shall have good luck that day. What they are good for I know not, but certainly there is some more than ordinary vertue in them. It is true that nothing in nature is superfluous, and we have the Scripture to back it, that God created nothing in vain. The like Creatures they have at the Barbadoes which they call Negroes heads, found in the Sands, about two inches long, with forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, and part of the neck, they are alwayes found loose in the Sands without any root, it is as black as Jet, but whence it comes they know not. I have read likewise, that in the Canaries or Fortunate-Islands, there is found a certain Creature, which Boys bring home from the mountains as oft as they would, and named them Tudesquels, or little Germans: for they were dry’d dead Carcases, almost three footed, which any boy did easily carry in one of the palms of his hand, and they were of an humane shape; but the whole dead Carcase was clearly like unto Parchment, and their bones were flexible, as it were gristles: against the Sun, also, their bowels and intestines were seen. Surely (saith my Authour) the destroyed race of the Pigmies was there. There is [p. 63.] also many times found upon the leaves of the Oake a Creature like[52] a Frog, being as thin as a leaf, and transparent, as yellow as Gold, with little fiery red eyes, the English call them Tree-frogs or Tree-toads (but of Tree-toads I shall have occasion to speak in another place) they are said to be venemous, but may be safely used, being admirable to stop womens over-flowing courses hung about their necks in a Taffetie bag.

Captain Smith writes that in New-England there growes a certain berry called Kermes, worth 10 shillings a pound, and had been formerly sold for 30 or 40 shillings a pound, which may yearly be gathered in good quantity. I have sought for this berry, he speaks of, as a man should seek for a needle in a bottle of Hay, but could never light upon it; unless that kind of Solomon-seal called by the English Treacle-berry be it. Gerard our famous Herbalist writes that they grow upon a little Tree called Scarlet-Oake, the leaves have one sharp prickle at the end of it; it beareth small Acorns: But the grain or berry growes out of the woody branches, like an excrescence of the substance of the Oake-Apple, and of the bigness of Pease, at first white, when ripe of an Ash-colour, which ingenders little Maggots, which when it begins [p. 64.] to have wings are put into a bag and boulted up and down till dead, and then made up into lumps, the Maggot as most do deem is Cutchenele; So that Chermes is Cutchenele: the berries dye scarlet. Mr. George Sands in his Travels saith (much to the same purpose) that scarlet dye growes like a blister on the leaf of the Holy Oake, a little shrub, yet producing Acorns, being gathered they rub out of it a certain red dust, that converteth after a while into worms, which they kill with Wine, when they begin to quicken. See farther concerning[53] Treacle-berries and Cutchinele in the rarities of New-England.

The Pine-Tree challengeth the next place, and that sort which is called Board-pine is the principal, it is a stately large Tree, very tall, and sometimes two or three fadom about: of the body the English make large Canows of 20 foot long, and two foot and a half over, hollowing of them with an Adds, and shaping of the outside like a Boat. Some conceive that the wood called Gopher in Scripture, of which Noah made the Ark, was no other than Pine, Gen. 6. 14. The bark thereof is good for Ulcers in tender persons that refuse sharp medicines. The inner bark of young board-pine cut small and stampt and boiled in a Gallon of water is a very soveraign medicine for burn [p. 65.] or scald, washing the sore with some of the decoction, and then laying on the bark stampt very soft: or for frozen limbs, to take out the fire and to heal them, take the bark of Board-pine-Tree, cut it small and stamp it and boil it in a gallon of water to Gelly, wash the sore with the liquor, stamp the bark again till it be very soft and bind it on. The Turpentine is excellent to heal wounds and cuts, and hath all the properties of Venice Turpentine, the Rosen is as good as Frankincense, and the powder of the dryed leaves generateth flesh; the distilled water of the green Cones taketh away wrinkles in the face being laid on with Cloths.

The Firr-tree is a large Tree too, but seldom so big as the Pine, the bark is smooth, with knobs or blisters, in which lyeth clear liquid Turpentine very good to be put into salves and oyntments, the leaves or Cones boiled in Beer are good for the Scurvie, the young buds are excellent[54] to put into Epithemes for Warts and Corns, the Rosen is altogether as good as Frankincense; out of this Tree the Poleakers draw Pitch and Tarr; the manner I shall give you, for that it may (with many other things contained in this Treatise) be beneficial to my Countrymen, either there already seated, or that [p. 66.] may happen to go thither hereafter. Out of the fattest wood changed into Torch-wood, which is a disease in that Tree, they draw Tarr, first a place must be paved with stone or the like, a little higher in the middle, about which there must be made gutters, into which the liquor falls, then out from them other gutters are to be drawn, by which it may be received, then is it put into barrels. The place thus prepared, the cloven wood must be set upright, then must it be covered with a great number of firr and pitch bowes; and on every part all about with much lome and sods of earth, and great heed must be taken, lest there be any cleft or chink remaining, only a hole left in the top of the furnace, through which the fire may be put in, and the flame and smoak to pass out: when the fire burneth, the Pitch or Tarr runneth forth first thin and then thicker; of which when it is boiled is made Pitch: the powder of dried Pitch is used to generate flesh in wounds and sores. The knots of this Tree and fat-pine are used by the English instead of Candles, and it will burn a long time, but it makes the people pale.

The Spruce-tree I have given you an account of in my New-England rarities. In the North-east of Scotland upon the banks [p. 67.] of Lough-argick, there hath been formerly of these Trees 28 handful about at the Root, and their bodies mounted to 90 foot of height, bearing at the[55] length 20 inches diameter. At Pascataway there is now a Spruce-tree brought down to the water-side by our Mass-men of an incredible bigness, and so long that no Skipper durst ever yet adventure to ship it, but there it lyes and Rots.

The Hemlock-tree is a kind of spruce or pine; the bark boiled and stampt till it be very soft is excellent for to heal wounds, and so is the Turpentine thereof, and the Turpentine that issueth from the Cones of the Larch-tree, (which comes nearest of any to the right Turpentine) is singularly good to heal wounds, and to draw out the malice (or Thorn, as Helmont phrases it) of any Ach, rubbing the place therewith, and strowing upon it the powder of Sage-leaves.

The white Cedar is a stately Tree, and is taken by some to be Tamarisk, this Tree the English saw into boards to floor their Rooms, for which purpose it is excellent, long lasting, and wears very smooth and white; likewise they make shingles to cover their houses with instead of tyle, it will never warp. This Tree, the Oak and the [p. 68.] Larch-tree are best for building. Groundsels made of Larch-tree will never rot, and the longer it lyes the harder it growes, that you may almost drive a nail into a bar of Iron as easily as into that. Oh, that my Countreymen might obtain that blessing with their buildings, which Esay prophesied to the Jewes in the 65 Chapter and 22 verse. Non ædificabunt & alius inhabitabit, non plantabunt & alius comedet: sed ut sunt dies Arboris, dies erunt populi mei, & opus manuum suarum deterent electi mei.

The Sassafras-tree is no great Tree, I have met with some as big as my middle, the rind is tawny and upon that[56] a thin colour of Ashes, the inner part is white, of an excellent smell like Fennel, of a sweet tast with some bitterness; the leaves are like Fig-leaves of a dark green. A decoction of the Roots and bark thereof sweetned with Sugar, and drunk in the morning fasting will open the body and procure a stool or two, it is good for the Scurvie taken some time together, and laying upon the legs the green leaves of white Hellebore. They give it to Cows that have newly calved to make them cast their Cleanings. This Tree growes not beyond Black-point Eastward: it is observed, that there is no province but produces Trees and plants not growing in other Regions.

[p. 69.]         Non omnis fert omnia tellus.

The Walnut which is divers, some bearing square nuts, others like ours, but smaller: there is likewise black Walnut of precious use for Tables, Cabinets and the like. The Walnut-tree is the toughest wood in the Countrie, and therefore made use of for Hoops and Bowes, there being no Yew there growing; In England they made their Bowes usually of Witch Hasel, Ash, Yew, the best of outlandish Elm, but the Indians make theirs of Walnut.

The Line-tree with long nuts, the other kind I could never find: the wood of this Tree, Laurel, Rhamnus, Holly and Ivy are accounted for woods that cause fire by attrition; Laurel and Ivy are not growing in New-England: the Indians will rub two sear’d sticks of any sort of wood, and kindle a fire with them presently.

The Maple-tree, on the boughs of this Tree I have often found a jellied substance like Jewes-Ears, which I found upon tryal to be as good for sore throats &c.


The Birch-tree is of two kinds, ordinary Birch, and black Birch, many of these Trees are stript of their bark by the Indians, who make of it their Canows, Kettles, [p. 70.] and Birchen-dishes: there is an excrescence growing out of the body of the Tree called spunck, or dead mens Caps, it growes at the Roots of Ash, or Beech, or Elm; but the best is that which growes upon the black Birch, this boiled and beaten, and then dried in an Oven maketh excellent Touch-wood, and Balls to play with.

Alder, of which wood there is abundance in the wet swamps: the bark thereof with the yolke of an Egg is good for a strain; an Indian bruising of his knee, chew’d the bark of Alder fasting and laid it to, which quickly helped him. The wives of our West-Countrey English make a drink with the seeds of Alder, giving it to their Children troubled with the Alloes. I have talk’d with many of them, but could never apprehend what disease it should be they so name, these Trees are called by some Sullinges.

The Indians tell of a Tree that growes far up in the land, that is as big as an Oake, that will cure the falling-sickness infallibly, what part thereof they use, Bark, Wood, leaves or fruit, I could never learn; they promised often to bring of it to me, but did not. I have seen a stately Tree growing here and there in valleys, not like to any Trees in Europe, having a smooth bark of [p. 71.] a dark brown colour, the leaves like great Maple, in England called Sycamor, but larger, it may be this is the Tree they brag of.

Thus much concerning Trees, now I shall present to your view the Shrubs; and first of the Sumach Shrub,[58] which as I have told you in New-Englands rarities, differeth from all the kinds set down in our English Herbals; the root dyeth wool or cloth reddish, the decoction of the leaves in wine drunk, is good for all Fluxes of the belly in man or woman, the whites, &c. For galled places stamp the leaves with honey, and apply it, nothing so soon healeth a wound in the head as Sumach stampt and applyed once in three dayes, the powder strewed in stayeth the bleeding of wounds: The seed of Sumach pounded and mixt with honey, healeth the Hemorrhoids, the gum put into a hollow tooth asswageth the pain, the bark or berries in the fall of the leaf, is as good as galls to make Ink of.

Elder in New-England is shrubbie, & dies once in two years: there is a sort of dwarf-Elder that growes by the Sea-side that hath a red pith, the berries of both are smaller than English-Elder, not round but corner’d, neither of them smell so strong as ours.

Juniper growes for the most part by the Sea-side, it bears abundance of skie-coloured [p. 72.] berries fed upon by Partridges, and hath a woodie root, which induceth me to believe that the plant mention’d in Job 30. 4. Qui decerpebant herbas é salsilagine cum stirpibus: etiam radices Juniperorum cibo erant illis, was our Indian plant Cassava. They write that Juniper-coals preserve fire longest of any, keeping fire a whole year without supply, yet the Indian never burns of it.

Sweet fern, see the rarities of New England, the tops and nucaments of sweet fern boiled in water or milk and drunk helpeth all manner of Fluxes, being boiled in water it makes an excellent liquor for Inck.

Current-bushes are of two kinds red and black, the[59] black currents which are larger than the red smell like cats piss, yet are reasonable pleasant in eating.

The Gooseberry-bush, the berry of which is called Grosers or thorn Grapes, grow all over the Countrie, the berry is but small, of a red or purple colour when ripe.

There is a small shrub which is very common, growing sometimes to the height of Elder, bearing a berry like in shape to the fruit of the white thorn, of a pale yellow colour at first, then red, when it is ripe of a deep purple, of a delicate Aromatical tast, somewhat stiptick: to conclude, [p. 73.] alwayes observe this rule in taking or refusing unknown fruit: if you find them eaten of the fowl or beast, you may boldly venture to eat of them, otherwise do not touch them.

Maze, otherwise called Turkie-wheat, or rather Indian-wheat, because it came first from thence; the leaves boiled and drunk helpeth pain in the back; of the stalks when they are green you may make Beverage, as they do with Calamels, or Sugar-canes. The raw Corn chewed ripens felons or Cats hairs, or you may lay Samp to it: The Indians before it be thorow ripe eat of it parched. Certainly the parched corn that Abigail brought to David was of this kind of grain, 1 Sam. 25. 18. The Jewes manner was (as it is delivered to us by a learned Divine) first to parch their Corn, then they fryed it, and lastly they boiled it to a paste, and then tempered it with water, Cheese-Curds, Honey and Eggs, this they carried drye with them to the Camp, and so wet the Cakes in Wine or milk; such was the pulse too of Africa.

French-beans, or rather American-beans, the Herbalists call them kidney-beans from their shape and effects, for[60] they strengthen the kidneys; they are variegated much, some being bigger a great deal than others; some [p. 74.] white, black, red, yellow, blew, spotted; besides your Bonivis and Calavances and the kidney-bean, that is proper to Ronoake, but these are brought into the Countrie, the other are natural to the climate. So the Mexico pompion which is flat and deeply camphered, the flesh laid to, asswageth pain of the eyes. The water-mellon is proper to the Countrie, the flesh of it is of a flesh colour, a rare cooler of Feavers, and excellent against the stone. Pomum spinosum and palma-Christi too growes not here, unless planted, brought from Peru; the later is thought to be the plant, that shaded Jonah the Prophet, Jonas 4. 6. Paraverat enim Jehova Deus ricinum qui ascenderet supra Jonam, ut esset umbra super caput ejus ereptura eum à malo ipsius; lætabaturque Jonas de ricino illo lætitia magna. Ricinum, that is palma Christi, called also cucurbita, and therefore translated a Gourd.

Tobacco, or Tabacca so called from Tabaco or Tabago, one of the Caribbe-Islands about 50 English miles from Trinidad. The right name, according to Monardus, is picielte, as others will petum, nicotian from Nicot, a Portingal, to whom it was presented for a raritie in Anno Dom. 1559. by one that brought it from Florida. Great contest there is about the time when it was first [p. 75.] brought into England, some will have Sir John Hawkins the first, others Sir Francis Drake’s Mariners; others again say that one Mr. Lane imployed by Sir Walter Rawleigh brought it first into England; all conclude that Sir Walter Rawleigh brought it first in use. It is observed that no one kind of forraign Commodity yieldeth greater advantage[61] to the publick than Tobacco, it is generally made the complement of our entertainment, and hath made more slaves than Mahomet. There is three sorts of it Marchantable, the first horse Tobacco, having a broad long leaf piked at the end; the second round pointed Tobacco; third sweet scented Tobacco. These are made up into Cane, leaf or ball; there is little of it planted in New-England, neither have they learned the right way of curing of it. It is sowen in April upon a bed of rich mould sifted, they make a bed about three yards long, or more according to the ground they intend to plant, and a yard and a half over; this they tread down hard, then they sow their seed upon it as thick as may be, and sift fine earth upon it, then tread it down again as hard as possible they can, when it hath gotten four or six leaves, they remove it into the planting ground; when it begins to bud towards flowring, they crop off the [p. 76.] top, for the Flower drawes away the strength of the leaf. For the rest I refer you to the Planter, being not willing to discover their mysteries. The Indians in New-England use a small round leafed Tobacco, called by them, or the Fishermen Poke. It is odious to the English. The vertues of Tobacco are these, it helps digestion, the Gout, the Tooth-ach, prevents infection by scents, it heats the cold, and cools them that sweat, feedeth the hungry, spent spirits restoreth, purgeth the stomach, killeth nits and lice; the juice of the green leaf healeth green wounds, although poysoned; the Syrup for many diseases, the smoak for the Phthisick, cough of the lungs, distillations of Rheume, and all diseases of a cold and moist cause, good for all bodies cold and moist taken upon an emptie stomach, taken upon a full stomach it precipitates[62] digestion, immoderately taken it dryeth the body, enflameth the bloud, hurteth the brain, weakens the eyes and the sinews.

White Hellebore is used for the Scurvie by the English. A friend of mine gave them first a purge, then conserve of Bear-berries, then fumed their leggs with vinegar, sprinkled upon a piece of mill-stone made hot, and applied to the sores white Hellebore leaves; drink made of Orpine and sorrel were given likewise with it, and [p. 77.] Sea-scurvie-grass. To kill lice, boil the roots of Hellebore in milk, and anoint the hair of the head therewith or other places.

Mandrake, is a very rare plant, the Indians know it not, it is found in the woods about Pascataway, they do in plain terms stink, therefore Reubens Flowers that he brought home were not Mandrakes, Gen. 30. 14, 15, 16. They are rendered in the Latine Amabiles flores, the same word say our Divines is used in Canticles, 7. 4. Amabiles istos flores edentes odorem, & secundum ostia nostra omnes pretiosos fructus, recentes simulac veteres, dilecte mi, repono tibi. So that the right translation is, Reuben brought home amiable and sweet smelling Flowers; this in the Canticles (say they) expounding the other.

Calamus Aromaticus, or the sweet smelling reed, it Flowers in July; see New-Englands rarities.

Sarsaparilla or roughbind-weed (as some describe it) the leaves and whole bind set with thorns, of this there is store growing upon the banks of Ponds. See the rarities of New-England. The leaves of the Sarsaparilla there described pounded with Hogs grease and boiled to an unguent, is excellent in the curing of wounds.


Live for ever, it is a kind of Cud-weed, [p. 78.] flourisheth all summer long till cold weather comes in, it growes now plentifully in our English Gardens, it is good for cough of the lungs, and to cleanse the breast taken as you do Tobacco; and for pain in the head the decoction, or the juice strained and drunk in Bear, Wine, or Aqua vitæ, killeth worms. The Fishermen when they want Tobacco take this herb being cut and dryed.

Lysimachus or Loose-strife: there are several kinds, but the most noted is the yellow Lysimachus of Virginia, the root is longish and white, as thick as ones thumb, the stalkes of an overworn colour, and a little hairie, the middle vein of the leaf whitish, the Flower yellow and like Primroses, and therefore called Tree-primrose, growes upon seedie vessels, &c. The first year it growes not up to a stalke, but sends up many large leaves handsomely lying one upon another, Rose fashion, Flowers in June, the seed is ripe in August, this as I have said is taken by the English for Scabious.

St. John’s wort, it preserveth Cheese made up in it, at Sea.

Spurge or Wolfes milch there are several sorts.

Avens, or herb-bennet; you have an account of it in New-Englands rarities, but one [p. 79.] thing more I shall add, that you may plainly perceive a more masculine quality in the plants growing in New-England. A neighbour of mine in Hay-time, having overheat himself, and melted his grease, with striving to outmowe another man, fell dangerously sick, not being able to turn himself in his bed, his stomach gon, and his heart fainting ever and anon; to whom I administered the decoction of Avens-Roots and leaves in water and wine, sweetning it with[64] Syrup of Clove-Gilliflowers, in one weeks time it recovered him, so that he was able to perform his daily work, being a poor planter or husbandman as we call them.

Red-Lilly growes all over the Countrey amongst the bushes. Mr. Johnson upon Gerard takes the Tulip to be the Lilly of the field mentioned by our Saviour, Matth. 6. 28, 29. Ac de vestitu quid soliciti estis? discite quomodo lilia agrorum augescant: non fatigantur, neque nent, sed dico vobis, ne Solomonem quidem cum universa gloria sic amictum fuisse ut unum ex istis. Solomon in all his Royalty was not like one of them. His reasons are, first from the shape, like a lilly; The second, because those places where our Saviour was conversant they grow wild in the fields. Third, the infinite variety of the [p. 80.] colours. The fourth and last reason, the wondrous beautie and mixture of these Flowers.

Water-lillys; the black roots dryed and pulverized, are wondrous effectual in the stopping of all manner of fluxes of the belly, drunk with wine or water.

Herba-paris, one berry, herb true love, or four-leaved night-shade, the leaves are good to be laid upon hot tumours.

Umbilicus veneris, or New-England daisie, it is good for hot humours, Erisipelas, St. Anthonie’s fire, all inflammations.

Glass-wort, a little quantity of this plant you may take for the Dropsie, but be very careful that you take not too much, for it worketh impetuously.

Water-plantane, called in New-England water Suck-leaves, and Scurvie-leaves, you must lay them whole to the leggs to draw out water between the skin and the flesh.


Rosa-solis, Sun-dew, moor-grass, this plant I have seen more of, than ever I saw in my whole life before in England, a man may gather upon some marish-grounds an incredible quantity in a short time; towards the middle of June it is in its season, for then its spear is shot out to its length, of which they take hold and pull the whole plant up by the roots from the moss with ease.

[p. 81.] Amber-greese I take to be a Mushroom, see the rarities of New-England. Monardus writeth that Amber-greese riseth out of a certain clammy and bituminous earth under the Seas, and by the Sea-side, the billows casting up part of it a land, and fish devour the rest; Some say it is the seed of a Whale, others, that it springeth from fountains as pitch doth, which fishes swallow down; the air congealeth it. And sometimes it is found in the crevises and corners of Rocks.

Fuss-balls, Mullipuffes called by the Fishermen Wolves-farts, are to be found plentifully, and those bigger by much than any I have seen in England.

Coraline there is infinite store of it cast upon the shore, and another plant that is more spinie, of a Red colour, and as hard as Corral. Coraline laid to the gout easeth the pain.

Sea-Oake or wreach, or Sea-weed, the black pouches of Oar-weed dryed and pulverized, and drunk with White-wine, is an excellent remedy for the stone.

I will finish this part of my relation concerning plants, with an admirable plant for the curing and taking away of Corns, which many times sore troubleth the Traveller: it is not above a handful high; the little branches are woodie, the leaves like [p. 82.] the leaves of Box, but[66] broader and much thicker, hard and of a deep grass-green colour; this bruised or champt in the mouth and laid upon the Corn will take it away clean in one night. And observe all Indian Trees and plants, their Roots are but of small depth, and so they must be set.

Of Beasts of the earth there be scarce 120 several kinds, and not much more of the Fowls of the Air, is the opinion of some Naturalists; there are not many kinds of Beasts in New-England, they may be divided into Beasts of the Chase of the stinking foot, as Roes, Foxes, Jaccals, Wolves, Wild-cats, Raccons, Porcupines, Squncks, Musquashes, Squirrels, Sables, and Mattrises; and Beasts of the Chase of the sweet foot, Buck, Red Dear, Rain-Dear, Elke, Marouse, Maccarib, Bear, Beaver, Otter, Marten, Hare.

The Roe a kind of Deer, and the fleetest Beast upon earth is here to be found, and is good venison, but not over fat.

The Fox, the male is called a dog-fox, the female a bitch-fox, they go a clicketing the beginning of the spring, and bring forth their Cubs in May and June. There are two or three kinds of them; one a great yellow Fox, another grey, who will climb up into Trees; the black Fox is of much esteem. Foxes and Wolves are usually hunted [p. 83.] in England from Holy-Rood day, till the Annunciation. In New-England they make best sport in the depth of winter; they lay a sledg-load of Cods-heads on the other side of a paled fence when the moon shines, and about nine or ten of the clock the Foxes come to it, sometimes two or three, or half a dozen, and more; these they shoot, and by that time they have cased them, there[67] will be as many; So they continue shooting and killing of Foxes as long as the moon shineth; I have known half a score kill’d in one night. Their pisles are bonie like a doggs, their fat liquified and put into the ears easeth the pain, their tails or bushes are very fair ones and of good use, but their skins are so thin (yet thick set with deep furr) that they will hardly hold the dressing.

Jaccals there be abundance, which is a Creature much like a Fox, but smaller, they are very frequent in Palæstina, or the Holy-land.

The Wolf seeketh his mate and goes a clicketing at the same season with Foxes, and bring forth their whelps as they do, but their kennels are under thick bushes by great Trees in remote places by the swamps, he is to be hunted as the Fox from Holy-rood day till the Annunciation. But there [p. 84.] they have a quicker way to destroy them. See New-Englands rarities. They commonly go in routs, a rout of Wolves is 12 or more, sometimes by couples. In 1664. we found a Wolf asleep in a small dry swamp under an Oake, a great mastiff which we had with us seized upon him, and held him till we had put a rope about his neck, by which we brought him home, and tying of him to a stake we bated him with smaller Doggs, and had excellent sport; but his hinder legg being broken, they knockt out his brains. Sometime before this we had an excellent course after a single Wolf upon the hard sands by the Sea-side at low water for a mile or two, at last we lost our doggs, it being (as the Lancashire people phrase it) twi-light, that is almost dark, and went beyond them, for a mastiff-bitch had seized upon the Wolf being gotten into the Sea, and there held him, till one went in[68] and led him out, the bitch keeping her hold till they had tyed his leggs, and so carried him home like a Calf upon a staff between two men; being brought into the house they unbound him and set him upon his leggs, he not offering in the least to bite, or so much as to shew his teeth, but clapping his stern betwixt his leggs, and leering towards the door would willingly have had his liberty, [p. 85.] but they served him as they did the other, knockt his brains out, for our doggs were not then in a condition to bate him; their eyes shine by night as a Lanthorn: the Fangs of a Wolf hung about childrens necks keep them from frighting, and are very good to rub their gums with when they are breeding of Teeth, the gall of a Wolf is Soveraign for swelling of the sinews; the fiants or dung of a Wolf drunk with white-wine helpeth the Collick.

The Wild-cat, Lusern or luceret, or Ounce as some call it, is not inferiour to Lamb, their grease is very soveraign for lameness upon taking cold.

The Racoon or Rattoon is of two sorts, gray Rattoons, and black Rattoons, their grease is soveraign for wounds with bruises, aches, streins, bruises; and to anoint after broken bones and dislocations.

The Squnck is almost as big as a Racoon, perfect black and white or pye-bald, with a bush-tail like a Fox, an offensive Carion; the Urine of this Creature is of so strong a scent, that if it light upon any thing, there is no abiding of it, it will make a man smell, though he were of Alexanders complexion; and so sharp that if he do but whisk his bush which he pisseth upon in the face of a dogg hunting of him, and that [p. 86.] any of it light in his eyes it will make him almost mad with the smart thereof.


The Musquashes is a small Beast that lives in shallow ponds, where they build them houses of earth and sticks in shape like mole-hills, and feed upon Calamus Aromaticus: in May they scent very strong of Muske; their furr is of no great esteem; their stones wrapt up in Cotten-wool will continue a long time, and are good to lay amongst cloths to give them a grateful smell.

The Squirril, of which there are three sorts, the mouse-squirril, the gray squirril, and the flying squirril, called by the Indian Assapanick. The mouse-squirril is hardly so big as a Rat, streak’d on both sides with black and red streaks, they are mischievous vermine destroying abundance of Corn both in the field and in the house, where they will gnaw holes into Chests, and tear clothes both linnen and wollen, and are notable nut-gathers in August; when hasel and filbert nuts are ripe you may see upon every Nut-tree as many mouse-squirrils as leaves; So that the nuts are gone in a trice, which they convey to their Drays or Nests. The gray squirril is pretty large, almost as big as a Conie, and are very good meat: in some parts of the Countrie there are many of them. The flying squirril is so called, [p. 87.] because (his skin being loose and large) he spreads it on both sides like wings when he passeth from one Tree to another at great distance. I cannot call it flying nor leaping, for it is both.

The Mattrise is a Creature whose head and fore-parts is shaped somewhat like a Lyons, not altogether so big as a house-cat, they are innumerable up in the Countrey, and are esteemed good furr.

The Sable is much of the size of a Mattrise perfect black, but what store there is of them I cannot tell, I never saw but two of them in Eight years space.


The Martin is as ours are in England, but blacker, they breed in holes which they make in the earth like Conies, and are innumerable, their skins or furr are in much request.

The Buck, Stag, and Rain-Dear are Creatures that will live in the coldest climates, here they are innumerable, bringing forth three Fawns or Calves at a time, which they hide a mile asunder to prevent their destruction by the Wolves, wild-Cats, Bears, and Mequans: when they are in season they will be very fat; there are but few slain by the English. The Indians who shoot them, and take of them with toyls, bring them in [p. 88.] with their suet, and the bones that grow upon Stags-Hearts.

The Moose or Elke is a Creature, or rather if you will a Monster of superfluity; a full grown Moose is many times bigger than an English Oxe, their horns as I have said elsewhere, very big (and brancht out into palms) the tips whereof are sometimes found to be two fathom asunder, (a fathom [p. 89.] is six feet from the tip of one finger to the tip of the other, that is four cubits,) and in height from the toe of the fore-foot, to the pitch of the shoulder twelve foot, both which hath been taken by some of my sceptique Readers to be monstrous lyes. If you consider the breadth that the beast carrieth, and the magnitude of the horns, you will be easily induced to contribute your belief.

What would you say, if I should tell you that in Greenland there are Does that have as large horns as Bucks, their brow Antlers growing downwards beyond their Musles, and broad at the end wherewith they scrape away the snow to the grass, it being impossible for them other-wayes to live in those cold Countries; the head of one of[71] these Does was sometime since nailed upon a sign-post in Charter-house-lane, and these following verses written upon a board underneath it.

Like a Bucks-head I stand in open view,
And yet am none; nay, wonder not, ’tis true;
The living Beast that these fair horns did owe
Well known to many, was a Green-land Doe
The proverb old is here fulfill’d in me,
That every like is not the same you see.

And for their height since I came into England I have read Dr. Scroderns his Chymical dispensatory translated into English by Dr. Rowland, where he writes that when he lived in Finland under Gustavus Horn, he saw an Elke that was killed and presented to Gustavus his Mother, seventeen spans high. Law you now Sirs of the Gibing crue, if you have any skill in mensuration, tell me what difference there is between Seventeen spans and twelve foot. There are certain transcendentia in every Creature, which are the indelible Characters of God, and which discover God; There’s a prudential for you, as John Rhodes the Fisherman used to say to his mate, Kitt Lux. But to go on with the Moose; they are accounted a kind of Deer, and have three Calves at a time, which they hide a mile asunder too, as other Deer do, their skins make excellent Coats for Martial men, their sinews which are as [p. 90.] big as a mans finger are of perdurable toughness and much used by the Indians, the bone that growes upon their heart is an excellent Cordial, their bloud is as thick as an Asses or Bulls who have the thickest bloud of all[72] others, a man the thinnest. To what age they live I know not, certainly a long time in their proper climate. Some particular living Creatures cannot live in every particular place or region, especially with the same joy and felicity as it did where it was first bred, for the certain agreement of nature that is between the place and the thing bred in that place: As appeareth by Elephants, which being translated and brought out of the Second or Third Climate, though they may live, yet will they never ingender or bring forth young. So for plants, Birds, &c. Of both these Creatures, some few there have been brought into England, but did not long continue. Sir R. Baker in his Chronicle tells us of an Elephant in Henry the Thirds Raign, which he saith was the first that was ever seen there, which as it seems is an error, unless he restrain it to the Norman’s time. For Mr. Speed writeth that Claudius Drusius Emperour of Rome brought in the first in his Army; the bones of which digg’d up since are taken for Gyants bones. As for the Moose the first that was seen in England, [p. 91.] was in King Charles the First Raign; thus much for these magnals amongst the Creatures of God to be wondered at, the next beast to be mentioned is

The Maurouse, which is somewhat like a Moose, but his horns are but small, and himself about the size of a Stag, these are the Deer that the flat-footed Wolves hunt after.

The Maccarib is a Creature not found that ever I heard yet, but upon Cape-Sable near to the French plantations.

The Bear when he goes to mate is a terrible Creature, they bring forth their Cubs in March, hunted with doggs they take a Tree where they shoot them, when he is fat he[73] is excellent Venison, which is in Acorn time, and in winter, but then there is none dares to attempt to kill him but the Indian. He makes his Denn amongst thick Bushes, thrusting in here and there store of Moss, which being covered with snow and melting in the day time with heat of the Sun, in the night is frozen into a thick coat of Ice; the mouth of his Den is very narrow, here they lye single, never two in a Den all winter. The Indian as soon as he finds them, creeps in upon all four, seizes with his left hand upon the neck of the sleeping Bear, drags him to the mouth of [p. 92.] the Den, where with a club or small hatchet in his right hand he knocks out his brains before he can open his eyes to see his enemy. But sometimes they are too quick for the Indians, as one amongst them called black Robin lighting upon a male Bear had a piece of his buttock torn off before he could fetch his blow: their grease is very soveraign. One Mr. Purchase cured himself of the Sciatica with Bears-greefe, keeping some of it continually in his groine. It is good too for swell’d Cheeks upon cold, for Rupture of the hands in winter, for limbs taken suddenly with Sciatica, Gout, or other diseases that cannot stand upright nor go, bed-rid; it must be well chaft in, and the same cloth laid on still; it prevents the shedding of the hair occasioned by the coldness of winters weather; and the yard of a Bear which as a Doggs or Foxes is bonie, is good for to expell Gravel out of the kidneys and bladder, as I was there told by one Mr. Abraham Philater a Jersey-man.

The Beaver or Pound-dog is an Amphibious Creature, lives upon the land as well as in the water. I suppose they feed upon fish, but am sure that the Bark of Trees is[74] also their food; there is an old proverbial saying, sic me jubes quotidie, ut fiber salicem: you love me as the Beaver doth the willow; [p. 93.] who eateth the Bark and killeth the Tree. They will be tame, witness the Beaver that not long since was kept at Boston in the Massachusets-Bay, and would run up and down the streets, returning home without a call. Their skins are highly valued, and their stones are good for the palsie, trembling, and numbness of the hands, boiling of them in Oyl of Spike, and anointing the sinews in the neck. If you take of Castorium two drams, of womans hair one dram, and with a little Rozen of the Pine-Tree, make it up into pills as big as Filberts and perfume a woman in a fit of the mother with one at a time laid upon coals under her nostrils, it will recover her out of her fit. The grease of a Beaver is good for the Nerves, Convulsions, Epilepsies, Apoplexies &c. The tail as I have said in another Treatise, is very fat and of a masculine vertue, as good as Eringo’s or Satyrion-Roots.

The Otter or River-Dog is Amphibious too, he hunteth for his kind in the spring, and bringeth forth his whelps as the Beaver doth, they are generally black, and very numerous, they are hunted in England from Shrovetide untill Midsummer, but in New-England they take them when they can. The skin of an Otter is worth Ten Shillings, [p. 94.] and the Gloves made thereof are the best fortification for the hands against wet weather that can be thought of, the furr is excellent for muffs, and is almost as dear as Beaver, the grease of an Otter will make fish turn up their bellies, and is of rare use for many things.

The Hare, I have no more to write of them than that they kindle in hollow Trees. What else concerns him, or[75] any of the fore-mentioned Creatures you have in my New-Englands rarities, to which I refer you.

The Porcupine likewise I have treated of, only this I forgot to acquaint you with, that they lay Eggs, and are good meat.

The last kind of Beasts are they that are begot by equivocal generation, as Mules and several others, that when the Beasts were brought by the Almighty Creator to Adam, who gave them names, were not then in rerum natura. Of these there are not many known in New-England. I know but of one, and that is the Indian dog begotten betwixt a Wolf and a Fox, or between a Fox and a Wolf, which they made use of, taming of them, and bringing of them up to hunt with, but since the English came amongst them they have gotten store of our dogs, which they bring up and keep in as much subjection as they do their webbs.

[p. 95.] Of birds there are not many more than 120 kinds as our Naturalists have conjectured, but I think they are deceived; they are divided into land-birds and water-birds, the land-birds again into birds of prey, birds for meat, singing-birds and others.

The Pilhannaw is the King of Birds of prey in New-England, some take him to be a kind of Eagle, others for the Indian-Ruck the biggest Bird that is, except the Ostrich. One Mr. Hilton living at Pascataway, had the hap to kill one of them: being by the Sea-side he perceived a great shadow over his head, the Sun shining out clear, calling up his eyes he saw a monstrous Bird soaring aloft in the air, and of a sudden all the Ducks and Geese, (there being then a great many) dived under water, nothing of[76] them appearing but their heads. Mr. Hilton having made readie his piece, shot and brought her down to the ground, how he disposed of her I know not, but had he taken her alive & sent her over into England, neither Bartholomew nor Sturbridge-Fair could have produced such another sight.

Hawkes there are of several kinds, as Goshawkes, Falcons, Laniers, Sparrow-hawkes, and a little black hawke highly prized by the Indians who wear them on their [p. 96.] heads, and is accounted of worth sufficient to ransome a Sagamour: they are so strangely couragious and hardie, that nothing flyeth in the Air that they will not bind with. I have seen them tower so high, that they have been so small that scarcely could they be taken by the eye. Hawkes grease is very good for sore eyes.

The Osprey I have treated of. There is a small Ash-colour Bird that is shaped like a Hawke with talons and beak that falleth upon Crowes, mounting up into the Air after them, and will beat them till they make them cry.

The Vulture or Geire, which is spoken of in Levit. 11. 14. and called a Gripe, their skins are good to line doublets with, and the bones of their head hung about the neck helpeth the head-ach.

The Gripe; see New Englands rarities, and for the Turkie-buzzard.

The Owl the most flagging Bird that is, of which there are three sorts, a great grey Owl with ears, a little grey Owl, and a white Owl, which is no bigger than a Thrush. Plinie writes that the brains of an Owl asswageth the pain & inflammation in the lap of the ear. And that Eggs of an Owl put into the liquour that a tospot useth to be drunk[77] with, will make him loath drunkenness [p. 97.] ever after. But now peradventure some will say, what doth this man mean to bring Owls to Athens? verily Sirs I presume to say, had I brought over of the little white Owls they would have been acceptable, they are good mousers, and pretty Birds to look upon; the Athenians, no question are better imployed than to take notice of my Owls, poor ragged Birds they are and want those glittering golden feathers that Draiton’s Owl is adorned with, yet they are somewhat of that nature; if an Athenian chance in this season of divertisement to cast an eye upon them I shall be glad, but more glad if he vouchsafe to prune and correct their feathers, which I confess are discomposed for want of Art; plain Birds they are, and fit for none but plain men to manage. Sirs do not mistake me, there’s no man living honours an Athenian more than I do, especially where I perceive great abilities concomiting with goodness of nature: A good nature (saith Mr. Perkins) is the Character of God, and God is the father of learning, knowledge, and every good gift, and hath condescended to become a School-master to us poor mortals, furnishing of us with Philosophy, Historie, Divinity by his holy Scriptures, which if we diligently learn and practise, we shall in [p. 98.] time be brought into his Heavenly Academy, where we shall have fulness and perfection of knowledge eternally. But there are a Generation of men and women in this prophane age that despise Gods learning and his Ushers to the Athenians, choosing to wallow in the pleasures of sin for a season. I shall conclude this excursion, with that which a Poet writ sometime since, and then return to the trimming of my Owl.


Say thou pour’st them Wheat,
And they would Acorns eat;
’Twere simple fury in thee still to wast
Thy self, on them that have no tast;
No, give them draff their fill,
Husks, Grains and swill;
They that love Lees and leave the lustie Wine,
Envy them not, their palats with the Swine.

The Raven is here numerous and Crowes, but Rooks, Danes, Popinjaes, Megpies there be none. It is observed that the female of all Birds of prey and Ravin is ever bigger than the male, more venturous, hardy, and watchful: but such Birds as do not live by prey and Ravin, the male is more large than the female. So much for Birds of prey, the next are Birds for the dish, and the first of these is,

[p. 99.] The Turkie, which is in New-England a very large Bird, they breed twice or thrice in a year, if you would preserve the young Chickens alive, you must give them no water, for if they come to have their fill of water they will drop away strangely, and you will never be able to rear any of them: they are excellent meat, especially a Turkie-Capon beyond that, for which Eight shillings was given, their Eggs are very wholesome and restore decayed nature exceedingly. But the French say they breed the Leprosie; the Indesses make Coats of Turkie-feathers woven for their Children.

The Partridge is larger than ours, white flesht, but very dry, they are indeed a sort of Partridges called Grooses.


The Pidgeon, of which there are millions of millions, I have seen a flight of Pidgeons in the spring, and at Michaelmas when they return back to the Southward for four or five miles, that to my thinking had neither beginning nor ending, length nor breadth, and so thick that I could see no Sun, they joyn Nest to Nest, and Tree to Tree by their Nests many miles together in Pine-Trees. But of late they are much diminished, the English taking them with Nets. I have bought at Boston a dozen of Pidgeons ready pull’d and garbidgd for three pence, [p. 100.] Ring-Doves they say are there too, but I could never see any.

The Snow-Bird is like a Chaf-Finch, go in flocks and are good meat.

The singing Birds are Thrushes with red breasts, which will be very fat and are good meat, so are the Thressels, Filladies are small singing Birds, Ninmurders little yellow Birds. New-England Nightingales painted with orient colours, black, white, blew, yellow, green and scarlet, and sing sweetly, Wood-larks, Wrens, Swallows, who will sit upon Trees, and Starlings black as Ravens with scarlet pinions; other sorts of Birds there are, as the Troculus, Wag-tail, or Dish-water, which is here of a brown colour, Titmouse two or three sorts, the Dunneck or hedge-Sparrow who is starke naked in his winter nest. The golden or yellow hammer, a Bird about the bigness of a Thrush that is all over as red as bloud, Wood-Peckers of two or three sorts, gloriously set out with variety of glittering colours. The Colibry, Viemalin, or rising or waking Bird, an Emblem of the Resurrection, and the wonder of little Birds.

The water-fowl are these that follow, Hookers or wild-Swans, Cranes, Geese of three sorts, grey, white, and the[80] brant Goose, the first and last are best meat, the white are [p. 101.] lean and tough and live a long time; whereupon the proverb, Older than a white Goose; of the skins of the necks of grey Geese with their Bills the Indians makes Mantles and Coverlets sowing them together and they shew prettily. There be four sorts of Ducks, a black Duck, a brown Duck like our wild Ducks, a grey Duck, and a great black and white Duck, these frequent Rivers and Ponds; but of Ducks there be many more sorts, as Hounds, old Wives, Murres, Doies, Shell-drakes, Shoulers or Shoflers, Widgeons, Simps, Teal, Blew wing’d, and green wing’d, Divers or Didapers, or Dip-chicks, Fenduck, Duckers or Moorhens, Coots, Pochards, a water-fowl like a Duck, Plungeons, a kind of water-fowl with a long reddish Bill, Puets, Plovers, Smethes, Wilmotes, a kind of Teal, Godwits, Humilities, Knotes, Red-Shankes, Wobbles, Loones, Gulls, white Gulls, or Sea-Cobbs, Caudemandies, Herons, grey Bitterns, Ox-eyes, Birds called Oxen and Keen, Petterels, Kings fishers, which breed in the spring in holes in the Sea-banks, being unapt to propagate in Summer, by reason of the driness of their bodies, which becomes more moist when their pores are closed by cold. Most of these Fowls and Birds are eatable. There are little Birds that frequent the Sea-shore in flocks called Sanderlins, [p. 102.] they are about the bigness of a Sparrow, and in the fall of the leaf will be all fat; when I was first in the Countrie the English cut them into small pieces to put into their Puddings instead of suet, I have known twelve score and above kill’d at two shots. I have not done yet, we must not forget the Cormorant, Shape or Sharke; though I cannot commend them to our curious palats, the[81] Indians will eat them when they are fley’d, they take them prettily, they roost in the night upon some Rock that lyes out in the Sea, thither the Indian goes in his Birch-Canow when the Moon shines clear, and when he is come almost to it, he lets his Canow drive on of it self, when he is come under the Rock he shoves his Boat along till he come just under the Cormorants watchman, the rest being asleep, and so soundly do sleep that they will snore like so many Piggs; the Indian thrusts up his hand of a sudden, grasping the watchman so hard round about his neck that he cannot cry out; as soon as he hath him in his Canow he wrings off his head, and making his Canow fast, he clambreth to the top of the Rock, where walking softly he takes them up as he pleaseth, still wringing off their heads; when he hath slain as many as his Canow can carry, he gives a shout [p. 103.] which awakens the surviving Cormorants, who are gone in an instant.

The next Creatures that you are to take notice of, are they that live in the Element of water. Pliny reckons them to be of 177 kinds, but certainly if it be true that there is no Beast upon Earth, which hath not his like in the Sea, and which (perhaps) is not in some part parallel’d in the plants of the Earth; we may by a diligent search find out many more: of the same opinion is the Poet, who saith that it is

Affirm’d by some that what on Earth we find,
The Sea can parallell in shape and kind.

Divine Dubertus goes further.


You Divine wits of elder dayes, from whom
The deep invention of rare works hath come,
Took you not pattern of our chiefest Tooles
Out of the lap of Thetis, Lakes, and Pools?
Which partly in the Waves, part on the edges
Of craggy Rocks, among their ragged sedges,
Bring forth abundance of Pins, Spincers, spokes,
Pikes, piercers, needles, mallets, pipes & yoaks,
Oars, sails & swords, saws, wedges, razors, rammers,
Plumes, cornets, knives, wheels, vices, horns and hammers.

[p. 104.] Psalm 104.25, 26. In ipso mari magno & spatioso, illic reptilia sunt atque innumera animantia parva cum magnis. Illic navea ambulant; balæna quam formasti ludendo in eo.

And as the females amongst Beasts and Birds of prey for form and beautie surpass the males, so do they especially amongst fishes; and those I intend to treat of, I shall divide into salt-water fish, and fresh-water fish.

The Sea that Piscina mirabilis affords us the greatest number, of which I shall begin first with the Whale a regal fish, as all fishes of extraordinary size are accounted, of these there are (as I have said in another place) seven kinds, the Ambergreese-Whale the chiefest. Anno Dom. 1668 the 17 of July there was one of them thrown up on the shore between Winter-harbour and Cape-porpus, about eight mile from the place where I lived, that was five and fifty foot long. They are Creatures of a vast magnitude and strength. The Royal Psalmist, in the 148 psalm, and the 7 verse, makes mention of them. Laudate Jehovam terrestria; Cete (Dracones as some translate it) & omnes[83] abyssi. And Moses in his history of Job, Job 41. 1. An extrahas balænam hamo, &c. [p. 105.] Whereby the subtlety of the Devil is shewed, as also, the greatness and brutishness of the Devil by the Elephant, in the 10 verse of the foregoing Chapter. In the book of Jonas prophecies we read of a great fish, Jonah 1. 17. Pararat autem Jehova piscem magnum, qui obsorberet Jonam. But whether this were a Whale or not is questioned by some. In the head (saith Mr. Parkinson the Herbalist) of one only sort of Whale-fish is found that which is called sperma Cæti, it lyes in a hole therein, as it were a Well, taken out and prest that the oyl may come out, the substance is that we use for sperma Cæti, and hath little or no smell, the oyl smells strong. See the rarities of New-England.

The Sea-hare is as big as Grampus or Herrin-hog, and as white as a sheet; There hath been of them in Black-point-Harbour, & some way up the river, but we could never take any of them, several have shot sluggs at them, but lost their labour.

The Sturgeon is a Regal fish too, I have seen of them that have been sixteen foot in length: of their sounds they make Isinglass, which melted in the mouth is excellent to seal letters.

Sharkes there are infinite store, who tear the Fishermens nets to their great loss and hinderance; they are of two sorts, one flat [p. 106.] headed, the other long-snouted, the pretious stone in their heads (soveraign for the stone in a man) so much coveted by the travelling Chirurgeon is nought else but the brains of the flat-headed Sharke. With these we may joyn the Dog-fish or Thorn-hound, who hath two long sharp prickles on his back.


The Sea-horse or Morse is a kind of monster-fish numerous about the Isle of Sables, i. e. The sandy Isle. An Amphibious Creature kill’d for their Teeth and Oyl, never brings forth more than two at a birth; as also doth the Soil and Manate or Cow-fish which is supposed to be the Sea-monster spoken of by Jeremy, Lament. 4. 3. Etiam phocæ præbent mammam, lactant catulos suos; So the Latins render it, phoca a Sea-Calf or Soil.

The small Sword-fish is very good meat, the Sea-bat or Sea-owl a kind of flying fish.

Negroes or Sea-Devils a very ugly fish, having a black scale, there are three sorts of them, one a hideous fish, another about two foot long; of these I have seen store in Black-point Harbour in the water, but never attempted to take any of them.

Squids a soft fish somewhat like a cudgel, their horns like a Snails, which sometimes are found to be of an incredible length, [p. 107.] this fish is much used for bait to catch a Cod, Hacke, Polluck, and the like Sea-fish.

The Dolphin, Bonito, or Dozado, the ashes of their teeth mixed with honey, is good to asswage the pain of breeding teeth in Children.

The Sea-bream, Dorado, or Amber-fish, they follow ships as doth the Dolphin, and are good meat.

The Mackarel, of which there is choicefull plenty all summer long, in the spring they are ordinarily 18 inches long, afterwards there is none taken but what are smaller.

The Liver-fish like a Whiting.

The Herrin which are numerous, they take of them all summer long. In Anno Dom. 1670. they were driven into Black-point Harbour by other great fish that prey upon[85] them so near the shore, that they threw themselves (it being high water) upon dry land in such infinite numbers that we might have gone up half way the leg amongst them for near a quarter of a mile. We used to qualifie a pickled Herrin by boiling of him in milk.

The Alewife is like a herrin, but has a bigger bellie therefore called an Alewife, they come in the end of April into fresh [p. 108.] Rivers and Ponds; there hath been taken in two hours time by two men without any Weyre at all, saving a few stones to stop the passage of the River, above ten thousand. The Italian hath a proverb, that he that hath seen one miracle will easily believe another; but this relation far from a miracle will peranter meet, instead of a belief with an Adulterate construction from those that are somewhat akin to St. Peters mockers, such as deny the last judgement. I have known in England 9 score and 16 Pikes and Pickarel taken with three Angles between the hours of three and ten in the morning, in the River Owse in the Isle of Ely, three quarters of a yard long above half of them; they make red Alewives after the same manner as they do herrins and are as good.

The Basse is a salt water fish too, but most an end taken in Rivers where they spawn, there hath been 3000 Basse taken at a set, one writes that the fat in the bone of a Basses head is his brains which is a lye.

The Salmon likewise is a Sea-fish, but as the Basse comes into Rivers to spawn, a Salmon the first year is a Salmon-smelt; The second a Mort; The third a Spraid; The fourth a Soar; The fifth a Sorrel; The sixth [p. 109.] a forket tail; and the seventh year a Salmon. There are another sort of Salmon frequent in those parts called white Salmons.


Capeling is a small fish like a smelt.

The Turtle or Tortoise is of two sorts Sea-Turtles and land-Turtles: of Sea-Turtles there are five sorts, of land-Turtles three sorts, one of which is a right land-turtle that seldom or never goes into the water, the other two being the River-Turtle, and the pond-Turtle: there are many of these in the brooke Chyson in the Holy land. The ashes of a Sea-Turtle mixt with oyl or Bears-grease causeth hair to grow: the shell of a land-Turtle burnt and the ashes dissolved in wine and oyl to an unguent healeth chaps and sores of the feet: the flesh burnt and the ashes mixt with wine and oyl healeth sore legs: the ashes of the burnt shell and the whites of eggs compounded together healeth chaps in womens nipples; and the head pulverized with it prevents the falling of the hair, and will heal the Hemorrhoids, first washing of them with white-wine, and then strewing on the powder.

Lobster, which some say is at first a whelk, I have seen a Lobster that weighed twenty pound, they cast their shell-coats in the spring, and so do Crabs; having underneath a thin red skin which growes thicker and [p. 110.] hard in short time. The Indians feed much upon this fish, some they rost, and some they dry as they do Lampres and Oysters which are delicate breakfast meat so ordered, the Oysters are long shell’d, I have had of them nine inches long from the joynt to the toe, containing an Oyster like those the Latines called Tridacuan that were to be cut into three pieces before they could get them into their mouths, very fat and sweet.

The Muscle is of two sorts, Sea-muscles in which they find Pearl and river-muscles. Sea-muscles dryed and pulverized[87] and laid upon the sores of the Piles and hemorrhoids with oyl will perfectly cure them.

The Whore is a shell-fish, the shells are called whores-eggs, being fine round white shells, in shape like a Mexico pompion, but no bigger than a good large Hens-egg; they are wrought down the sides with little knobs and holes very prettily, but are but thin and brittle.

The Perriwig is a shell-fish that lyeth in the Sands flat and round as a shovel-board piece and very little thicker; these at a little hole in the middle of the shell thrust out a cap of hair, but upon the least motion of any danger it drawes it in again.

Trouts there be good store in every brook, ordinarily two and twenty inches [p. 111.] long, their grease is good for the Piles and clifts.

The Eal is of two sorts, salt-water Eals and fresh-water Eals; these again are distinguished into yellow bellied Eals and silver bellied Eals; I never eat better Eals in no part of the world that I have been in, than are here. They that have no mind or leasure to take them, may buy of an Indian half a dozen silver bellied Eals as big as those we usually give 8 pence or 12 pence a piece for at London, for three pence or a groat. There is several wayes of cooking them, some love them roasted, others baked, and many will have them fryed; but they please my palate best when they are boiled, a common way it is to boil them in half water, half wine with the bottom of a manchet, a fagot of Parsley, and a little winter savory, when they are boiled they take them out and break the bread in the broth, and put to it three or four spoonfuls of yest, and a piece of sweet butter, this they pour to their Eals[88] laid upon sippets and so serve it up. I fancie my way better which is this, after the Eals are fley’d and washt I fill their bellies with Nutmeg grated and Cloves a little bruised, and sow them up with a needle and thred, then I stick a Clove here and there in their sides about an inch asunder, [p. 112.] making holes for them with a bodkin, this done I wind them up in a wreath and put them into a kettle with half water and half white wine-vinegar, so much as will rise four fingers above the Eals, in midst of the Eals I put the bottom of a penny white loaf, and a fagot of these herbs following, Parsley one handful, a little sweet Marjoram, Peniroyal and Savory, a branch of Rosemary, bind them up with a thred, and when they are boiled enough take out the Eals and pull out the threds that their bellies were sowed up with, turn out the Nutmeg and Cloves, put the Eals in a dish with butter and vinegar upon a chafing-dish with coals to keep warm, then put into the broth three or four spoonfuls of good Ale-yeast with the juice of half a Lemmon; but before you put in your yeast beat it in a porringer with some of the broth, then break the crust of bread very small and mingle it well together with the broth, pour it into a deep dish and garnish it with the other half of the Lemmon, and so serve them up to the Table in two dishes.

The Frost fish is little bigger than a Gudgeon and are taken in fresh brooks; when the waters are frozen they make a hole in the Ice about half a yard or yard wide, to which the fish repair in great numbers, where with [p. 113.] small nets bound to a hoop about the bigness of a firkin-hoop with a staff fastned to it they lade them out of the hole. I have not done with the fish yet, being willing to[89] let you know all of them that are to be seen and catch’d in the Sea and fresh waters in New-England, and because I will not tire your patience overmuch, having no occasion to enlarge my discourse, I shall only name them and so conclude.

divers kinds
of Crabs

or Javelins

or Flowke


several kinds


[p. 114.] Scate
The Ulatife
or saw-fish



The fish are swum by, and the Serpents are creeping on, terrible creatures, carrying stings in their tails. That will smart worse than a Satyrs whip, though it were as big as Mr. Shepperds the mad Gentleman at Milton-Mowbrayes Constantinus Lasculus.

The chief or Captain of these is the Rattle-snake described already in my Journal, in some places of the Countrey there are none as at Plimouth, New-town, Nahant and some other places, they will live on one side of the River, and but swimming over and coming into the woods dye immediately.

The fat of a Rattle-snake is very Soveraign for frozen limbs, bruises, lameness by falls, Aches, Sprains. The heart of a Rattle-snake dried and pulverized and drunk with wine or beer is an approved remedy against the biting and venome of a Rattle-snake. Some body will give me thanks for [p. 115.] discovering these secrets and the rest; Non omnibus omnia conveniant.

The Snake of which there are infinite numbers of various colours, some black, others painted with red, yellow and white, some again of a grass-green colour powdered all over as it were with silver dust or Muscovie-glass. But there is one sort that exceeds all the rest, and that is the Checkquered snake, having as many colours within the checkquers shaddowing one another, as there are in a Rainbow. There are two sorts of snakes, the land-snake and the water-snake; the water-snake will be as big about the belly as the Calf of a mans leg; I never heard of any mischief that snakes did, they kill them sometimes for their skins and bones to make hatbands off, their skins likewise worn as a Garter is an excellent remedie against[91] the cramp. I have found of the skins that they cast in woods in some quantity, they cast not their very skins, but only the superfluous thin skin that is upon the very skin, for the very skin is basted to the flesh, so Lobsters and Crabs.

The Earth-worm, these are very rare and as small as a horse hair, but there is a Bug that lyes in the earth and eateth the seed, that is somewhat like a Maggot of a white colour with a red head, and is about [p. 116.] the bigness of ones finger and an inch or an inch and half long. There is also a dark dunnish Worm or Bug of the bigness of an Oaten-straw, and an inch long, that in the spring lye at the Root of Corn and Garden plants all day, and in the night creep out and devour them; these in some years destroy abundance of Indian Corn and Garden plants, and they have but one way to be rid of them, which the English have learnt of the Indians; And because it is somewhat strange, I shall tell you how it is, they go out into a field or garden with a Birchen-dish, and spudling the earth about the roots, for they lye not deep, they gather their dish full which may contain about a quart or three pints, then they carrie the dish to the Sea-side when it is ebbing-water and set it a swimming, the water carrieth the dish into the Sea and within a day or two if you go into your field you may look your eyes out sooner than find any of them.

Sow-bugs or Millipedes there be good store, but none of that sort that are blew and turn round as a pea when they are touched; neither are there any Beetles nor Maple-bugs, but a stinking black and red Bug called a Cacarooch or Cockroach, and a little black Bug like a Lady-cow[92] that breeds in skins and furrs and will eat them to their [p. 117.] utter spoil. Likewise there be infinite numbers of Tikes hanging upon the bushes in summer time that will cleave to a mans garments and creep into his Breeches eating themselves in a short time into the very flesh of a man. I have seen the stockins of those that have gone through the woods covered with them. Besides these there is a Bug, but whether it be a Native to the Countrie or a stranger I cannot say: Some are of opinion that they are brought in by the Merchant with Spanish goods, they infest our beds most, all day they hide themselves, but when night comes they will creep to the sleeping wretch and bite him worse than a flea, which raiseth a swelling knub that will itch intolerably, if you scratch it waxeth bigger and growes to a scab; and if you chance to break one of the Bugs it will stink odiously: they call them Chinches or Wood-lice, they are fat, red and in shape like a Tike and no bigger. There are also Palmer-worms which is a kind of Catterpiller, these some years will devour the leaves of Trees leaving them as naked almost as in winter, they do much harm in the English Orchards. Of Snails there are but few, and those very little ones, they lye at the Roots of long grass in moist places, and are no where else to be found. [p. 118.] Spiders and Spinners there be many, the last very big and of several colours.

The Pismire or Ant must not be forgotten, accounted the least Creature, and by Salomon commended for its wisdom, Prov. 30. 24, 25. Quatuor ista parva sunt humilia, tamen sunt sapientia, apprime sapientia: formicæ populus infirmus, quæ comparant æstate cibum suum, &c.[93] There are two sorts, red Ants and black Ants, both of them are many times found winged; not long since they were poured upon the Sands out of the clouds in a storm betwixt Black-point and Saco, where the passenger might have walkt up to the Ankles in them.

The Grashopper is innumerable and bigger by much than ours in England, having Tinsel-wings, with help whereof they will flye and skip a great way. Next to these in number are your Crickets, a man can walk no where in the summer but he shall tread upon them; The Italian who hath them cryed up and down the streets (Grille che cantelo) and buyeth them to put into his Gardens, if he were in New-England would gladly be rid of them, they make such a dinn in an Evening. I could never discover the Organ of their voice, they have a little clift in their Crown which opens, and at the same instant they shake their wings.

[p. 119.] The Eft or Swift in New-England is a most beautiful Creature to look upon, being larger than ours, and painted with glorious colours; but I lik’d him never the better for it.

Frogs too there are in ponds and upon dry land, they chirp like Birds in the spring, and latter end of summer croak like Toads. It is admirable to consider the generating of these Creatures, first they lay their gelly on the water in ponds and still waters, which comes in time to be full of black spots as broad as the head of a Ten-penny nail, and round, these separate themselves from the gleir, and after a while thrust out a tail, then their head comes forth, after their head springs out their fore-legs, and then their hinder-legs, then their tail drops off, and growes to[94] have a head and four legs too, the first proves a frog, the latter a water nuet. The Herbalist useth to say by way of admiration, quælibet herba deum &c. So God is seen in the production of these small Creatures which are a part of the Creation; Laudate Jehovam cælites, laudate eum in excelsis, &c. Laudent nomen Jehovæ quæ ipso præcipiente illico creata sunt &c. ipsæ bestiæ & omnes jumenta, reptilia & aves alatæ, Psal. 148.

The Toad is of two sorts, one that is [p. 120.] speckled with white, and another of a dark earthy colour; there is of them that will climb up into Trees and sit croaking there; but whether it be of a third sort, or one of the other, or both, I am not able to affirm; but this I can testifie that there be Toads of the dark coloured kind that are as big as a groat loaf. Which report will not swell into the belief of my sceptique Sirs; nor that there is a Hell, being like Salomon’s fool, Prov. 26. 22. Sed si contunderes stultum in mortario cum mola pistillo, non recederet ab eo stultitia ejus.

Now before I proceed any further, I must (to prevent misconstructions) tell you that these following Creatures, though they be not properly accounted Serpents, yet they are venomous and pestilent Creatures. As, first the Rat, but he hath been brought in since the English came thither, but the Mouse is a Native, of which there are several kinds not material to be described; the Bat or flitter mouse is bigger abundance than any in England and swarm, which brings me to the insects or cut-wasted Creatures again, as first the honey-Bee, which are carried over by the English and thrive there exceedingly, in time they may be produced from Bullocks when the wild[95] Beasts are destroyed. But the wasp is [p. 121.] common, and they have a sort of wild humble-Bee that breed in little holes in the earth. Near upon twenty years since there lived an old planter at Black-point, who on a Sun-shine day about one of the clock lying upon a green bank not far from his house, charged his Son, a lad of 12 years of age to awaken him when he had slept two hours, the old man falls asleep and lying upon his back gaped with his mouth wide enough for a Hawke to shit into it; after a little while the lad sitting by spied a humble-Bee creeping out of his Fathers mouth, which taking wing flew quite out of sight, the hour as the lad ghest being come to awaken his Father he jogg’d him and called aloud Father, Father, it is two a clock, but all would not rouse him, at last he sees the humble-Bee returning, who lighted upon the sleepers lip and walked down as the lad conceived into his belly, and presently he awaked.

The Countrey is strangely incommodated with flyes, which the English call Musketaes, they are like our gnats, they will sting so fiercely in summer as to make the faces of the English swell’d and scabby, as if the small pox for the first year. Likewise there is a small black fly no bigger than a flea, so numerous up in the Countrey, [p. 122.] that a man cannot draw his breath, but he will suck of them in: they continue about Thirty dayes say some, but I say three moneths, and are not only a pesterment but a plague to the Countrey. There is another sort of fly called a Gurnipper that are like our horse-flyes, and will bite desperately, making the bloud to spurt out in great quantity; these trouble our English Cattle very much, raising swellings as big as an egg in their hides.[96] The Butterfly is of several sorts and larger than ours; So are their Dragon-flyes. Glow-worms have here wings, there are multitudes of them insomuch that in the dark evening when I first went into the Countrey I thought the whole Heavens had been on fire, seeing so many sparkles flying in the air: about Mount-Carmel, and the valley of Acree in the Holy-land there be abundance of them.

These are taken for Cantharides. Cantharides are green flyes by day, in the night they pass about like a flying Glow-worm with fire in their tails.

I have finished now my relation of plants, &c. I have taken some pains in recollecting of them to memory, and setting of them down for their benefit from whom I may expect thanks; but I believe my [p. 123.] reward will be according to Ben Johnsons proverbs, Whistle to a Jade and he will pay you with a fart, Claw a churl by the britch and he will shit in your fist.

The people that inhabited this Countrey are judged to be of the Tartars called Samonids that border upon Moscovia, and are divided into Tribes; those to the East and North-east are called Churchers and Tarentines, and Monhegans. To the South are the Pequets and Narragansets. Westward Connecticuts and Mowhacks. To the Northward Aberginians which consist of Mattachusets, Wippanaps and Tarrentines. The Pocanokets live to the West-ward of Plimouth. Not long before the English came into the Countrey, happened a great mortality amongst them, especially where the English afterwards planted, the East and Northern parts were sore smitten with the Contagion; first by the plague, afterwards when the English came by[97] the small pox, the three Kingdoms or Sagamorships of the Mattachusets were very populous, having under them seven Dukedoms or petti-Sagamorships, but by the plague were brought from 30000 to 300. There are not many now to the Eastward, the Pequots were destroyed by the English: the Mowhacks are about five hundred: Their speech a dialect of the Tartars, [p. 124.] (as also is the Turkish tongue). There is difference between Tongues and Languages, the division of speech at Babel is most properly called Languages, the rest Tongues.

As for their persons they are tall and handsome timber’d people, out-wristed, pale and lean Tartarian visag’d, black eyed which is accounted the strongest for sight, and generally black hair’d, both smooth and curl’d wearing of it long. No beards, or very rarely, their Teeth are very white, short and even, they account them the most necessary and best parts of man; And as the Austreans are known by their great lips, the Bavarians by their pokes under their chins, the Jews by their goggle eyes, so the Indians by their flat noses, yet are they not so much deprest as they are to the Southward.

The Indesses that are young, are some of them very comely, having good features, their faces plump and round, and generally plump of their Bodies, as are the men likewise, and as soft and smooth as a mole-skin, of reasonable good complexions, but that they dye themselves tawnie, many prettie Brownetto’s and spider finger’d Lasses may be seen amongst them. The Vetula’s or old women are lean and uglie, all of them are of a modest demeanor, considering their [p. 125.] Savage breeding; and indeed do shame our English rusticks whose rudeness in many things exceedeth theirs.


Of disposition very inconstant, crafty, timorous, quick of apprehension, and very ingenious, soon angry, and so malicious that they seldom forget an injury, and barbarously cruel, witness their direful revenges upon one another. Prone to injurious violence and slaughter, by reason of their bloud dryed up with overmuch fire, very lecherous proceeding from choller adust and melancholy, a salt and sharp humour; very fingurative or theevish, and bold importunate beggars, both Men and Women guilty of Misoxenie or hatred to strangers, a quality appropriated to the old Brittains, all of them Cannibals, eaters of humane flesh. And so were formerly the Heathen-Irish, who used to feed upon the Buttocks of Boyes and Womens Paps; it seems it is natural to Savage people so to do. I have read in Relations of the Indians amongst the Spaniards that they would not eat a Spaniard till they had kept him two or three dayes to wax tender, because their flesh was hard. At Martins vinyard, an Island that lyes South to Plimouth in the way to Virginia, certain Indians (whilst I was in the Countrey) seised upon a Boat that put into [p. 126.] a By-Cove, kill’d the men and eat them up in a short time before they were discovered.

Their houses which they call Wigwams, are built with Poles pitcht into the ground of a round form for most part, sometimes square, they bind down the tops of their poles, leaving a hole for smoak to go out at, the rest they cover with the bark of Trees, and line the inside of their Wigwams with mats made of Rushes painted with several colours, one good post they set up in the middle that reaches to the hole in the top, with a staff across before it at a convenient height, they knock in a pin on which they[99] hang their Kettle, beneath that they set up a broad stone for a back which keepeth the post from burning; round by the walls they spread their mats and skins where the men sleep whilst their women dress their victuals, they have commonly two doors, one opening to the South, the other to the North, and according as the wind sits, they close up one door with bark and hang a Dears skin or the like before the other. Towns they have none, being alwayes removing from one place to another for conveniency of food, sometimes to those places where one sort of fish is most plentiful, other whiles where others are. I have seen half [p. 127.] a hundred of their Wigwams together in a piece of ground and they shew prettily, within a day or two, or a week they have been all dispersed. They live for the most part by the Sea-side, especially in the spring and summer quarters, in winter they are gone up into the Countrie to hunt Deer and Beaver, the younger webbs going with them. Tame Cattle they have none, excepting Lice, and Doggs of a wild breed that they bring up to hunt with.

Wives they have two or three, according to the ability of their bodies and strength of their concupiscence, who have the easiest labours of any women in the world; they will go out when their time is come alone, carrying a board with them two foot long, and a foot and half broad, bor’d full of holes on each side, having a foot beneath like a Jack that we pull Boots off with, on the top of the board a broad strap of leather which they put over their fore-head, the board hanging at their back; when they are come to a Bush or a Tree that they fancy they lay them down and are delivered in a trice, not so much as groaning[100] for it, they wrap the child up in a young Beaver-skin with his heels close to his britch, leaving a little hole if it be a Boy for his Cock to peep out at; and lace him down to the [p. 128.] board upon his back, his knees resting upon the foot beneath, then putting the strap of leather upon their fore-head with the infant hanging at their back home they trudge; What other ceremonies they use more than dying of them with a liquor of boiled Hemlock-Bark, and their throwing of them into the water if they suspect the Child to be gotten by any other Nation, to see if he will swim, if he swim they acknowledge him for their own, their names they give them when they are men grown, and covet much to be called after our English manner, Robin, Harry, Phillip and the like, very indulgent they are to their Children, and their children sometimes to their Parents, but if they live so long that they become a burden to them, they will either starve them or bury them alive, as it was supposed an Indian did his Mother at Casco in 1669.

Their Apparel before the English came amongst them, was the skins of wild Beasts with the hair on, Buskins of Deers-skin or Moose drest and drawn with lines into several works, the lines being coloured with yellow, blew or red, Pumps too they have, made of tough skins without soles. In the winter when the snow will bear them, they fasten to their feet their snow shooes which are made like a large Racket we play at [p. 129.] Tennis with, lacing them with Deers-guts and the like, under their belly they wear a square piece of leather and the like upon their posteriors, both fastened to a string tyed about them to hide their secrets; on their heads they ware nothing: But[101] since they have had to do with the English they purchase of them a sort of Cloth called trading cloth of which they make Mantles, Coats with short sleeves, and caps for their heads which the women use, but the men continue their old fashion going bare-headed, excepting some old men amongst them. They are very proud as appeareth by their setting themselves out with white and blew Beads of their own making, and painting of their faces with the above mentioned colours, they weave sometimes curious Coats with Turkie feathers for their Children.

Their Diet is Fish and Fowl, Bear, Wild-cat, Rattoon and Deer; dry’d Oysters, Lobsters rosted or dryed in the smoak, Lampres and dry’d Moose-tongues, which they esteem a dish for a Sagamor; hard eggs boiled and made small and dryed to thicken their broth with, salt they have not the use of, nor bread, their Indian Corn and Kidney beans they boil, and sometimes eat their Corn parcht or roasted in the ear against the fire; they feed likewise upon earth-nuts, [p. 130.] or ground-nuts, roots of water-Lillies, Ches-nuts, and divers sorts of Berries. They beat their Corn to powder and put it up into bags, which they make use of when stormie weather or the like will not suffer them to look out for their food. Pompions and water-Mellons too they have good store; they have prodigious stomachs, devouring a cruel deal, meer voragoes, never giving over eating as long as they have it, between meals spending their time in sleep till the next kettlefull is boiled, when all is gone they satisfie themselves with a small quantity of the meal, making it serve as the frugal bit amongst the old Britains, which taken to the mountenance of a Bean would satisfie both thirst and hunger. If[102] they have none of this, as sometimes it falleth out (being a very careless people not providing against the storms of want and tempest of necessity) they make use of Sir Francis Drake’s remedy for hunger, go to sleep.

They live long, even to an hundred years of age, if they be not cut off by their Children, war, and the plague, which together with the small pox hath taken away abundance of them. Pliny reckons up but 300 Diseases in and about man, latter writers Six thousand, 236 belonging to the eyes. There are not so many Diseases raigning [p. 131.] amongst them as our Europeans. The great pox is proper to them, by reason (as some do deem) that they are Man-eaters, which disease was brought amongst our Europeans first by the Spaniards that went with Christopher Columbus who brought it to Naples with their Indian-women, with whom the Italians and French conversed Anno Dom. 1493. Paracelsus saith it happened in the year 1478 and 1480. But all agree that it was not known in Europe before Columbus his voyage to America. It hath continued amongst us above two hundred and three score years. There are Diseases that are proper to certain climates, as the Leprosie to Ægypt, swelling of the Throat or Mentegra to Asia, the sweating sickness to the Inhabitants of the North; to the Portugals the Phthisick, to Savoy the mumps; So to the West-Indies the Pox, but this doth not exclude other Diseases. In New-England the Indians are afflicted with pestilent Feavers, Plague, Black-pox, Consumption of the Lungs, Falling-sickness, Kings-evil, and a Disease called by the Spaniard the Plague in the back, with us Empyema, their Physicians are the Powaws or Indian Priests who cure sometimes[103] by charms and medicine, but in a general infection they seldom come amongst them, [p. 132.] therefore they use their own remedies, which is sweating, &c. Their manner is when they have plague or small pox amongst them to cover their Wigwams with Bark so close that no Air can enter in, lining them (as I said before) within, and making a great fire they remain there in a stewing heat till they are in a top sweat, and then run out into the Sea or River, and presently after they are come into their Hutts again they either recover or give up the Ghost; they dye patiently both men and women, not knowing of a Hell to scare them, nor a Conscience to terrifie them. In times of general Mortality they omit the Ceremonies of burying, exposing their dead Carkases to the Beasts of prey. But at other times they dig a Pit and set the diseased therein upon his breech upright, and throwing in the earth, cover it with the sods and bind them down with sticks, driving in two stakes at each end; their mournings are somewhat like the howlings of the Irish, seldom at the grave but in the Wigwam where the party dyed, blaming the Devil for his hard heartedness, and concluding with rude prayers to him to afflict them no further.

They acknowledge a God who they call Squantam, but worship him they do not, [p. 133.] because (they say) he will do them no harm. But Abbamocho or Cheepie many times smites them with incurable Diseases, scares them with his Apparitions and pannick Terrours, by reason whereof they live in a wretched consternation worshipping the Devil for fear. One black Robin an Indian sitting down in the Corn field belonging to the house where I resided, ran out of his Wigwam frighted with the apparition[104] of two infernal spirits in the shape of Mohawkes. Another time two Indians and an Indess, came running into our house crying out they should all dye, Cheepie was gone over the field gliding in the Air with a long rope hanging from one of his legs: we askt them what he was like, they said all wone Englishman, clothed with hat and coat, shooes and stockings, &c. They have a remarkable observation of a flame that appears before the death of an Indian or English upon their Wigwams in the dead of the night: The first time that I did see it, I was call’d out by some of them about twelve of the clock, it being a very dark night, I perceived it plainly mounting into the Air over our Church, which was built upon a plain little more than half a quarter of a mile from our dwelling house, on the Northside of the Church: look on [p. 134.] what side of a house it appears, from that Coast respectively you shall hear of a Coarse within two or three days.

They worship the Devil (as I said) their Priests are called Powaws and are little better than Witches, for they have familiar conference with him, who makes them invulnerable, that is shot-free and stick-free. Craftie Rogues, abusing the rest at their pleasure, having power over them by reason of their Diabolical Art in curing of Diseases, which is performed with rude Ceremonies; they place the sick upon the ground sitting, and dance in an Antick manner round about him, beating their naked breasts with a strong hand, and making hideous faces, sometimes calling upon the Devil for his help, mingling their prayers with horrid and barbarous charms; if the sick recover they send rich gifts, their Bowes and Arrowes, Wompompers, Mohacks, Beaver skins, or other rich Furs to the Eastward, where[105] there is a vast Rock not far from the shore, having a hole in it of an unsearchable profundity, into which they throw them.

Their Theologie is not much, but questionless they acknowledge a God and a Devil, and some small light they have of the Souls immortality; for ask them [p. 135.] whither they go when they dye, they will tell you pointing with their finger to Heaven beyond the white mountains, and do hint at Noah’s Floud, as may be conceived by a story they have received from Father to Son, time out of mind, that a great while agon their Countrey was drowned, and all the People and other Creatures in it, only one Powaw and his Webb foreseeing the Floud, fled to the white mountains carrying a hare along with them and so escaped; after a while the Powaw sent the Hare away, who not returning emboldned thereby they descended, and lived many years after, and had many Children, from whom the Countrie was filled again with Indians. Some of them tell another story of the Beaver, saying that he was their Father.

Their learning is very little or none, Poets they are as may be ghessed by their formal speeches, sometimes an hour long, the last word of a line riming with the last word of the following line, and the whole doth Constare ex pedibus. Musical too they be, having many pretty odd barbarous tunes which they make use of vocally at marriages and feastings; but Instruments they had none before the English came amongst them, since they have imitated them and will make out Kitts and string them as neatly, [p. 136.] and as Artificially as the best Fiddle-maker amongst us; and will play our plain lessons very[106] exactly: the only Fidler that was in the Province of Meyn, when I was there, was an Indian called Scozway, whom the Fishermen and planters when they had a mind to be merry made use of.

Arithmetick they skill not, reckoning to ten upon their fingers, and if more doubling of it by holding their fingers up, their age they reckon by Moons, and their actions by sleeps, as, if they go a journie, or are to do any other business they will say, three sleeps me walk, or two or three sleeps me do such a thing, that is in two or three days. Astronomie too they have no knowledge of, seldom or never taking observation of the Stars, Eclipses, or Comets that I could perceive; but they will Prognosticate shrewdly what weather will fall out. They are generally excellent Zenagogues or guides through their Countrie.

Their exercises are hunting and fishing, in both they will take abundance of pains. When the snow will bear them, the young and lustie Indians, (leaving their papouses and old people at home) go forth to hunt Moose, Deere, Bear and Beaver, Thirty or forty miles up into the Countrey; when they light upon a Moose they run him down, [p. 137.] which is sometimes in half a day, sometimes a whole day, but never give him over till they have tyred him, the snow being usually four foot deep, and the Beast very heavie he sinks every step, and as he runs sometimes bears down Arms of Trees that hang in his way, with his horns, as big as a mans thigh; other whiles, if any of their dogs (which are but small) come near, yerking out his heels (for he strikes like a horse) if a small Tree be in the way he breaks it quite asunder with one stroak, at last they get up to him on each side and transpierce[107] him with their Lances, which formerly were no other but a staff of a yard and half pointed with a Fishes bone made sharp at the end, but since they put on pieces of sword-blades which they purchase of the French, and having a strap of leather fastned to the but end of the staff which they bring down to the midst of it, they dart it into his sides, hæret latere lethalis arundo, the poor Creature groans, and walks on heavily, for a space, then sinks and falls down like a ruined building, making the Earth to quake; then presently in come the Victors, who having cut the throat of the slain take off his skin, their young webbs by this time are walking towards them with heavie bags and kettles at their [p. 138.] backs, who laying down their burdens fall to work upon the Carkass, take out the heart, and from that the bone, cut off the left foot behind, draw out the sinews, and cut out his tongue &c. and as much of the Venison as will serve to satiate the hungry mawes of the Company; mean while the men pitch upon a place near some spring, and with their snow shoos shovel the snow away to the bare Earth in a circle, making round about a wall of snow; in the midst they make their Vulcan or fire near to a great Tree, upon the snags whereof they hang their kettles fil’d with the Venison; whilst that boils, the men after they have refresht themselves with a pipe of Tobacco dispose themselves to sleep. The women tend the Cookerie, some of them scrape the slime and fat from the skin, cleanse the sinews, and stretch them and the like, when the venison is boiled the men awake, and opening of their bags take out as much Indian meal as will serve their turns for the present; they eat their broth with spoons, and their flesh they divide into[108] gobbets, eating now and then with it as much meal as they can hold betwixt three fingers; their drink they fetch from the spring, and were not acquainted with other, untill the French and English traded with that cursed liquor [p. 139.] called Rum, Rum-bullion, or kill-Devil, which is stronger than spirit of Wine, and is drawn from the dross of Sugar and Sugar Canes, this they love dearly, and will part with all they have to their bare skins for it, being perpetually drunk with it, as long as it is to be had, it hath killed many of them, especially old women who have dyed when dead drunk. Thus instead of bringing of them to the knowledge of Christianitie, we have taught them to commit the beastly and crying sins of our Nation, for a little profit. When the Indians have stuft their paunches, if it be fair weather and about midday they venture forth again, but if it be foul and far spent, they betake themselves to their field-bed at the sign of the Star, expecting the opening of the Eastern window, which if it promise serenity, they truss up their fardles, and away for another Moose, this course they continue for six weeks or two moneths, making their Webbs their Mules to carry their luggage, they do not trouble themselves with the horns of Moose or other Deer, unless it be near an English plantation; because they are weighty and cumbersome. If the English could procure them to bring them in, they would be worth the pains and charge, being sold in England after the rate of forty or fifty [p. 140.] pounds a Tun; the red heads of Deer are the fairest and fullest of marrow, and lightest; the black heads are heavie and have less marrow; the white are the worst, and the worst nourished. When the Indians are gone, there gathers to the Carkass[109] of the Moose thousands of Mattrises, of which there are but few or none near the Sea-coasts to be seen, these devour the remainder in a quarter of the time that they were hunting of it.

Their fishing followes in the spring, summer and fall of the leaf. First for Lobsters, Clams, Flouke, Lumps or Podles, and Alewives; afterwards for Bass, Cod, Rock, Blew-fish, Salmon, and Lampres, &c.

The Lobsters they take in large Bayes when it is low water, the wind still, going out in their Birchen-Canows with a staff two or three yards long, made small and sharpen’d at one end, and nick’d with deep nicks to take hold. When they spye the Lobster crawling upon the Sand in two fathom water, more or less, they stick him towards the head and bring him up. I have known thirty Lobsters taken by an Indian lad in an hour and a half, thus they take Flouke and Lumps; Clams they dig out of the Clam-banks upon the flats and in creeks when it is low water, where they are bedded [p. 141.] sometimes a yard deep one upon another, the beds a quarter of a mile in length, and less, the Alewives they take with Nets like a pursenet put upon a round hoop’d stick with a handle in fresh ponds where they come to spawn. The Bass and Blew-fish they take in harbours, and at the mouth of barr’d Rivers being in their Canows, striking them with a fisgig, a kind of dart or staff, to the lower end whereof they fasten a sharp jagged bone (since they make them of Iron) with a string fastened to it, as soon as the fish is struck they pull away the staff, leaving the bony head in the fishes body and fasten the other end of the string to the Canow: Thus they will hale after them to shore half a[110] dozen or half a score great fishes: this way they take Sturgeon; and in dark evenings when they are upon the fishing ground near a Bar of Sand (where the Sturgeon feeds upon small fishes (like Eals) that are called Lances sucking them out of the Sands where they lye hid, with their hollow Trunks, for other mouth they have none) the Indian lights a piece of dry Birch-Bark which breaks out into a flame & holds it over the side of his Canow, the Sturgeon seeing this glaring light mounts to the Surface of the water where he is slain and taken with a fisgig. Salmons and Lampres [p. 142.] are catch’d at the falls of Rivers. All the Rivers of note in the Countrey have two or three desperate falls distant one from another for some miles, for it being rising ground from the Sea and mountainous within land, the Rivers having their Originals from great lakes, and hastning to the Sea, in their passage meeting with Rocks that are not so easily worn away, as the loose earthie mould beneath the Rock, makes a fall of the water in some Rivers as high as a house: you would think it strange to see, yea admire if you saw the bold Barbarians in their light Canows rush down the swift and headlong stream with desperate speed, but with excellent dexterity, guiding his Canow that seldom or never it shoots under water, or overturns, if it do they can swim naturally, striking their pawes under their throat like a dog, and not spreading their Arms as we do; they turn their Canow again and go into it in the water.

Their Merchandize are their beads, which are their money, of these there are two sorts blew Beads and white Beads, the first is their Gold, the last their Silver, these they work out of certain shells so cunningly that neither[111] Jew nor Devil can counterfeit, they dril them and string them, and make many curious works with them to [p. 143.] adorn the persons of their Sagamours and principal men and young women, as Belts, Girdles, Tablets, Borders for their womens hair, Bracelets, Necklaces, and links to hang in their ears. Prince Phillip a little before I came for England coming to Boston had a Coat on and Buskins set thick with these Beads in pleasant wild works and a broad Belt of the same, his Accoutrements were valued at Twenty pounds. The English Merchant giveth them ten shillings a fathom for their white, and as much more or near upon for their blew Beads. Delicate sweet dishes too they make of Birch-Bark sowed with threads drawn from Spruse or white Cedar-Roots, and garnished on the out-side with flourisht works, and on the brims with glistering quills taken from the Porcupine, and dyed, some black, others red, the white are natural, these they make of all sizes from a dram cup to a dish containing a pottle, likewise Buckets to carry water or the like, large Boxes too of the same materials, dishes, spoons and trayes wrought very smooth and neatly out of the knots of wood, baskets, bags, and matts woven with Sparke, bark of the Line-Tree and Rushes of several kinds, dyed as before, some black, blew, red, yellow, bags of Porcupine quills woven and dyed also; Coats woven of [p. 144.] Turkie-feathers for their Children, Tobacco pipes of stone with Imagerie upon them, Kettles of Birchen-bark which they used before they traded with the French for Copper Kettles, by all which you may apparently see that necessity was at first the mother of all inventions. The women are the workers of most of these, and are now, here and there[112] one excellent needle woman, and will milk a Cow neatly, their richest trade are Furs of divers sorts, Black Fox, Beaver, Otter, Bear, Sables, Mattrices, Fox, Wild-Cat, Rattoons, Martins, Musquash, Moose-skins.

Ships they have none, but do prettily imitate ours in their Birchen-pinnaces, their Canows are made of Birch, they shape them with flat Ribbs of white Cedar, and cover them with large sheets of Birch-bark, sowing them through with strong threds of Spruse-Roots or white Cedar, and pitch them with a mixture of Turpentine and the hard rosen that is dryed with the Air on the out-side of the Bark of Firr-Trees. These will carry half a dozen or three or four men and a considerable fraight, in these they swim to Sea twenty, nay forty miles, keeping from the shore a league or two, sometimes to shorten their voyage when they are to double a Cape they will put to shore, and [p. 145.] two of them taking up the Canow carry it cross the Cape or neck of land to the other side, and to Sea again; they will indure an incredible great Sea, mounting upon the working billowes like a piece of Corke; but they require skilful hands to guide them in rough weather, none but the Indians scarce dare to undertake it, such like Vessels the Ancient Brittains used, as Lucan relates.

Primum cana salix, madefacto vimine, parvam
Texitur in puppim, cæsoque induta juvenco,
Vectoris patiens tumidum super emicat amnem.
Sic Venetus stagnante Pado, fusoque Britanus
Navigat oceano——
When Sicoris to his own banks restor’d
Had left the field, of twigs, and willow boord
They made small Boats, cover’d with Bullocks hide,
In which they reacht the Rivers further side.
So sail the Veneti if Padus flow,
The Brittains sail on their calm ocean so:
So the Ægyptians sail with woven Boats
Of paper rushes in their Nilus floats.

[p. 146.] Their Government is monarchical, the Patrueius or they that descend from the eldest proceeding from his loyns, is the Roytelet of the Tribe, and if he have Daughters, his Son dying without a Son, the Government descends to his Daughters Son: after the same manner, their lands descend. Cheetadaback was the chief Sachem or Roytelet of the Massachusets, when the English first set down there. Massasoit, the great Sachem of the Plimouth Indians, his dwelling was at a place called Sowans, about four miles distant from New-Plimouth. Sasasacus was the chief Sachem of the Pequots, and Mientoniack of the Narragansets. The chief Roytelet amongst the Mohawks now living, is a Dutchmans Bastard, and the Roytelet now of the Pocanakets, that is the Plimouth-Indians, is Prince Philip alias Metacon, the Grandson of Massasoit. Amongst the Eastern Indians, Summersant formerly was a famous Sachem. The now living Sachems of note are Sabaccaman, Terrumkin and Robinhood.

Their Wars are with Neighbouring Tribes, but the Mowhawks are enemies to all the other Indians, their weapons of Defence and Offence are Bowes and Arrowes, of late he is a poor Indian that is not [p. 147.] master of[114] two Guns, which they purchase of the French, and powder and shot, they are generally excellent marks men; their other weapons are Tamahawks which are staves two foot and a half long with a knob at the end as round as a bowl, and as big as that we call the Jack or Mistriss. Lances too they have made (as I have said before) with broken sword blades, likewise they have Hatchets and knives; but these are weapons of a latter date. They colour their faces red all over, supposing that it makes them the more terrible, they are lusty Souldiers to see to and very strong, meer Hercules Rusticuses, their fights are by Ambushments and Surprises, coming upon one another unawares. They will march a hundred miles through thick woods and swamps to the Mowhawks Countrey, and the Mowhawks into their Countrey, meeting sometimes in the woods, or when they come into an Enemies Countrey build a rude fort with Pallizadoes, having loop-holes out of which they shoot their Arrowes, and fire their Guns, pelting at one another a week or moneth together; If any of them step out of the Fort they are in danger to be taken prisoners by the one side or the other; that side that gets the victory excoriats the hair-scalp of the principal slain Enemies which [p. 148.] they bear away in Triumph, their prisoners they bring home, the old men and women they knock in the head, the young women they keep, and the men of war they torture to death as the Eastern Indians did two Mowhawks whilst I was there, they bind him to a Tree and make a great fire before him, then with sharp knives they cut off the first joynts of his fingers and toes, then clap upon them hot Embers to sear the vains; so they cut him a pieces joynt after[115] joynt, still applying hot Embers to the place to stanch the bloud, making the poor wretch to sing all the while: when Arms and Legs are gone, they flay off the skin of their Heads, and presently put on a Cap of burning Embers, then they open his breast and take out his heart, which while it is yet living in a manner they give to their old Squaes, who are every one to have a bite at it. These Barbarous Customs were used amongst them more frequently before the English came; but since by the great mercy of the Almighty they are in a way to be Civilized and converted to Christianity; there being three Churches of Indians gathered together by the pains of Mr. John Eliot and his Son, who Preaches to them in their Native language, and hath rendered the Bible in that Language for the benefit of [p. 149.] the Indians. These go clothed like the English, live in framed houses, have stocks of Corn and Cattle about them, which when they are fat they bring to the English Markets, the Hogs that they rear are counted the best in New-England. Some of their Sons have been brought up Scholars in Harvard Colledge, and I was told that there was but two Fellowes in that Colledge, and one of them was an Indian; some few of these Christian Indians have of late Apostatized and fallen back to their old Superstition and course of life.

Thus much shall suffice concerning New-England, as it was when the Indians solely possest it. I will now proceed to give you an accompt of it, as it is under the management of the English; but methinks I hear my sceptick Readers muttering out of their scuttle mouths, what will accrew to us by this rambling Logodiarce? you do but bring straw into Egypt, a Countrey abounding with Corn.[116] Thus by these Famacides who are so minutely curious, I am dejected from my hope, whilst they challenge the freedom of David’s Ruffins, Our Tongues are our own, who-shall controll us. I have done what I can to please you, I have piped and you will not dance. I have told you as strange things as ever you or your Fathers [p. 150.] have heard. The Italian saith Chi vide un miraculo facilmente ne crede un altro, he that hath seen one miracle will easilie believe another, miranda canunt sed non credenda poetæ. Oh I see the pad, you never heard nor saw the like, therefore you do not believe me; well Sirs I shall not strain your belief any further, the following Relation I hope will be more tolerable, yet I could (it is possible) insert as wonderful things as any my pen hath yet gone over, and may, but it must be upon condition you will not put me to the proof of it. Nemo tenetur ad impossibilia, no man is obliged to do more than is in his power, is a rule in law. To be short; if you cannot with the Bee gather the honey, with the Spider suck out the poyson, as Sir John Davis hath it.

The Bee and Spider by a divers power
Suck honey and poyson from the self-same flower.

I am confident you will get but little poyson here, no ’tis the poyson of Asps under your tongue that swells you: truly, I do take you rather to be Spider catchers than Spiders, such as will not laudably imploy themselves, nor suffer others; you may well say non amo hominem, sed non possum [p. 151.] dicere quare, unless it be because I am a Veronessa, no Romancer. To conclude; if with your[117] mother wit, you can mend the matter, take pen in hand and fall to work, do your Countrey some service as I have done according to my Talent. Henceforth you are to expect no more Relations from me. I am now return’d into my Native Countrey, and by the providence of the Almighty, and the bounty of my Royal Soveraigness am disposed to a holy quiet of study and meditation for the good of my soul; and being blessed with a transmentitation or change of mind, and weaned from the world, may take up for my word, non est mortale quod opto. If what I have done is thought uprears for the approvement of those to whom it is intended, I shall be more than meanly contented.

New-England was first discovered by John Cabota and his Son Sebastian in Anno Dom. 1514. A further discovery afterwards was made by the honourable Sir Walter Rawleigh Knight in Anno 1584. when as Virginia was discovered, which together with Mary-land, New-England, Nova Scotia was known by one common name to the Indians, Wingandicoa, and by Sir Walter Rawleigh in honour of our Virgin Queen, in whose name he took possession of it, Virginia. In [p. 152.] King James his Reign it was divided into Provinces as is before named. In 1602. these north parts were further discovered by Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold. The first English that planted there, set down not far from the Narragansets-Bay, and called their Colony Plimouth, since old Plimouth, An. Dom. 1602. Sir John Popham Lord chief Justice authorized by his Majesty, King James, sent a Colony of English to Sagadehock, An. 1606. Newfound-land was discovered by one Andrew Thorn an English man in Anno 1527.[118] Sir Humphrey Gilbert a west Countrey Knight took possession of it in the Queens name, Anno 1582. The two first Colonies in New-England failing, there was a fresh supply of English who set down in other parts of the Countrey, and have continued in a flourishing condition to this day.

The whole Countrey now is divided into Colonies, and for your better understanding observe, a Colony is a sort of people that come to inhabit a place before not inhabited, or Colonus quasi, because they should be Tillers of the Earth. From hence by an usual figure the Countrey where they sit down, is called a Colony or Plantation.

The first of these that I shall relate of, though last in possession of the English, is now our most Southerly Colony, and next [p. 153.] adjoyning to Mary-land, scil. the Manadaes or Manahanent lying upon the great River Mohegan, which was first discovered by Mr. Hudson, and sold presently by him to the Dutch without Authority from his Soveraign the King of England, Anno 1608. The Dutch in 1614 began to plant there, and call’d it New-Netherlands, but Sir Samuel Argal Governour of Virginia routed them, the Dutch after this got leave of King James to put in there for fresh water in their passage to Brasile, and did not offer to plant until a good while after the English were settled in the Countrey. In Anno 1664 his Majestie Charles the Second sent over four worthie Gentlemen Commissioners to reduce the Colonies into their bounds, who had before incroached upon one another, who marching with Three hundred red-Coats to Manadaes or Manhataes took from the Dutch their chief town then called New-Amsterdam, now New York; the[119] Twenty ninth of August turn’d out their Governour with a silver leg, and all but those that were willing to acknowledge subjection to the King of England, suffering them to enjoy their houses and estates as before. Thirteen days after Sir Robert Carr took the Fort and Town of Aurania now called Albany; and Twelve days after that, the Fort and Town [p. 154.] of Awsapha, then De-la-ware Castle, man’d with Dutch and Sweeds. So now the English are masters of three handsome Towns, three strong Forts and a Castle, not losing one man. The first Governour of these parts for the King of England was Colonel Nicols, a noble Gentleman, and one of his Majesties Commissioners, who coming for England in Anno Dom. 1668 as I take it, surrendered the Government to Colonel Lovelace.

The Countrey here is bless’d with the richest soil in all New-England, I have heard it reported from men of Judgement and Integrity, that one Bushel of European-Wheat hath yielded a hundred in one year. Their other Commodities are Furs, and the like.

New-York is situated at the mouth of the great River Mohegan, and is built with Dutch Brick alla-moderna, the meanest house therein being valued at One hundred pounds, to the Landward it is compassed with a Wall of good thickness; at the entrance of the River is an Island well fortified, and hath command of any Ship that shall attempt to pass without their leave.

Albany is situated upon the same River on the West-side, and is due North from New-York somewhat above Fifty miles.

[p. 155.] Along the Sea-side Eastward are many English-Towns,[120] as first Westchester, a Sea-Town about Twenty miles from New-York; to the Eastward of this is Greenwich, another Sea-Town much about the same distance; then Chichester, Fairfield, Stratford, Milford, all Sea-Towns twenty and thirty mile distant from one another, twenty miles Eastward of Milford is Newhaven the Metropolis of the Colony begun in 1637. One Mr. Eaton being there Governour: it is near to the shoals of Cape Cod, and is one of the four united Colonies.

The next Sea-Town Eastward of Newhaven is called Guilford about ten mile, and I think belonging to that Colony.

From Guilford to Connecticut-River, is near upon twenty miles, the fresh River Connecticut bears the name of another Colony begun in the year 1636 and is also one of the four united Colonies. Upon this River are situated 13 Towns, within two, three & four miles off one another. At the mouth of the River, on the West-side is the Lord-Say, and Brooks fort, called Saybrook-fort. Beyond this Northward is the Town of Windsor, then Northampton, then Pinsers-house. On the Eastside of the River, Hartford, about it low land well stored with meadow and very fertile. Wethersfield is [p. 156.] also situated upon Connecticut-River and Springfield; but this Town although here seated is in the jurisdiction of the Mattachusets, and hath been infamous by reason of Witches therein. Hadley lyes to the Northward of Springfield. New-London which I take to be in the jurisdiction of this Coloney is situated to the Eastward of Connecticut-River by a small River, and is not far from the Sea. From Connecticut-River long-Island stretcheth it self to Mohegan one hundred[121] and twenty miles, but it is but narrow and about sixteen miles from the main; the considerablest Town upon it is Southampton built on the Southside of the Island towards the Eastern end; opposite to this on the Northernside is Feversham, Westward is Ashford, Huntingdon, &c. The Island is well stored with Sheep and other Cattle, and Corn, and is reasonable populous. Between this Island and the mouth of Connecticut-River lyeth three small Islands, Shelter-Island, Fishers-Island, and the Isle of Wight. Over against New-London full South lyeth Block Island.

The next place of note on the Main is Narragansets-Bay, within which Bay is Rhode Island a Harbour for the Shunamitish Brethren, as the Saints Errant, the Quakers who are rather to be esteemed Vagabonds, than Religious persons, &c.

[p. 157.] At the further end of the Bay by the mouth of Narragansets-River, on the South-side thereof was old Plimouth plantation Anno 1602. Twenty mile out to Sea, South of Rhode-Island, lyeth Martins vineyard in the way to Virginia, this Island is governed by a discreet Gentleman Mr. Mayhew by name. To the Eastward of Martin’s vinyard lyeth Nantocket-Island, and further Eastward Elizabeths-Island, these Islands are twenty or thirty mile asunder, and now we are come to Cape-Cod.

Cape-Cod was so called at the first by Captain Gosnold and his Company Anno Dom. 1602, because they took much of that fish there; and afterward was called Cape-James by Captain Smith: the point of the Cape is called Point-Cave and Tuckers Terror, and by the French and Dutch Mallacar, by reason of the perillous shoals. The[122] first place to be taken notice of on the South-side of the Cape is Wests-Harbour, the first Sea-Town Sandwich formerly called Duxbury in the Jurisdiction of New-Plimouth. Doubling the Cape we come into the great Bay, on the West whereof is New-Plimouth-Bay, on the South-west-end of this Bay is situated New Plimouth, the first English-Colony that took firm possession in this Countrey, which was in 1620, and the first Town built [p. 158.] therein, whose longitude is 315 degrees, in latitude 41 degrees and 37 minutes, it was built nine years before any other Town, from the beginning of it to 1669 is just forty years, in which time there hath been an increasing of forty Churches in this Colony (but many more in the rest,) and Towns in all New-England one hundred and twenty, for the most part along the Sea-Coasts, (as being wholsomest) for somewhat more than two hundred miles: onely on Connecticut-River (as I have said) is thirteen Towns not far off one another.

The other Towns of note in this Colony are Green-Harbour to the Eastward of Plimouth towards the point of the Cape, & therefore somewhat unaccessible by land, here is excellent Timber for shipping; then Marshfield, Yarmouth, Rehoboth, Bridgwater, Warwick, Taunton, Eastham, by the Indians called Namset.

The first Town Northeast from Green-harbor is Sittuate in the jurisdiction of the Mattachusets-Colony, more Northward of Sittuate is Conchusset and Hull a little Burg lying open to the Sea, from thence we came to Merton-point over against which is Pullin-point. Upon Merton-point (which is on the Larboard-side) is a Town called Nantascot, which is two Leagues from Boston,[123] where [p. 159.] Ships commonly cast Anchor. Pullin-point is so called, because the Boats are by the seasing or Roads haled against the Tide which is very strong, it is the usual Channel for Boats to pass into Mattachusets-Bay.

There is an Island on the South-side of the passage containing eight Acres of ground. Upon a rising hill within this Island is mounted a Castle commanding the entrance, no stately Edifice, nor strong; built with Brick and Stone, kept by a Captain, under whom is a master-Gunner and others.

The Bay is large, made by many Islands, the chief Deere-Island, which is within a flight shot of Pullin-point, great store of Deere were wont to swim thither from the Main; then Bird-Island, Glass-island, Slate-Island, the Governours Garden, where the first Apple-Trees in the Countrey were planted, and a vinyard; then Round-Island, and Noddles-Island not far from Charles-Town: most of these Islands lye on the North-side of the Bay.

The next Town to Nantascot on the South-side of the Bay is Wissaguset a small Village, about three miles from Mount-wolleston, about this Town the soil is very fertile.

Within sight of this is Mount-wolleston or Merry-mount, called Massachusets-fields, [p. 160.] where Chicatabat the greatest Sagamore of the Countrey lived before the plague: here the Town of Braintree is seated, no Boat nor Ship can come near to it, here is an Iron mill: to the West of this Town is Naponset River.

Six miles beyond Braintree lyeth Dorchester, a frontire Town pleasantly seated, and of large extent into the main land, well watered with two small Rivers, her body and[124] wings filled somewhat thick with houses to the number of two hundred and more, beautified with fair Orchards and Gardens, having also plenty of Corn-land, and store of Cattle, counted the greatest Town heretofore in New-England, but now gives way to Boston, it hath a Harbour to the North for Ships.

A mile from Dorchester is the Town of Roxbury, a fair and handsome Countrey Town, the streets large, the Inhabitants rich, replenished with Orchards and Gardens, well watered with springs and small freshets, a brook runs through it called Smelt-River, a quarter of a mile to the North-side of the Town runs stony River: it is seated in the bottom of a shallow Bay, but hath no harbour for shipping. Boats come to it, it hath store of Land and Cattle.

Two miles Northeast from Roxbury, and [p. 161.] Forty miles from New-Plimouth, in the latitude of 42 or 43 degrees and 10 minutes, in the bottom of Massachusets-Bay is Boston (whose longitude is 315 degrees, or as others will 322 degrees and 30 seconds.) So called from a Town in Lincolnshire, which in the Saxons time bare the name of St. Botolph, and is the Metropolis of this Colony, or rather of the whole Countrey, situated upon a Peninsula, about four miles in compass, almost square, and invironed with the Sea, saving one small Isthmus which gives access to other Towns by land on the South-side. The Town hath two hills of equal height on the frontire part thereof next the Sea, the one well fortified on the superficies with some Artillery mounted, commanding any Ship as she sails into the Harbour within the still Bay; the other hill hath a very strong battery built of whole Timber and fill’d with[125] earth, at the descent of the hill in the extreamest part thereof, betwixt these two strong Arms, lyes a large Cove or Bay, on which the chiefest part of the Town is built to the Northwest is a high mountain that out-tops all, with its three little rising hills on the summit, called Tramount, this is furnished with a Beacon and great Guns, from hence you may [p. 162.] overlook all the Islands in the Bay, and descry such Ships as are upon the Coast: the houses are for the most part raised on the Sea-banks and wharfed out with great industry and cost, many of them standing upon piles, close together on each side the streets as in London, and furnished with many fair shops, their materials are Brick, Stone, Lime, handsomely contrived, with three meeting Houses or Churches, and a Town-house built upon pillars where the Merchants may confer, in the Chambers above they keep their monethly Courts. Their streets are many and large, paved with pebble stone, and the South-side adorned with Gardens and Orchards. The Town is rich and very populous, much frequented by strangers, here is the dwelling of their Governour. On the North-west and North-east two constant Fairs are kept for daily Traffick thereunto. On the South there is a small, but pleasant Common where the Gallants a little before Sun-set walk with their Marmalet-Madams, as we do in Morefields, &c. till the nine a clock Bell rings them home to their respective habitations, when presently the Constables walk their rounds to see good orders kept, and to take up loose people. Two miles from the town, [p. 163.] at a place called Muddy-River, the Inhabitants have Farms, to which belong rich arable grounds and meadows where they keep their Cattle[126] in the Summer, and bring them to Boston in the Winter; the Harbour before the Town is filled with Ships and other Vessels for most part of the year.

Hingham is a Town situated upon the Sea-coasts, South-east of Charles-River: here is great store of Timber, deal-boards, masts for Ships, white-Cedar, and fish is here to be had.

Dedham an inland town ten miles from Boston in the County of Suffolk well watered with many pleasant streams, and abounding with Garden fruit; the Inhabitants are Husband-men, somewhat more than one hundred Families, having store of Cattle and Corn.

The Town of Waymouth lyes open to the Sea, on the East Rocks and Swamps, to the South-ward good store of Deer, arable land and meadows.

On the North-side of Boston flows Charles-River, which is about six fathom deep, many small Islands lye to the Bayward, and hills on either side the River, a very good harbour, here may forty Ships ride, the passage from Boston to Charles-Town is by a Ferry worth forty or fifty pounds a [p. 164.] year, and is a quarter of a mile over. The River Mistick runs through the right side of the Town, and by its near approach to Charles-River in one place makes a very narrow neck, where stands most part of the Town, the market-place not far from the waterside is surrounded with houses, forth of which issue two streets orderly built and beautified with Orchards and Gardens, their meeting-house stands on the North-side of the market, having a little hill behind it; there belongs to this Town one thousand and two hundred Acres of arable, four hundred head of Cattle, and as many Sheep, these also provide themselves Farms in the Country.


Up higher in Charles-River west-ward is a broad Bay two miles over, into which runs Stony-River and Muddy-River.

Towards the South-west in the middle of the Bay is a great Oyster-bank, towards the North-west is a Creek; upon the shore is situated the village of Medford, it is a mile and half from Charles-town.

At the bottom of the Bay the River begins to be narrower, half a quarter of a mile broad; by the North-side of the River is New-town, three miles from Charles-town, a league and half by water, it was first [p. 165.] intended for a City, the neatest and best compacted Town, having many fair structures and handsom contrived streets; the Inhabitants rich, they have many hundred Acres of land paled with one common fence a mile and half long, and store of Cattle; it is now called Cambridge where is a Colledg for Students of late; it stretcheth from Charles-River to the Southern part of Merrimach-River.

Half a mile thence on the same side of the River is Water-town built upon one of the branches of Charles-River, very fruitful and of large extent, watered with many pleasant springs and small Rivulets, the Inhabitants live scatteringly. Within half a mile is a great pond divided between the two Towns, a mile and half from the Town is a fall of fresh waters which conveigh themselves into the Ocean through Charles-River, a little below the fall of waters they have a wair to catch fish, wherein they take store of Basse, Shades, Alwives, Frost-fish, and Smelts, in two tides they have gotten one hundred thousand of these fishes. They have store of Cattle and Sheep, and near upon two thousand Acres of arable land, Ships of small burden may come up to these Towns.


[p. 166.] We will now return to Charles-town again, where the River Mistick runs on the North-side of the Town (that is the right side as beforesaid) where on the Northwest-side of the River is the Town of Mistick, three miles from Charles-town, a league and half by water, a scattered village; at the head of this River are great and spacious ponds, full of Alewives in the spring-time, the notedst place for this sort of fish. On the West of this River is Merchant Craddock’s plantation, where he impaled a park.

Upon the same River and on the North-side is the Town of Malden.

The next Town is Winnisimet a mile from Charles-town, the River only parting them, this is the last Town in the still bay of Massachusets.

Without Pullin-point, six miles North-east from Winnisimet is Cawgust, or Sagust, or Sangut now called Linn, situated at the bottom of a Bay near a River, which upon the breaking up of winter with a furious Torrent vents it self into the Sea, the Town consists of more than one hundred dwelling-houses, their Church being built on a level undefended from the North-west wind is made with steps descending [p. 167] into the Earth, their streets are straight and but thin of houses, the people most husbandmen. At the end of the Sandy beach is a neck of land called Nahant, it is six miles in circumference. Black William an Indian Duke out of his generosity gave this to the English. At the mouth of the River runs a great Creek into a great marsh called Rumney-marsh, which is four miles long, and a mile broad, this Town hath the benefit of minerals of divers kinds, Iron, Lead, one Iron mill, store of Cattle, Arable land and meadow.


To the North-ward of Linn is Marvil or Marble-head, a small Harbour, the shore rockie, upon which the Town is built, consisting of a few scattered houses; here they have stages for fishermen, Orchards and Gardens, half a mile within land good pastures and Arable land.

Four miles North of Marble-head is situated New-Salem (whose longitude is 315 degrees, and latitude 42 degrees 35 minutes) upon a plain, having a River on the South, and another on the North, it hath two Harbours, Winter Harbour and Summer Harbour which lyeth within Darbie’s fort, they have store of Meadow and Arable, in this Town are some very rich Merchants.

[p. 168.] Upon the Northern Cape of the Massachusets, that is Cape-Ann, a place of fishing is situated, the Town of Glocester where the Massachusets Colony first set down, but Salem was the first Town built in that Colony, here is a Harbour for Ships.

To the North-ward of Cape-Ann is Wonasquam, a dangerous place to sail by in stormie weather, by reason of the many Rocks and foaming breakers.

The next Town that presents it self to view is Ipswich situated by a fair River, whose first rise is from a Lake or Pond twenty mile up, betaking its course through a hideous Swamp for many miles, a Harbour for Bears, it issueth forth into a large Bay, (where they fish for Whales) due East over against the Islands of Sholes a great place of fishing, the mouth of that River is barr’d; it is a good haven-town, their meeting-house or Church is beautifully built, store of Orchards and Gardens, land for husbandry and Cattle.

Wenham is an inland Town very well watered, lying[130] between Salem and Ipswich, consisteth most of men of judgment and experience in re rustica, well stored with Cattle. At the first rise of Ipswich-River in the highest part of the land near the head [p. 169.] springs of many considerable Rivers; Shashin one of the most considerable branches of Merrimach-River, and also at the rise of Mistick-River, and ponds full of pleasant springs, is situated Wooburn an inland-Town four miles square beginning at the end of Charles-town bounds.

Six miles from Ipswich North-east is Rowley, most of the Inhabitants have been Clothiers.

Nine miles from Salem to the North is Agowamine, the best and spaciousest place for a plantation, being twenty leagues to the Northward of New-Plimouth.

Beyond Agowamin is situated Hampton near the Sea-coasts not far from Merrimach-River, this Town is like a Flower-deluce, having two streets of houses wheeling off from the main body thereof, they have great store of salt Marshes and Cattle, the land is fertil, but full of Swamps and Rocks.

Eight miles beyond Agowamin runneth the delightful River Merrimach or Monumach, it is navigable for twenty miles, and well stored with fish, upon the banks grow stately Oaks, excellent Ship timber, not inferiour to our English.

On the South-side of Merrimach-River [p. 170.] twelve miles from Ipswich, and near upon the wide venting streams thereof is situated Newberrie, the houses are scattering, well stored with meadow, upland, and Arable, and about four hundred head of Cattle.

Over against Newberrie lyes the Town of Salisbury,[131] where a constant Ferry is kept, the River being here half a mile broad, the Town scatteringly built.

Hard upon the River of Shashin where Merrimach receives this and the other branch into its body, is seated Andover, stored with land and Cattle.

Beyond this Town by the branch of Merrimach-River called Shashin, lyeth Haverhill, a Town of large extent about ten miles in length, the inhabitants Husbandmen, this Town is not far from Salisbury.

Over against Haverhill lyeth the Town of Malden, which I have already mentioned.

In a low level upon a fresh River a branch of Merrimach is seated Concord, the first inland Town in Massachusets patent, well stored with fish, Salmon, Dace, Alewive, Shade, &c. abundance of fresh marsh and Cattle, this place is subject to bitter storms.

[p. 171.] The next town is Sudbury built upon the same River where Concord is, but further up; to this Town likewise belongs great store of fresh marshes, and Arable land, and they have many Cattle, it lyeth low, by reason whereof it is much indammaged with flouds.

In the Centre of the Countrey by a great pond side, and not far from Woeburn, is situated Reading, it hath two mills, a saw-mill and a Corn-mill, and is well stockt with Cattle.

The Colony is divided into four Counties, the first is Suffolk, to which belongs Dorchester, Roxbury, Waymouth, Hingham, Dedham, Braintre, Sittuate, Hull, Nantascot, Wisagusset. The second County is Middlesex, to this belongs Charles-town, Water-town, Cambridge, Concord, Sudbury, Woeburn, Reading, Malden, Mistick, Medford, Winnisimet[132] and Marble-head. To the third County which is Essex, belongs New-Salem, Linn, Ipswich, New-Berry, Rowley, Glocester, Wenham and Andover. The fourth County is Northfolk, to this belongs Salisbury, Hampton and Haverhill.

In the year of our Lord 1628, Mr. John Endicot with a number of English people set down by Cape-Ann at that place called [p. 172.] afterwards Gloster, but their abiding-place was at Salem, where they built a Town in 1639. and there they gathered their first Church, consisting but of Seventy persons; but afterwards increased to forty three Churches in joynt Communion with one another, and in those Churches were about Seven thousand, seven hundred and fifty Souls, Mr. Endicot was chosen their first Governour.

The Twelfth of July Anno Dom. 1630. John Wenthorp Esq; and the assistants, arrived with the Patent for the Massachusets, the passage of the people that came along with him in ten Vessels came to 95000 pound: the Swine, Goats, Sheep, Neat, Horses cost to transport 12000 pound, besides the price they cost them; getting food for the people till they could clear the ground of wood amounted to 45000 pound: Nails, Glass, and other Iron work for their meeting and dwelling houses 13000 pound; Arms, Powder, Bullet, and Match, together with their Artillery 22000 pound, the whole sum amounts unto One hundred ninety two thousand pounds. They set down first upon Noddles-Island, afterwards they began to build upon the main. In 1637. there were not many houses in the Town of [p. 173.] Boston, amongst which were two houses of entertainment called Ordinaries, into which if a stranger[133] went, he was presently followed by one appointed to that Office, who would thrust himself into his company uninvited, and if he called for more drink than the Officer thought in his judgment he could soberly bear away, he would presently countermand it, and appoint the proportion, beyond which he could not get one drop.

The Patent was granted to Sir Henry Rosewell, Sir John Young Knight, Thomas Southcoat, John Humphrey, John Endicot, and Simon Whitecomb, and to their Heirs, Assigns, and Associats for ever. These took to them other Associats, as Sir Richard Saltonstall, Isaac Johnson, Samuel Aldersey, Jo. Ven, Matth. Craddock, George Harwood, Increase Nowell, Rich. Perry, Rich. Bellingham, Nathaniel Wright, Samuel Vasell, Theophilus Eaton, Thomas Goffe, Thomas Adams, Jo. Brown, Samuel Brown, Thomas Hutchins, Will. Vasell, Will. Pinchon and George Foxcroft. Matth. Craddock was ordained and constituted Governour by Patent, and Thomas Goffe Deputy Governour of the said Company, the rest Assistants.

That part of New-England granted to [p. 174.] these fore-mentioned Gentlemen lyeth and extendeth between a great River called Monumach, alias Merrimach, and the often frequented Charles-River, being in the bottom of a Bay called Massachusets, alias Mattachusets, alias Massatusets-bay; and also those lands within the space of three English miles, on the South part of the said Charles-River, or any or every part, and all the lands within three miles to the South-ward part of the Massachusets-bay, and all those lands which lye within the space of three English miles to the North-ward of the River Merrimach, or to the North-ward of any and every part[134] thereof, and all lands whatsoever within the limits aforesaid, North and South, in latitude, and in breadth and length and longitude of and within all the main land there, from the Atlantick and Western-Sea and Ocean on the East-part, to the South-Sea on the West-part, and all lands and grounds, place and places, soils, woods and wood-groves, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Waters, fishings and Hereditaments whatsoever lying within the aforesaid lands and limits, and every part and parcel thereof, and also all Islands lying in America aforesaid in the said Seas, or either of them on the Western or Eastern [p. 175.] Coasts or parts of the said tracts of lands. Also all mines and minerals as well Royal of Gold, Silver, as others &c. With power to rule and govern both Sea and land, holden of the East manner of Greenwich in Com. Kent, in free and common soccage, yielding and paying to the King the fifth part of the Oar of Gold and Silver which shall be found at any time.

This Colony is a body Corporated and Politick in fact by the name of the Governour and Company of the Mattachusets-bay in New-England.

That there shall be one Governour, and Deputy-Governour, and Eighteen Assistants of the same Company from time to time.

That the Governour and Deputy-Governour, Assistants and all other Officers to be chosen from amongst the free-men, the last Wednesday in Easter-term yearly in the general Court.


The Governour to take his Corporal Oath to be true and faithful to the Government, and to give the same Oath to the other Officers.

[p. 176.] To hold a Court once a month, and any seven to be a sufficient Court.

And that there shall be four general Courts kept in Term time, and one great general and solemn Assembly to make Laws and Ordinances; So they be not contrary and repugnant to the Laws and Statutes of the Realm of England. Their form of Government and what their Laws concern, you may see in the ensuing Table.


click here for image of this Table.

[p. 177.]

{ { Governour
{ { {
{ { 1 Magistrates. { { 1 Counsellers.
{ { { {
{ { { Assistants. { { 1 of the whole
{ 1 their { { { Countrey.
{ person { { 2 Judges {
{ { { { 2 of each town.
{ {
{ {
{ { { 1 of the { 1 for their protection.
Their { { 2 People. { whole Countrey, { 2 for their provision.
Laws { { {
Con- { { 2 of each { 1 their lands.
cern { { Town, concerning. { 2 their Treasure.
{ { 1 The
{ { 1 Civil { publick { 1 in their personal
{ {& they { State, or { inheritances, and
{ { concern { 2 Particular { proprieties
{ { { persons. {
{ { { { 1 Of
{ { { 2 in { buying
{ { { Whether { 1 either { their { and
{ { { between { of Tres- { mutual { selling
{ { { the members { passes { com- {
{ 2 of { { of {   or { merce { 2 Lending
{ causes { { their own { 2 of { whether { and
{ { { Commonwealth { Capital { in { borrow-
{ { 2 Cri- { & they are. { Crimes. { way { ing
{ { minal.
{ 2 Between {
{ Burgesses {
{ and the { 1 That we do them wrong.
{ people, {
{ and forraign { 2 That they do us wrong.
{ Nations, {
{ whether {
{ in case {

[p. 178.] Anno Dom. 1646. they drew up a body of their Laws for the well ordering of their Commonwealth, as they not long since termed it.

The military part of their Commonwealth is governed[137] by one Major-General, and three Serjeant Majors; to the Major-General belongeth particularly the Town of Boston, to the three Serjeant Majors belong the four Counties, but with submission to the Major-General. The first Serjeant Major chosen for the County of Suffolk was Major Gibbons. For the County of Middlesex Major Sedgwick. For the County of Essex and Northfolk Major Denison.

Every Town sends two Burgesses to their great and solemn general Court.

For being drunk, they either whip or impose a fine of Five shillings; so for swearing and cursing, or boring through the tongue with a hot Iron.

For kissing a woman in the street, though in way of civil salute, whipping or a fine.

For Single fornication whipping or a fine.

For Adultery, put to death, and so for witchcraft.

An English woman suffering an Indian to have carnal knowledge of her, had an Indian cut out exactly in red cloth sewed [p. 179.] upon her right Arm, and injoyned to wear it twelve moneths.

Scolds they gag and set them at their doors for certain hours, for all comers and goers by to gaze at.

Stealing is punished with restoring four fould, if able; if not, they are sold for some years, and so are poor debtors.

If you desire a further inspection to their Laws, I must refer you to them being in print, too many for to be inserted into this Relation.

The Governments of their Churches are Independent and Presbyterial, every Church (for so they call their particular[138] Congregations) have one Pastor, one Teacher, Ruling Elders and Deacons.

They that are members of their Churches have the Sacraments administred to them, the rest that are out of the pale as they phrase it, are denyed it. Many hundred Souls there be amongst them grown up to men & womens estate that were never Christened.

They judge every man and woman to pay Five shillings per day, who comes not to their Assemblies, and impose fines of forty shillings and fifty shillings on such as meet together to worship God.

[p. 180.] Quakers they whip, banish, and hang if they return again.

Anabaptists they imprison, fine and weary out.

The Government both Civil and Ecclesiastical is in the hands of the thorow-pac’d Independents and rigid Presbyterians.

The grose Goddons, or great masters, as also some of their Merchants are damnable rich; generally all of their judgement, inexplicably covetous and proud, they receive your gifts but as an homage or tribute due to their transcendency, which is a fault their Clergie are also guilty of, whose living is upon the bounty of their hearers. On Sundays in the afternoon when Sermon is ended the people in the Galleries come down and march two a breast up one Ile and down the other, until they come before the desk, for Pulpit they have none: before the desk is a long pue where the Elders and Deacons sit, one of them with a mony box in his hand, into which the people as they pass put their offering, some a shilling, some two shillings, half a Crown, five shillings according to their ability[139] and good will, after this they conclude with a Psalm; but this by the way.

The chiefest objects of discipline, Religion, [p. 181.] and morality they want, some are of a Linsie-woolsie disposition, of several professions in Religion, all like Æthiopians white in the Teeth only, full of ludification and injurious dealing, and cruelty the extreamest of all vices. The chiefest cause of Noah’s floud, Prov. 27. 26. Agni erant ad vestitum tuum, is a frequent Text among them, no trading for a stranger with them, but with a Græcian faith, which is not to part with your ware without ready money, for they are generally in their payments recusant and slow, great Syndies, or censors, or controllers of other mens manners, and savagely factious amongst themselves.

There are many strange women too, (in Salomon’s sence) more the pitty, when a woman hath lost her Chastity, she hath no more to lose.

But mistake me not to general speeches, none but the guilty take exceptions, there are many sincere and religious people amongst them, descryed by their charity and humility (the true Characters of Christianity) by their Zenodochie or hospitality, by their hearty submission to their Soveraign the King of England, by their diligent and honest labour in their callings, amongst these we may account the Royalists, who are lookt upon with an evil eye, and [p. 182.] tongue, boulted or punished if they chance to lash out; the tame Indian (for so they call those that are born in the Countrey) are pretty honest too, and may in good time be known for honest Kings men.

They have store of Children, and are well accommodated[140] with Servants; many hands make light work, many hands make a full fraught, but many mouths eat up all, as some old planters have experimented; of these some are English, others Negroes: of the English there are can eat till they sweat, and work till they freeze; & and of the females that are like Mrs. Winters paddocks, very tender fingerd in cold weather.

There are none that beg in the Countrey, but there be Witches too many, bottle-bellied Witches amongst the Quakers, and others that produce many strange apparitions if you will believe report, of a Shallop at Sea man’d with women; of a Ship, and a great red Horse standing by the main-mast, the Ship being in a small Cove to the East-ward vanished of a suddain. Of a Witch that appeared aboard of a Ship twenty leagues to Sea to a Mariner who took up the Carpenters broad Axe and cleft her head with it, the Witch dying of the wound at home, with such like bugbears and Terriculamentaes.

[p. 183.] It is published in print, that there are not much less than Ten hundred thousand souls English, Scotch and Irish in New-England.

Most of their first Magistrates are dead, not above two left in the Massachusets, but one at Plimouth, one at Connecticut, and one at New-haven, they having done their generation work are laid asleep in their beds of rest till the day of doom, there and then to receive their reward according as they have done be it good or evil. Things of great indurance we see come to ruine, and alter, as great Flouds and Seas dryed up; mighty hills and mountains sunk into hollow bottoms: marvel not then that man is mortal, since his nature is unconstant and transitory.


The Diseases that the English are afflicted with, are the same that they have in England, with some proper to New-England, griping of the belly (accompanied with Feaver and Ague) which turns to the bloudy-flux, a common disease in the Countrey, which together with the small pox hath carried away abundance of their children, for this the common medicines amongst the poorer sort are Pills of Cotton swallowed, or Sugar and Sallet-oyl boiled thick and made into Pills, Alloes pulverized [p. 184.] and taken in the pap of an Apple. I helped many of them with a sweating medicine only.

Also they are troubled with a disease in the mouth or throat which hath proved mortal to some in a very short time, Quinsies, and Impostumations of the Almonds, with great distempers of cold. Some of our New-England writers affirm that the English are never or very rarely heard to sneeze or cough, as ordinarily they do in England, which is not true. For a cough or stitch upon cold, Wormwood, Sage, Marygolds, and Crabs-claws boiled in posset-drink and drunk off very warm, is a soveraign medicine.

Pleurisies and Empyemas are frequent there, both cured after one and the same way; but the last is a desperate disease and kills many. For the Pleurisie I have given Coriander-seed prepared, Carduus seed, and Harts-horn pulverized with good success, the dose one dram in a cup of Wine.

The Stone terribly afflicts many, and the Gout, and Sciatica, for which take Onions roasted, peeled and stampt, then boil them with neats-feet oyl and Rhum to a plaister, and apply it to the hip.


Head-aches are frequent, Palsies, Dropsies, Worms, Noli-me-tangeres, Cancers, [p. 185.] pestilent Feavers. Scurvies, the body corrupted with Sea-diet, Beef and Pork tainted, Butter and Cheese corrupted, fish rotten, a long voyage, coming into the searching sharpness of a purer climate, causeth death and sickness amongst them.

Men and Women keep their complexions, but lose their Teeth: the Women are pittifully Tooth-shaken; whether through the coldness of the climate, or by sweet-meats of which they have store, I am not able to affirm, for the Toothach I have found the following medicine very available, Brimstone and Gunpowder compounded with butter, rub the mandible with it, the outside being first warm’d.

For falling off of the hair occasioned by the coldness of the climate, and to make it curl, take of the strong water called Rhum and wash or bath your head therewith, it is an admirable remedie.

For kibed heels, to heal them take the yellowest part of Rozen, pulverize it and work it in the palm of your hand with the tallow of a Candle to a salve, and lay of it to the sore.

For frozen limbs, a plaister framed with Soap, Bay-salt, and Molosses is sure, or Cow-dung boiled in milk and applyed.

For Warts and Corns, bathe them with Sea-water.

[p. 186.] There was in the Countrey not long since living two men that voided worms seven times their length. Likewise a young maid that was troubled with a sore pricking at her heart, still as she lean’d her body, or stept down with her foot to the one side or the other; this maid[143] during her distemper voided worms of the length of a finger all hairy with black heads; it so fell out that the maid dyed; her friends desirous to discover the cause of the distemper of her heart, had her open’d, and found two crooked bones growing upon the top of the heart, which as she bowed her body to the right or left side would job their points into one and the same place, till they had worn a hole quite through. At Cape-Porpus lived an honest poor planter of middle-age, and strong of body, but so extreamly troubled with two lumps (or wens as I conjectured) within him, on each side one, that he could not rest for them day nor night, being of great weight, and swagging to the one side or the other, according to the motion or posture of his body; at last he dyed in Anno 1668 as I think, or thereabouts. Some Chirurgeons there were that proffered to open him, but his wife would not assent to it, and so his disease was hidden in the Grave.

[p. 187.] It is the opinion of many men, that the blackness of the Negroes proceeded from the curse upon Cham’s posterity, others again will have it to be the property of the climate where they live. I pass by other Philosophical reasons and skill, only render you my experimental knowledge: having a Barbarie-moor under cure, whose finger (prickt with the bone of a fish) was Impostumated, after I had lanc’d it and let out the Corruption the skin began to rise with proud flesh under it; this I wore away, and having made a sound bottom I incarnated it, and then laid on my skinning plaister, then I perceived that the Moor had one skin more than Englishmen; the skin that is basted to the flesh is bloudy and of the same Azure colour with the veins, but deeper than the colour of our Europeans[144] veins. Over this is an other skin of a tawny colour, and upon that Epidermis or Cuticula, the flower of the skin (which is that Snakes cast) and this is tawny also, the colour of the blew skin mingling with the tawny makes them appear black. I do not peremptorily affirm this to be the cause, but submit to better judgment. More rarities of this nature I could make known unto you, but I hasten to an end; only a word or two of our English Creatures and then to Sea again.

[p. 188.] I have given you an Account of such plants as prosper there, and of such as do not; but so briefly, that I conceive it necessary to afford you some what more of them. Plantain I told you sprang up in the Countrey after the English came, but it is but one sort, and that is broad-leaved plantain.

Gilliflowers thrive exceedingly there and are very large, the Collibuy or humming-Bird is much pleased with them. Our English dames make Syrup of them without fire, they steep them in Wine till it be of a deep colour, and then they put to it spirit of Vitriol, it will keep as long as the other.

Eglantine or sweet Bryer is best sowen with Juniper-berries, two or three to one Eglantine-berry put into a hole made with a stick, the next year separate and remove them to your banks, in three years time they will make a hedge as high as a man, which you may keep thick and handsome with cutting.

Our English Clover-grass sowen thrives very well.

Radishes I have seen there as big as a man’s Arm.

Flax and Hemp flourish gallantly.

Our Wheat i. e. summer Wheat many [p. 189.] times[145] changeth into Rye, and is subject to be blasted, some say with a vapour breaking out of the earth, others, with a wind North-east or North-west, at such time as it flowereth, others again say it is with lightning. I have observed, that when a land of Wheat hath been smitten with a blast at one Corner, it hath infected the rest in a weeks time, it begins at the stem (which will be spotted and goes upwards to the ear making it fruitless): in 1669 the pond that lyeth between Water-town and Cambridge, cast its fish dead upon the shore, forc’t by a mineral vapour as was conjectured.

Our fruit-Trees prosper abundantly, Apple-trees, Pear-trees, Quince-trees, Cherry-trees, Plum-trees, Barberry-trees. I have observed with admiration, that the Kernels sown or the Succors planted produce as fair & good fruit, without graffing, as the Tree from whence they were taken: the Countrey is replenished with fair and large Orchards. It was affirmed by one Mr. Woolcut (a magistrate in Connecticut Colony) at the Captains Messe (of which I was) aboard the Ship I came home in, that he made Five hundred Hogsheads of Syder out of his own Orchard in one year. Syder is very plentiful in the Countrey, ordinarily sold for Ten shillings a Hogshead. At the [p. 190.] Tap-houses in Boston I have had an Ale-quart spic’d and sweetned with Sugar for a groat, but I shall insert a more delicate mixture of it. Take of Maligo-Raisons, stamp them and put milk to them, and put them in an Hippocras bag and let it drain out of it self, put a quantity of this with a spoonful or two of Syrup of Clove-Gilliflowers into every bottle, when you bottle your Syder, and your Planter will have a liquor that exceeds passada, the Nectar of the Countrey.


The Quinces, Cherries, Damsons, set the Dames a work, Marmalad and preserved Damsons is to be met with in every house. It was not long before I left the Countrey that I made Cherry wine, and so may others, for there are good store of them both red and black.

Their fruit-trees are subject to two diseases, the Meazels, which is when they are burned and scorched with the Sun, and lowsiness, when the wood-peckers job holes in their bark: the way to cure them when they are lowsie is to bore a hole into the main root with an Augur, and pour in a quantity of Brandie or Rhum, and then stop it up with a pin made of the same Tree.

The first Neat carried thither was to [p. 191.] New-Plimouth Anno 1624 these thrive and increase exceedingly, but grow less in body than those they are bred of yearly.

Horses there are numerous, and here and there a good one, they let them run all the year abroad, and in the winter seldom provide any fother for them, (except it be Magistrates, great Masters and Troopers Horses) which brings them very low in flesh till the spring, and so crest fallen, that their crests never rise again. Here I first met with that excrescence called Hippomanes, which by some is said to grow on the forehead of a foal new cast, and that the Mare bites it off as soon as foaled; but this is but a fable. A neighbour at Black-point having a Mare with foal, tyed her up in his Barn, the next day she foaled, and the man standing by spied a thing like a foals tongue to drop out of the foals mouth, which he took up and presented me with it, telling me withall, that he had heard many wonderful things reported of it, and that it was[147] rank poyson. I accepted of it gladly and brought it home with me, when it was dry, it lookt like Glew, but of a dark brown colour; to omit all other uses for it, this I can assure you that a piece of it soakt in warm water or cold, will take spots out of wollen Clothes being rub’d thereon.

[p. 192.] Goats were the first small Cattle they had in the Countrey, he was counted no body that had not a Trip or Flock of Goats: a hee-Goat gelt at Michaelmas and turn’d out to feed will be fat in a moneths time, & is as good meat as a weather. I was taught by a Barbary Negro a medicine which before I proceed any further I will impart unto you, and that was for a swelling under the throat. Take Goats hair and clay and boil them in fair water to a poultis, and apply it very warm.

Sheep now they have good store, these and Goats bring forth two, sometimes three Lambs and Kids at a time.

Hoggs are here innumerable, every planter hath a Heard, when they feed upon shell-fish and the like, as they do that are kept near the Sea and by the fishers stages, they tast fishie and rank; but fed with white Oak-Acorns, or Indian-Corn and Pease there is not better Pork in the whole world: besides they sometimes have the Meazels, which is known when their hinder legs are shorter than ordinary.

Catts and Dogs are as common as in England, but our Dogs in time degenerate; yet they have gallant Dogs both for fowl & wild Beasts all over the Countrey: the Indians store themselves with them, being much [p. 193.] better for their turns, than their breed of wild dogs, which are (as I conceive) like to the Tasso-canes or mountain dogs in Italy.


Of English Poultry too there is good store, they have commonly three broods in a year; the hens by that time they are three years old have spurs like the Cock, but not altogether so big, but as long, they use to crow often, which is so rare a thing in other Countries, that they have a proverb Gallina recinit a Hen crowes. And in England it is accounted ominous; therefore our Farmers wives as soon as they hear a Hen crow wring off her neck, and so they serve their spur’d Hens, because they should not break their Eggs with their spurs when they sit. In the year 1637. which was when I went my first Voyage to New-England a good woman brought aboard with her a lusty Cock and Hen that had horns like spurs growing out on each side of their Combs, but she spoiled the breed, killing of them at Sea, to feed upon, for she loved a fresh bit.

In Anno 1647/8. Certain Indians coming to our house clad in Deere-skin coats, desired leave to lodge all night in our kitchin, it being a very rainie season, some of them lay down in the middle of the Room, and others under the Table, in the morning they [p. 194.] went away before any of the people were up; the poultry had their breakfast usually in cold weather in the kitchin, and because they should not hinder the passing of the people too and again, it was thrown under the Table; in the afternoon they began to hang the wing, in the night the sickest dropt dead from the perch, and the next day most of them dyed; we could not of a sudden ghess at the cause, but thought the Indians had either bewitched, or poysoned them: it came at last into my head, seeing their Crops very full, or rather much swell’d, to open them, where I found as much Deers hair as Corn, they that pickt up none of the hair lived and did well.


In the year 1667. October the 7th amongst our poultry we had one white game Cock of the French kind, a bird of high price, when he was three years old he drooped and his spirit was quite gone; one of our Negro maids finding him in the yard dead brought him into the house and acquainted me with it. I caused her to draw him, when his guts were all drawn out she put in her hand again and felt a lump in his body as big as a half-peny loaf, strongly fastned to his back, and much ado she had to pull it out; I found it to be a tuff bag, containing stuff like liver, and very heavie, at one end [p. 195.] of the bag, another little bag filled with a fatty matter, his gizard, liver, and heart wasted. The Pipe or Roupe is a common disease amongst their poultry infecting one another with it. I conceive it cometh of a cold moisture of the brain, they will be very sleepie with it, the best cure for it is Garlick, and smoaking of them with dryed Hysope.

In September following my Arrivage in the Massachusets about the twelfth hour of the eight day, I shipt my self and goods in a Bark bound to the East-ward, meeting as we sailed out the Dutch Governour of New-Netherlands, who was received and entertained at Boston by the Governour and Magistrates with great solemnity. About nine of the clock at night we came to Salem and lay aboard all night.

The Ninth day we went ashore to view the Town which is a mile long, and lay that night at a Merchants house.

The Tenth day we came from Salem about twelve of the clock back to Marble-head: here we went ashore and recreated our selves with Musick and a cup of Sack and saw the Town, about ten at night we returned to our Bark and lay aboard.


The Eleventh being Saturday, and the wind contrary, we came to Charles-town, [p. 196.] again about twelve of the clock we took store of Mackarel.

The Thirteenth being Monday, we went aboard again about nine of the clock in the morning and out to Sea, about Sun going down we took store of Mackarel. The

wind was scanty all along, and in the night time we durst not bear much sail, because of the Rocks and foaming breakers that lay in our way.

The Fourteenth day we came up with Pascataway, or Pascatique, where there is a large River and a fair harbour, within here is seated a Colony, properly belonging to the Heirs of Captain Mason sometime since of London; but taken into the Colony of Massachusets, by what right I will not here discuss.

The chiefest places of note are the Bay or Harbour North from Boston, on the West-side of the Harbour are built many fair houses, and so in another part called Strawberry-bank.

By the Harbour is an Island which of late days is filled with buildings, besides there are two Towns more seated up higher upon the River, the one called Dover; the River-banks are clothed with stately Timber, and here are two miles meadow land and arable enough; the other town is called Excester.

[p. 197.] At the River Pascataway begins the Province of Main: having pleased our selves with the sight of Pascataway at a distance we sailed on, and came to Black-point.

The Fifteenth day, about eight of the clock at night, where the next day I was shrewdly pinched with a great[151] frost, but having two or three bottles of excellent Passada, and good cheer bestowed upon me I made a shift to bear it out, and now we are in the Province of Main.

The Province of Main, (or the Countrey of the Traquoes) heretofore called Laconia or New-Summersetshire, is a Colony belonging to the Grandson of Sir Ferdinando Gorges of Ashton Phillips in the County of Sommerset, the said Sir Ferdinando Gorges did expend in planting several parts of New-England above Twenty thousand pounds sterling; and when he was between three and four score years of age did personally engage in our Royal Martyrs service; and particularly in the Seige of Bristow, and was plundered and imprisoned several times, by reason whereof he was discountenanced by the pretended Commissioners for forraign plantations, and his Province incroached upon by the Massachusets Colony, who assumed the Government thereof. His Majestie that now Reigneth sent over his [p. 198.] Commissioners to reduce them within their bounds, and to put Mr. Gorges again into possession. But there falling out a contest about it, the Commissioners settled it in the Kings name (until the business should be determined before his Majestie) and gave Commissions to the Judge of their Courts, and the Justices to Govern and Act according to the Laws of England, & by such Laws of their own as were not repugnant to them: But as soon as the Commissioners were returned for England, the Massachusets enter the province in a hostile manner with a Troop of Horse and Foot and turn’d the Judge and his Assistants off the Bench, Imprisoned the Major or Commander of the Militia, threatned the Judge, and some others that were faithful to Mr. Gorges[152] interests. I could discover many other foul proceedings, but for some reasons which might be given, I conceive it not convenient to make report thereof to vulgar ears; & quæ supra nos nihil ad nos. Onely this I could wish, that there might be some consideration of the great losses, charge and labour which hath been sustained by the Judge, and some others for above thirty years in upholding the rights of Mr. Gorge and his Sacred Majesties Dominion against a many stubborn and elusive people.

[p. 199.] Anno Dom. 1623. Mr. Robert Gorge, Sir Ferdinando Gorges brother had for his good service granted him by Patent from the Council of Plimouth all that part of the Land commonly called Massachusiack, situated on the North-side of the Bay of Massachusets.

Not long after this Sir Ferdinando Gorges had granted to him by Patent from the middest of Merrimack-River to the great River Sagadehock, then called Laconia.

In 1635. Capt. William Gorge, Sir Ferdinando’s Nephew, was sent over Governour of the Province of Main, then called New-Summersetshire.

Sir Ferdinando Gorge received a Charter-Royal from King Charles the first the third of April in the Fifteenth of his Raign, granting to him all that part and portion of New-England, lying and being between the River of Pascataway, that is, beginning at the entrance of Pascataway-harbour, and so to pass up the same into the River of Newichawanoe or Neqhechewanck, and through the same unto the farthest head thereof aforesaid, North-eastward along the Sea-coasts, for Sixty miles to Sagadehoc-River to Kenebeck, even as far as the head thereof, and up into the main land North-westward for the space of one hundred[153] and twenty [p. 200.] miles. To these Territories are adjoyned the North half-Isle of Sholes, with several other Islands, it lyeth between 44 degrees and 45 of Northerly latitude. The River Canada on the North-east the Sea coast South, amongst many large Royalties, Jurisdictions and Immunities was also granted to the said Sir Ferdinando Gorge, the same Royalties, priviledges and franchises as are, or of right ought to be enjoyed by the Bishop of Durham in the County Palatine of Durham; the planters to pay for every hundred Acres of land yearly, two shillings six pence, that is such land as is given to them and their Heirs for ever.

The Officers by Patent are a Deputy Governour, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, a Marshal for Souldiers, an Admiraltie for Sea affairs, and a Judge of the Admiraltie, a Master of Ordinance, a Secretary, &c.

Towns there are not many in this province. Kittery situated not far from Pascataway is the most populous.

Next to that Eastward is seated by a River near the Sea Gorgiana, a Majoraltie, and the Metropolitan of the province.

Further to the Eastward is the Town of Wells.

Cape-Porpus Eastward of that, where there is a Town by the Sea side of the same name, [p. 201.] the houses scatteringly built, all these Towns have store of salt and fresh marsh with arable land, and are well stockt with Cattle.

About eight or nine mile to the East-ward of Cape-Porpus, is Winter harbour, a noted place for Fishers, here they have many stages.

Saco adjoyns to this, and both make one scattering[154] Town of large extent, well stored with Cattle, arable land and marshes, and a Saw-mill.

Six mile to the Eastward of Saco & forty mile from Gorgiana is seated the Town of Black point, consisting of about fifty dwelling houses, and a Magazine or Doganne, scatteringly built, they have store of neat and horses, of sheep near upon Seven or Eight hundred, much arable and marsh salt and fresh, and a Corn-mill.

To the Southward of the point (upon which are stages for fishermen) lye two small Islands beyond the point, North-eastward runs the River Spurwinch.

Four miles from Black-point, one mile from Spurwinch-River Eastward lyeth Richmans-Island, whose longitude is 317 degrees 30 seconds, and latitude 43 degrees and 34 minutes, it is three mile in circumference, and hath a passable and gravelly ford on the [p. 202.] North-side, between the main and the Sea at low-water: here are found excellent Whetstones, and here likewise are stages for fishermen.

Nine mile Eastward of Black-point lyeth scatteringly the Town of Casco upon a large Bay, stored with Cattle, Sheep, Swine, abundance of marsh and Arable land, a Corn-mill or two, with stages for fishermen.

Further East-ward is the Town of Kenebeck seated upon the River.

Further yet East-ward is Sagadehock, where there are many houses scattering, and all along stages for fishermen, these too are stored with Cattle and Corn lands.

The mountains and hills that are to be taken notice of, are first Acomenticus hills, between Kettery and Gorgiana, the high hills of Ossapey to the West-ward of Saco River,[155] where the princely Pilhanaw Ayries, the white mountains, to the North-ward of Black-point, the highest Terrasse in New-England, you have the description of it in my Treatise of the rarities of New-England.

A Neighbour of mine rashly wandering out after some stray’d Cattle, lost his way, and coming as we conceived by his Relation near to the head spring of some of the branches of Black-point River or Saco-River, [p. 203.] light into a Tract of land for God knowes how many miles full of delfes and dingles, and dangerous precipices, Rocks and inextricable difficulties which did justly daunt, yea quite deter him from endeavouring to pass any further: many such like places are to be met with in New-England.

The ponds or lakes in this province are very large and many, out of which the great Rivers have their original; we read of the lake Balsena that is thirty miles about, here are that come very near to it, stored with all sorts of fresh water fish; and if you will believe report, in one of them huge fishes like Whales are to be seen, and some of them have fair Islands in them. Twelve mile from Casco-bay, and passable for men and horses, is a lake called by the Indians Sebug, on the brink thereof at one end is the famous Rock shap’d like a Moose-Deere or Helk, Diaphanous, and called the Moose-Rock. Here are found stones like Crystal, and Lapis Specularis or Muscovia glass both white and purple.

On the East-side of Black-point River, upon a plain, close to the Sea-bank is a pond two mile in compass, fish it produceth, but those very small and black, and a number of Frogs and Snakes, and much [p. 204.] frequented[156] by wild-fowl, Ducks, Teal, and wild-Swins, and Geese, especially spring and fall when they pass along to the South-ward, and return again to the North-ward where they breed.

The principal Rivers in the province of Main, are Pascataway-River, York-River, Kenibunck-River, near to this River clay bullets were cast up by a mineral vapour, this River is by the Town of Wells. Then Saco-River on the East-side of the Town, the shore Rockie all along on both sides, where musick echoes from several places: seven miles up the River is a great fall where abundance of Salmon and Lamprons are taken at the fall; a great way up, the River runs upon the Rock, in rupibus defendendo efficit rivos, he cutteth out Rivers among the Rocks, saith Job, of the Almighty, Job 28. 10. A little above the fall is a saw-mill. Then Black-point-River divided into many branches; this as most of the Rivers in New-England, is bar’d with a bank of Sand, where the Indians take Sturgeon and Basse. Spur-winck-River is next, which by his near approach to Black-point-River maketh that neck of land almost an Island. Further East-ward is Kenebeck-river fifty leagues off of New-Plimouth East-ward, and Pechipscut famous [p. 205.] for multitudes of mighty large Sturgeon. The last river of the province East-ward is the great river Sagadehock where Sir John Pophams Colony seated themselves.

The chief harbours are Cape-porpus, Winter harbour, in which are some small Islands, Black-point, Richmans-Island, Casco-bay the largest in the province full of Islands.

From Sagadehock to Nova-Scotia is called the Duke of Yorkes province, here Pemmaquid, Montinicus, Mohegan,[157] apeanawhagen, where Capt. Smith fisht for Whales; Muscataquid, all fill’d with dwelling houses and stages for fishermen, and have plenty of Cattle, arable land and marshes.

Nova Scotia was sold by the Lord Starling to the French, and is now wholly in their possession.

Now we are come to New-found-land, which is over against the gulf of St. Lawrence, an Island near as spacious as Ireland, and lyeth distant from the Continent as far as England is from the nearest part of France, and near half the way between Ireland and Virginia, its longitude is 334 degrees 20 seconds, and North latitude 46 degrees 30 minutes, or as others will 53 minutes. The longitude of places are uncertainly reported, but in latitudes most agree. [p. 206.] Longitude is the distance of the meridian of any place from the meridian which passeth over the Isles of Azores, where the beginning of longitude is said to be. The meridian is a great circle dividing the Equinoctial at right Angles into two equal parts, passing also through both the Poles, and the Zenith, to which circle the Sun coming twice every 24 hours, maketh the middle of the day, and the middle of the night. Every place hath a several meridian, but they all meet in the poles of the world. Latitude is counted from the Equinoctial to the end of 30 degrees on each side thereof. The Equinoctial is a great circle imagined in the Heavens, also dividing the heavens into two equal parts, and lying just in the middle betwixt the two poles, being in compass from West to East, 360 degrees, every degree thereof on the terrestrial Globe valuing 20 English miles, [leagues?] or 60 miles.

Into the Bay of St. Lawrence the River of St. Lawrence[158] or Canada disimbogues it self, a River far exceeding any River in the elder world, thirty or forty mile over at the mouth, and in the Channel one hundred fathom deep; it runs on the back-side of New-England and Virginia: the French (it is said) have gone up six weeks voyage in it, and have not yet discovered the spring-head: the longitude is 334 degrees [p. 207.] 11 seconds, in 50 degrees 21 minutes of North latitude. This may satisfie a modest Reader, and I hope yield no offence to any. I shall onely speak a word or two of the people in the province of Main and the Dukes province, and so conclude.

The people in the province of Main may be divided into Magistrates, Husbandmen, or Planters, and fishermen; of the Magistrates some be Royalists, the rest perverse Spirits, the like are the planters and fishers, of which some be planters and fishers both, others meer fishers.

Handicrafts-men there are but few, the Tumelor or Cooper, Smiths and Carpenters are best welcome amongst them, shop-keepers there are none, being supplied by the Massachusets Merchants with all things they stand in need of, keeping here and there fair Magazines stored with English goods, but they set excessive prices on them, if they do not gain Cent per Cent, they cry out that they are losers, hence English shooes are sold for Eight and Nine shillings a pair, worsted stockins of Three shillings six pence a pair, for Seven and Eight shillings a pair, Douglass that is sold in England for one or two and twenty pence an ell, for four shillings a yard, Serges of two shillings or three shillings a yard, for Six and Seven [p. 208.] shillings a yard, and so all sorts of Commodities both for planters and fishermen, as Cables, Cordage,[159] Anchors, Lines, Hooks, Nets, Canvas for sails, &c. Bisket twenty five shillings a hundred, Salt at an excessive rate, pickled-herrin for winter bait Four and five pound a barrel (with which they speed not so well as the waggish lad at Cape-porpus, who baited his hooks with the drown’d Negro’s buttocks) so for Pork and Beef.

The planters are or should be restless pains takers, providing for their Cattle, planting and sowing of Corn, fencing their grounds, cutting and bringing home fuel, cleaving of claw-board and pipe-staves, fishing for fresh water fish and fowling takes up most of their time, if not all; the diligent hand maketh rich, but if they be of a droanish disposition as some are, they become wretchedly poor and miserable, scarce able to free themselves and family from importunate famine, especially in the winter for want of bread.

They have a custom of taking Tobacco, sleeping at noon, sitting long at meals some-times four times in a day, and now and then drinking a dram of the bottle extraordinarily: the smoaking of Tobacco, if moderately used refresheth the weary much, and so doth sleep.

[p. 209.]   A Traveller five hours doth crave
To sleep, a Student seven will have,
And nine sleeps every Idle knave.

The Physitian allowes but three draughts at a meal, the first for need, the second for pleasure, and the third for sleep; but little observed by them, unless they have no other liquor to drink but water. In some places where the springs are frozen up, or at least the way to their springs made unpassable by reason of the snow and the[160] like, they dress their meat in Aqua Cælestis, i. e. melted snow, at other times it is very well cook’t, and they feed upon (generally) as good flesh, Beef, Pork, Mutton, Fowl and fish as any is in the whole world besides.

Their Servants which are for the most part English, when they are out of their time, will not work under half a Crown a day, although it be for to make hay, and for less I do not see how they can, by reason of the dearness of clothing. If they hire them by the year, they pay them Fourteen or Fifteen pound, yea Twenty pound at the years end in Corn, Cattle and fish: some of these prove excellent fowlers, bringing in as many as will maintain their masters house; besides the profit that accrews by their feathers, [p. 210.] They use (when it is to be had) a great round shot, called Barstable shot, (which is best for fowl) made of a lead blacker than our common lead, to six pound of shot they allow one pound of powder, Cannon powder is esteemed best.

The fishermen take yearly upon the coasts many hundred kentals of Cod, hake, haddock, polluck &c. which they split, salt and dry at their stages, making three voyages in a year. When they share their fish (which is at the end of every voyage) they separate the best from the worst, the first they call Merchantable fish, being sound, full grown fish and well made up, which is known when it is clear like a Lanthorn horn and without spots; the second sort they call refuse fish, that is such as is salt burnt, spotted, rotten, and carelesly ordered: these they put off to the Massachusets Merchants; the merchantable for thirty and two and thirty ryals a kental, (a kental is an hundred and twelve pound weight) the refuse for Nine shillings and[161] Ten shillings a kental, the Merchant sends the merchantable fish to Lisbonne, Bilbo, Burdeaux, Marsiles, Talloon, Rochel, Roan, and other Cities of France, to the Canaries with claw-board and pipe-staves which is there and at the Charibs a prime Commodity: the refuse fish they put [p. 211.] off at the Charib-Islands, Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c. who feed their Negroes with it.

To every Shallop belong four fishermen, a Master or Steersman, a Midship-man, and a Foremast-man, and a shore man who washes it out of the salt, and dries it upon hurdles pitcht upon stakes breast high and tends their Cookery; these often get in one voyage Eight or Nine pound a man for their shares, but it doth some of them little good, for the Merchant to increase his gains by putting off his Commodity in the midst of their voyages, and at the end thereof comes in with a walking Tavern, a Bark laden with the Legitimate bloud of the rich grape, which they bring from Phial, Madera, Canaries, with Brandy, Rhum, the Barbadoes strong-water, and Tobacco, coming ashore he gives them a taster or two, which so charms them, that for no perswasions that their imployers can use will they go out to Sea, although fair and seasonable weather, for two or three days, nay sometimes a whole week till they are wearied with drinking, taking ashore two or three Hogsheads of Wine and Rhum to drink off when the Merchant is gone. If a man of quality chance to come where they are roystering and gulling in Wine with a dear felicity, he must be sociable and Roly-poly with them, taking off [p. 212] their liberal cups as freely, or else be gone, which is best for him, for when Wine in their guts is at full Tide, they quarrel, fight and[162] do one another mischief, which is the conclusion of their drunken compotations. When the day of payment comes, they may justly complain of their costly sin of drunkenness, for their shares will do no more than pay the reckoning; if they save a Kental or two to buy shooes and stockins, shirts and wastcoats with, ’tis well, other-wayes they must enter into the Merchants books for such things as they stand in need off, becoming thereby the Merchants slaves, & when it riseth to a big sum are constrained to mortgage their plantation if they have any, the Merchant when the time is expired is sure to seize upon their plantation and stock of Cattle, turning them out of house and home, poor Creatures, to look out for a new habitation in some remote place where they begin the world again. The lavish planters have the same fate, partaking with them in the like bad husbandry, of these the Merchant buys Beef, Pork, Pease, Wheat and Indian Corn, and sells it again many times to the fishermen. Of the same nature are the people in the Dukes province, who not long before I left the Countrey petitioned the Governour and Magistrates in [p. 213.] the Massachusets to take them into their Government, Birds of a feather will ralley together.

Anno Dom. 1671. The year being now well spent, and the Government of the province turned topsiturvy, being heartily weary and expecting the approach of winter, I took my leave of my friends at Black-point. And on the 28 of August being Monday I shipt my self and my goods aboard of a shallop bound for Boston: towards Sun-set, the wind being contrary, we put into Gibbons his Island, a small Island in Winter-harbour about two leagues from[163] Black-point West-ward, here we stayed till the 30. day being Wednesday, about nine of the clock we set sail, and towards Sun-set came up with Gorgiana, the 31 day being Thursday we put into Cape-Ann-harbour about Sun-set. September the 1 being Saturday in the morning before day we set sail and came to Boston about three of the clock in the afternoon, where I found the Inhabitants exceedingly afflicted with griping of the guts, and Feaver, and Ague, and bloudy Flux.

The Eight day of October being Wednesday, I boarded the new-Supply of Boston 120 Tun, a ship of better sail than defence, her Guns being small, and for salutation only, the Master Capt. Fairweather, her [p. 214.] sailers 16. and as many passengers. Towards night I returned to Boston again, the next day being Thanksgiving day, on Fryday the Tenth day we weighed Anchor and fell down to Hull.

The 12 and 13 day about 20 leagues from Cape-Sable a bitter storm took us, beginning at seven of the clock at night, which put us in terrible fear of being driven upon the Cape, or the Island of Sables where many a tall ship hath been wrackt.

November the One and twenty about two of the clock afternoon we saw within kenning before us thick clouds, which put us in hope of land, the Boson brings out his purse, into which the passengers put their good will, then presently he nails it to the main-mast, up go the boyes to the main-mast-top sitting there like so many Crowes, when after a while one of them cryes out land, which was glad tidings to the wearied passengers, the boyes descend, and the purse being taken from the mast was distributed[164] amongst them, the lad that first descryed land having a double share: about three of the clock Scilly was three leagues off.

The four and twentieth day we came to Deal, from thence the 25. to Lee, the 26. being Sunday we steemed the Tide to Gravesend, about two of the clock [p. 215.] afternoon. The 27 we came up with Wollich where I landed and refresht my self for that night, next day I footed it four or five miles to Bexley in Kent to visit a near kinsman, the next day proved rainie, the 30 day being Fryday my kinsman accommodated me with a Horse and his man to Greenwich, where I took a pair of Oars and went aboard our Ship then lying before Radcliff, here I lay that night. Next day being Saturday, and the first of December I cleared my goods, shot the bridge and landed at the Temple about seven of the clock at night, which makes my voyage homeward 7 weeks and four days, and from my first setting out from London to my returning to London again Eight years Six moneths and odd days.

Now by the merciful providence of the Almighty, having perform’d Two voyages to the North-east parts of the Western-world, I am safely arrived in my Native Countrey; having in part made good the French proverb, Travail where thou canst, but dye where thou oughtest, that is, in thine own Countrey.




From the year of the World
to the year of Christ,


Printed for Giles Widdowes, at the Green-Dragon
in St. Paul’s-Church-yard, 1674.


The Preface.

The Terrestrial World is by our learned Geographers divided into four parts, Europe, Asia, Africa and America so named from Americus Vespucius the Florentine, Seven years after Columbus; although Columbus and Cabota deserved rather the honour of being Godfathers to it: notwithstanding by this name it is now known to us, but was utterly unknown to the Ancient Europeans before their times, I will not say to the Africans and Asians, for Plato in his Timeus relateth of a great Island called Atlantis, and Philo the Jew in his book De mundo, that it was over-flowen with water, by reason of a mighty Earthquake; The like happened to it 600 years before Plato: thus was the Atlantick Ocean, caused to be a Sea, if you will believe the same Philosopher, who flourished 366 years before the Birth of our Saviour.

America is bounded on the South with the streight of Magellan, where there are many Islands distinguished by an interflowing Bay; the West with the pacifique Sea, or mare-del-zur, which Sea runs towards the North, separateing it from the East parts of Asia; on the East with the Atlantick, or our Western Ocean called mare-del-Nort; and on the North with the Sea that separateth it from Groveland, thorow which Seas the supposed passage to China lyeth; these North parts, as yet are but barely discovered by our voyagers.


The length of this new World between the streights of Anian and Magellan is 2400 German miles, in breadth between Cabo de fortuna near the Anian streights is 1300 German miles. About 18 leagues from Nombre de dios, on the South-Sea lyeth Panama (a City having three fair Monasteries in it) where the narrowest part of the Countrey is, it is much less than Asia, and far bigger than Europe, and as the rest of the world divided into Islands and Continent, the Continent supposed to contain about 1152400000 Acres.

The Native people I have spoken of already: The discoverers and Planters of Colonies, especially in the North-east parts; together with a continuation of the proceedings of the English in New-England, from the first year of their settling there to purpose, to this present year of our Lord 1673. with many other things by the way inserted and worth the observing I present unto your view in this ensuing Table.


Anno Mundi, 3720.

BRitain known to the Græcians as appeared by Polybius the Greek Historian 265 years before the Birth of our Saviour, & after him Athenæus a Greek Author of good account 170 before Christ, relateth that Hiero sent for a mast for a great Ship that he had built to Britain.


Hanno the Carthaginian flourished, who sent to discover the great Island Atlantis, i. e. America.


Britain unknown to the Romans was first discovered to them by Julius Cæsar, 54 years before the Birth of Christ, who took it to be part of the Continent of France, and got nothing but the sight of that part called afterwards England, which is the South of Britain.

Anno Domini, 86.

Britain discovered to be an Island, and conquered by Julius Agricola 136. years after Julius Cæsars entrance into it.


[p. 224.] The Emperour Trajan flourished and stretched the Confines of the Roman Empire, unto the remotest Dominions of the East-Indies, who never before that time had heard of a Roman.


Boniface Bishop of Mens a City in Germany, was accused before Pope Zachary in the time of Ethelred King[170] of the East-Angles for Heresie, &c. in that he averred there were Antipodes. St. Augustine and Lactantius opinion was that there were none.


Egbert the Saxon Monarch changed the name of the people in England, and called them English-men.


The Turks or Scythians came from thence in the time of Ethelwolf King of the West-Saxons. If the Ottoman-line should fail, the Chrim Tartar is to succeed, being both of one Family.


Edgar Sirnamed the Peaceable, the 30 Monarch of the English, caused the Wolves to be destroyed by imposing a Tribute upon the Princes of Wales; and Fage Prince of North-Wales paid him yearly 300 Wolves, [p. 227.] which continued three years space, in the fourth year there was not a Wolf to be found, and so the Tribute ceased.


In the Emperours Frederick Barbarossa’s time, certain West-Indians came into Germany.


Madoc the Son of Owen Gwineth Prince of North-Wales his voyage to the West-Indies, he planted a Colony in the Western part of the Countrey, in our Henry the Seconds Raign.


Flavio of Malphi in Naples invented the Compass in our Edward the firsts time.


The Canaries discovered by an English Ship.



In Edward the third’s time a Comet appeared, continuing 30 days.


Machan an English-man accidentally discovered Madera-Island.


Estotiland discovered by fishermen of Freez-land, in Edward the third’s Raign.


The Franciscan-Fryer Nicholas de Linno, [p. 228.] who is said to discover the Pole by his black Art, went thither in the Raign of Edward the Third.


Sir John Mandivel, the Great Traveller dyed at Leige a City in the Netherland Provinces in Edward the Third’s Raign.


Nicholas and Antonio Zeni, two Noble Gentlemen of Venice were driven by Tempest upon the Island of Estotiland or Gronland, in our Edward the Third’s Raign.


The Canaries conquered by Betan-Court a Frenchman.


The Island of Madera discovered in our Henry the Fifth’s time.


The Island Puerto Santo, or Holy-port distant from Madera 40 miles, discovered by Portingal Mariners on All-hallowes-day, and therefore called Holy-port, it is in compass 150 miles, in Henry the Sixth’s Raign.



The Island of Cape de verd discovered.


The Marine parts of Guinea discovered by the Portingals in Henry the Sixth’s Raign.


[p. 229.] Ferdinando first Monarch of all Spain.


Henry the Seventh began to Raign.


The Kingdom of Angola and Congo, with the Islands of St. George, St. James and St. Helens discovered.


Christopher Columbus a Genouese offered the discovery of the West-Indies to Henry the Seventh.


Christopher Columbus sent to discover the West-Indies by Ferdinando King of Arragon, and Isabella Queen of Castile, who descended from Edward the Third King of England.

The Caribby-Islands the Antilles or Canibal, or Camerean-Islands now discovered by Christopher Columbus, who took possession of Florida and Hispaniola for the King of Spain.


Alexander the Sixth Pope of Rome a Spaniard, took upon him to divide the world by his Bull, betwixt the Portingal and the Spaniard, bearing date the fourth of May, giving to the one the East, and to the other the West-Indies.

[p. 230.] St. Jean Porto Rico discovered by Christopher[173] Columbus, Cuba and Jamaica discovered by him, this was his second voyage.


Sebastian Cabota the first that attempted to discover the North-west passage at the charge of Henry the Seventh.


Christopher Columbus his third voyage to the West-Indies, and now he discovered the Countreys of Paria and Cumana, with the Islands of Cubagua and Margarita.

John Cabota and his Son Sebastian Cabota sent by Henry the Seventh, to discover the West-Indies, which they performed from the Cape of Florida to the 67 degree and a half of Northerly latitude, being said by some to be the first that discovered Florida, Virginia, and New-found-land.

Vasques de Gama his voyage to Africa.


Christopher Columbus his fourth and last voyage to the West-Indies.

Jasper Corteriaglis a Portugal, his voyage to discover the North-West passage, he discovered Greenland, or Terra Corteriaglis, or Terra di Laborodoro.


Americus Vesputius a Florentine imployed by the King of Castile and Portingal, to discover [p. 231.] the West-Indies, named from him Seven year after Columbus, America.


Christopher Columbus dyed.


Henry the Seventh dyed August the Two and twentieth.


Henry the Eighth King of England.


Sebastian Cabota, the Son of John made further discovery of all the North-east coasts from Cape Florida to New-found-land, and Terra Laborador.


The voyage of Sir Thomas Pert Vice-Admiral of England, and Sebastian Cabota, the Eighth of Henry the Eighth to Brasil, St. Domingo, and St. Juan de puerto rico.


Ferdinando Magellano a noble Portingal set forth to sail about the world, but was 1521 unfortunately slain.


The Bermuduz-Isle 400 in number, being 500 miles distant from Virginia, and 3300 miles from the City of London in the latitude 32 degrees and 30 minutes, discovered now accidentally by John Bermuduz a Spaniard.


[p. 232.] Stephen Gomez his voyage to discover the North-west passage, some will have it in Twenty five.


New-found-land discovered by one Andrew Thorn, the Southern part but 600 leagues from England.

John de Ponce for the Spaniard took possession of Florida.


Nevis or Mevis planted now according to some writers.


Califormia questioned, whether Island or Continent, first discovered by the Spaniard.


Nova Francia lying between the 40 and 50 degree of the Artic-poles Altitude discovered by Jaques Carthier in his first voyage, the first Colony planted in Canada.


The Puritan-Church policy began now in Geneva.


Monsieur du Barvals voyage to Nova Francia, sent to inhabite those parts.


Henry the Eighth dyed.

Edward the Sixth King of England began to Raign.

[p. 233.] Sebastian Cabota made grand Pilot of England by Edward the Sixth.


The sweating sickness in England.


Edward the Sixth dyed.

Mary Queen of England began to Raign.

Sir Hugh Willoughby, and all his men in two Ships in his first attempt to discover the North-east passage, were in October frozen to death in the Haven called Arzima in Lapland.


Queen Mary dyed.

Elizabeth Queen of England began to Raign November the Seventeenth.


Salvaterra a Spaniard his voyage to the North-west passage.


Sir John Hawkin’s first voyage to the West-Indies.


The first expedition of the French into Florida, undertaken by John Ribald.


Tobacco first brought into England by Sir John Hawkins, but it was first brought into use by Sir Walter Rawleigh many years after.


The Puritans began to appear in England.


[p. 234.] Anthony Jenkinson the first of the English that sailed through the Caspian-Sea.


Private Presbyteries now first erected in England.

Sir Francis Drake’s first voyage to the West-Indies.


The Hollanders seek for aid from Queen Elizabeth.


Sir Martin Frobisher the first in Queen Elizabeths days that sought for the North-west passage, or the streight, or passage to China, and meta incognita, in three several voyages, others will have it in 1577.


November the 17 Sir Francis Drake began his voyage about the world with five Ships, and 164 men setting sail from Plimouth, putting off Cape de verde. The beginning of February, he saw no Land till the fifth of April, being past the line 30 degrees of latitude, and in the 36 degree entered the River Plates, whence he fell with the streight of Magellan the 21 of August, which with three of his Ships he passed, having cast off the other two as impediments to him, and the Marigold tossed from her[177] General after [p. 235.] passage was no more seen. The other commanded by Capt. Winter shaken off also by Tempest, returned thorow the Streights and recovered England, only the Pellican, whereof himself was Admiral, held on her course to Chile, Coquimbo, Cinnama, Palma, Lima, upon the west of America, where he passed the line 1579 the first day of March, and so forth until he came to the latitude 47. Thinking by those North Seas to have found passage to England, but fogs, frosts and cold winds forced him to turn his course South-west from thence, and came to Anchor 38 degrees from the line, where the King of that Countrey presented him his Net-work Crown of many coloured feathers, and therewith resigned his Scepter of Government unto his Dominion, which Countrey Sir Francis Drake took possession of in the Queens name, and named it Nova Albion, which is thought to be part of the Island of Califormia.

Sir Martin Frobisher’s second voyage.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert a Devonshire Knight attempted to discover Virginia, but without success.

Sir Martin Frobisher’s third voyage to Meta incognita. Freezeland now called West-England, 25 leagues in length, in the latitude of 57.

[p. 236.] Sir Francis Drake now passed the Streights of Magellan in the Ship called the Pellican.


Sir Francis Drake discovered Nova Albion in the South-Sea.

Others will have Sir Martin Frobisher’s first voyage to discover the North-west passage to be this year.



From Nova Albion he fell with Ternate, one of the Isles of Molucco, being courteously entertained of the King, and from thence he came unto the Isles of Calebes, to Java Major, to Cape buona speranza, and fell with the coasts of Guinea, where crossing again the line, he came to the height of the Azores, and thence to England upon the third of November 1580. after three years lacking twelve days, and was Knighted, and his Ship laid up at Deptford as a monument of his fame.


The Provinces of Holland again seek for aid to the Queen of England.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of New-found-land or Terra Nova, in the harbour of St. John, for and in the name of [p. 237.] Queen Elizabeth, it lyeth over against the gulf of St. Lawrence, and is between 46 and 53 degrees of the North-poles Altitude.


Sir Walter Rawleigh in Ireland.

Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempted a plantation in some remote parts in New-England.

He perished in his return from New-found-land.


The woful year of subscription so called by the Brethren, or Disciplinarians.

Sir Walter Rawleigh obtained of Queen Elizabeth a Patent for the discovery and peopling of unknown Countries, not actually possessed by any Christian Prince. Dated March 25. in the six and twentieth of her Raign.


April the 27 following, he set forth two Barkes under the Command of Mr. Philip Amedas and Mr. Arthur Barlow, who arrived on that part of America, which that Virgin Queen named Virginia, and thereof in her Majesties name took possession July the Thirteenth.


Cautionary Towns and Forts in the low-Countreys delivered unto Queen Elizabeths hands.

Sir Richard Greenvile was sent by Sir [p. 238.] Walter Rawleigh April the Ninth, with a Fleet of 7 sail to Virginia, and was stiled the General of Virginia. He landed in the Island of St. John de porto Rico May the Twelfth, and there fortified themselves and built a Pinnasse, &c. In Virginia they left 100 men under the Government of Mr. Ralph Lane, and others.

Sir Francis Drake’s voyage to the West-Indies, wherein were taken the Cities of St. Jago, St. Domingo Cartagena, and the Town of St. Augustine in Florida.

Now (say some) Tobacco was first brought into England by Mr. Ralph Lane out of Virginia.

Others will have Tobacco to be first brought into England from Peru, by Sir Francis Drake’s Mariners.

Capt. John Davies first voyage to discover the North-west passage, encouraged by Sir Francis Walsingham, principal Secretary.


Mr. Thomas Candish of Trimely, in the County of Suffolk Esq, began his voyage in the ship called the Desire, and two ships more to the South-Sea through the Streights of Magellan (and from thence round about the circumference of the whole earth) burnt and ransack’d in[180] the entrance of Chile, [p. 239.] Peru and New-Spain, near the great Island of Calformia in the South-Sea; and returned to Plimouth with a pretious booty 1588. September the Eighth, being the Third since Magellan, that circuited the earth, our English voyagers were never out-stript by any.

The Natives in Virginia conspired against the English.

The same year Sir Richard Greenvile General of Virginia arrived there with three ships, bringing relief from Sir Walter Rawleigh to the Colony.

Mr. John Davies second voyage to discover the North-west passage.


Sir Walter Rawleigh sent another Colony of 150 persons under the Government of Mr. John White.

Mr. John Davies third voyage to discover the North-west passage.

Sir Francis Drake, with four ships took from the Spaniards one million, 189200 Ducats in one voyage.


Queen Elizabeth opposed her Authority against the Brethrens books and writings.

Sir Francis Drake Vice-Admiral of the English Fleet, the Lord-Admiral bestowed the order of Knight-hood upon Mr. John [p. 240.] Hawkins, Martin Forbisher and others, July the Five and twentieth.

The Spanish Armado defeated, consisting of 130 ships, wherein were 19290 Souldiers, 2080 chained Rowers, 2630 great Ordnance, Commanded by Perezius Guzman Duke of Medina Sedonia, and under him Johannes Martinus Recaldus a great Seaman; The Fleet coming on[181] like a half-moon, the horns of the front extending one from the other about 7 miles asunder, it was preparing 15 years, and was blackt to make it seem more terrible.


The Portingal voyage under the conduct of Sir Francis Drake.

Mr. Thomas Candish now finished his voyage about the world, as some will have it.


Now Tobacco first used in England, as some will have it.


The first Englishman that ever was in the Bermuduze or Summer-Islands, was one Henry May.

The voyage of Capt. Newport to the West-Indies, where upon the coast of Hispaniola, he took and burnt three Towns, and Nineteen sail of ships and Frigats.

Mr. Thomas Candish last voyage, in which he dyed.


[p. 241.] Sir Martin Frobisher Commander of the English Fleet slain in the quarrel of H. King of Navarr.

The last voyage of Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Hawkins to the West-Indies with six ships of the Queens, and twelve other ships and Barks containing 2400 men and boyes, in which voyage they both dyed, and Sir Francis Drake’s Coffen was thrown over board near Porto bello.


Sir Robert Duddeley’s voyage to Trinadad, and the coast of Paria.

Mr. James Lancasters voyage to Fernambuck the port[182] Town of Olinda in Brazil, in which voyage he took 29 ships and Frigats, surprized the said port Town, and there found the Cargazon or fraught of a rich Indian Carack, which together with great abundance of Sugars and Cottons he brought from thence; lading therewith fifteen sail of tall ships and barks.


The voyage of Sir Amias Preston, & Capt. George Sommers to the West-Indies, where they took, sackt, spoiled and abandoned the Island of Puerto Santo, the Island of Cock near [p. 242.] Margarita, the Fort and Town of Coro, the stately City of St. Jago de leon, and the Town of Cumana ransomed, and Jamaica entered.

Sir Walter Rawleigh’s voyage now to Guiana, discovered by him. In which voyage he took St. Joseph a Town upon Trinidado.

The Sabbatarian doctrine published by the Brethren.


The voyage to Cadez, Sir Walter Rawleigh Rere-Admiral.

The voyage of Sir Anthony Sherley intended for the Island of St. Tome, but performed to St. Jago, Dominga, Margarita, along the coast of Terra Firma to the Island of Jamaica, situated between 17 and 18 degrees of the North-poles elevation (which he conquered, but held it not long) from thence to the bay of Hondurus, 30 leagues up Rio dolce, and homeward by New-found-land.


The voyage to the Azores, Sir Walter Rawleigh Capt. of the Queens Guard Rere-Admiral.

Porto Rico, taken by the Earl of Cumberland.



The Grand Canary taken by the Dutch Commander Vanderdoes.


[p. 243.] The Colonies in Virginia supplyed by publick purse.


Queen Elizabeth dyed March the Four and twentieth.

King James began to Raign.

The North parts of Virginia, i. e. New-England further discovered by Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, some will have him to be the first discoverer.

Capt. George Weymouth’s voyage to discover the North-west passage.

Divers of our English in the North of England entered into a Covenant of worshipping of God.


King James came into England, the fifth of April.

Monsieur Champlains voyage to Canada.

November the seventeenth Sir Walter Rawleigh Arraigned and Condemned.


Monsieur du Point and du Monts voyage to Canada.


Monsieur du Point and du Monts remove the French habitation to Port-Royal.

James Halle’s voyage to Groenland, and to find out the North-west passage.


[p. 244.] The province of Main possessed by the English by publick Authority King James, Sir John Popham, &c.


A Colony first sent to New-England by Sir John Popham chief Justice of the Common pleas.

James-town founded in Virginia.

James Halls second voyage, to find out the North-west passage.

Mr. John Knight his North-west voyage, lost his ship sunk by the Ice.

A Colony sent to Virginia, called by the Indians Wingandacoa, the first that took firm possession there.


Plimouth Plantation in New-England attempted.

St. Georges Fort built at the mouth of the River Sagadahoc, under the Presidency of Capt. George Popham and Capt. Ralph Gilbert, who built the Fort.

James Halls third voyage to find out the North-west passage.

Hudsons first voyage to find out the North-west passage.


Virginia planted.

A Colony sent to New-found-land.

[p. 245.] Capt. John Smith fished now for Whales at Monhiggen.

Hudsons second voyage to the North-west met a Mermaid in the Sea. That there be such Creatures see Plinie, Albertus Magnus, Aristotle, Elian, Theodorus Gaza, Alexander of Alexandria, Gorgius Trapozensus, Jul. Scaliger, Stows Annals in Anno Dom. 1204. at Oreford in Suffolk a Mareman taken.


Sir Thomas Gales and Sir George Summers going to Virginia, suffered shipwrack upon the Bermudos-Islands where they continued till 1610.


Hudsons third voyage to New-found-land discovered Mohegan-River in New-England.

The Dutch set down by Mohegan-River.


Capt Whitburns voyage to discover the North-west passage, saw a Mermaid in the harbour of St. Johns at New-found-land by the River side.

Hudsons last and fatal voyage to discover the North-west passage, where he was frozen to death.

Dales-gift founded in Virginia.

Sundry of the English nation removed out of the North of England into the Netherlands, and gathered a Church at Leyden, where they continued until the year 1620.


[p. 246.] Sir Thomas Dale Governour of Virginia.

The famous Arch-Pirate Peter Easton.


Bermudus first planted, and Mr. R. Moore sent over Governour, the first that planted a Colony in the Bermudus.

James Halls fourth voyage to discover the North-west passage, was slain by the Savages.

Capt. Buttons voyage to discover the North-west passage.


Port-Royal destroyed by Sir Samuel Argol Governour of Virginia.

Mr. John Rolf a Gentleman of good behaviour fell in love with Pocahontas, the only Daughter of Powhaton a King in Virginia and married her, she was Christened and called the Lady Rebecca, and dyed at Gravesend Anno Dom. 1617. Sir Lewis Stukely brought up her Son Thomas Rolf.



Bermudus planted further.

Powhatons Daughter in Virginia Christened Rebecca.

Capt. Gibbins voyage to find out the North-west passage.

New-Netherlands began to be planted [p. 247.] upon Mohegan-River, Sir Samuel Argol routed them.


Sir Richard Hawkins voyage into those parts of New-England.


Capt. Gibbins second voyage to find out the North-west passage.

A new supply sent by Capt. Daniel Tucker to the Bermudus.

Pocahontas and Mr. Rolf her Husband went for England with Sir Thomas Dale, and arrived at Plimouth the 12 of June.


Sir Walter Rawleighs last and unfortunate voyage to Guiana, where he took St. Thome the only Town of Guiana possessed by the Spaniards.


The Comet or blazing-star whose motion was by some observed to be from East to West.


Sir Walter Rawleigh beheaded in the Parliament yard.

Bermudus-Islands divided into Tribes and Cantreds, to each tribe a Burrough.


The English in Virginia divided into several Burroughs.



[p. 248.] Letters Patents obtained from King James for the Northern part of Virginia i. e. New-England.

In July sundry of the English set sail from Holland for Southampton.

August the fift, they set sail from Southampton for America, and arrived the Eleventh of November at Cape-Cod, where they entered into a body politick, and chose one Mr. John Carver their Governour, calling the place where they settled New-Plimouth: in January and February following was a mortality among the English, which swept away half the Company.

Mrs. Susanna White delivered of a Son at new-Plimouth, Christened Peregrine; he was the first of the English that was born in new-England, and was afterwards the Lieutenant of the Military Company of Marshfield in Plimouth Colony.

New-Plimouth built, the first Town in new-England.

Squanto an Indian in new-England, carried into England by Mr. Hunt a Master of a Ship, but brought home again by Mr. Dormer a Gentleman imployed by Sir Ferdinando Gorges for discovery.


[p. 249.] April, Mr. John Carver Governour of new-Plimouth dyed, and Mr. William Brandford was chosen Governour.

The Natives in Virginia murdered about 340 English.


The Fort at new-Plimouth built: a great drought this Summer, from May the Third, till the middle of July there was no Rain.


Mr. Thomas Weston Merchant sent over 67 lusty men who settled themselves in a part of the Massachusets-bay, now called Weymouth.

The order of the Knights of Novascotia ordained by King James Hereditarie, they wear an Orange tawny Ribbin.

Sir Ferdinando Gorges Patent for the province of Main in New-England.

The Dutch tortured the English at Amboina, 1623.

Westons plantation wholly ruined by their disorders.

Mr. Robert Gorge, Sir Ferdinando Gorges Brother arrived in Plimouth, and began a Plantation of the Massachusets-bay, having Commission from the Council of New-England to be general Governour of the Countrey, carrying over one Mr. Morrel a Minister, [p. 250.] but being discouraged, he returned for England.

A fire at Plimouth, which did considerable dammage, several of the Inhabitants through discontent and casualties removed into Virginia.

Three thousand English now upon the Bermudus ten Forts, and in those ten Forts 50 pieces of Ordnance.


The number of Magistrates increased to five now at New-Plimouth.

The first neat Cattle carried over into New-England to New-Plimouth was three Heifers and a Bull.


St. Christophers-Island planted now by the English 25 leagues in compass, a great many little Rivers, in 17 degrees and 25 minutes.

King James dyed in 1625, and King Charles the first began his Raign March the seven and twentieth.



The first distribution of Lands amongst the Inhabitants of New-Plimouth.

A Colony of English planted upon the Island of Barbados, which in a short time increased to 20000, besides Negroes.


Mr. John Endicot arrived in New-England [p. 251.] with some number of people, and set down first by Cape-Ann, at a place called afterwards Gloster, but their abiding place was at Salem, where they built the first Town in the Massachusets Patent.

The Indians at the Massachusets, were at that time by sickness decreased from 30000 to 300.

Nevis or Mevis planted now by the English 3 or 4000 upon it.

Mr. Morton of Merrimount taken prisoner by the Massachusets, and sent into England.


Three ships arrived at Salem bringing a great number of passengers from England; infectious diseases amongst them.

Mr. Endicot chosen Governour.

Mr. Higginson, Mr. Skelton and Mr. Bright Ministers arrived, upon the fift of August was the first Church in the Massachusets Colony gathered at Salem, from which year to this present year is 45 years, in the compass of these years in this Colony, there hath been gathered forty Churches, and 120 Towns built in all the Colonies of New-England.

The Church of new-Plimouth, was planted in New-England eight years before others.


The book of Common-prayer pleaded [p. 252.] for, and practised in Massachusets Colony by two of the Patentees, but was at last prohibited by the Authority there.


The Tenth of July, John Winthorp Esq; and the Assistants arrived in New-England, with the Patent for the Massachusets, they landed on the North-side of Charles River, with him went over Mr. Thomas Dudley, Mr. Isaac Johnson, Esquires; Mr. John Wilson, Mr. George Philips, Mr. Maverich (the Father of Mr. Samuel Maverich, one of his Majesties Commissioners) Mr. Wareham Ministers.

The passage of the people in the Eagle, and nine other Vessels to New-England came to 9500 pounds. The Swine, Goats, Sheep, Neat and Horses cost to transport 12000 pounds, besides the price they cost. The Eagle was called the Arabella in honour of the Lady Arabella, wife to Isaac Johnson Esq; they set down first upon Noddles-Island, the Lady Arabella abode at Salem.

Mr. Isaac Johnson a Magistrate of the Massachusets, and his Lady dyed soon after their arrival.

John Winthorp Esq; chosen Governour, for the remainder of the year, Mr. Thomas Dudley deputy Governour, Mr. Simon Broadstreet Secretary.

[p. 253.] Charles-town, the first town built.

Mr. Higginson Teacher of Salem Church dyed.


A very sharp winter in New-England.


Capt. John Smith Governour of Virginia, and Admiral of New-England now dyed in London.

John Winthorp Esq; chosen Governour of the Massachusets. Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour.


Sir Richard Saltingstall went for New-England, set down at Water-town.

Five Churches gathered this year, the first at Boston Mr. John Wilson Pastor, the second at Water-town, by Mr. Philips, the third at Dorchester by Mr. Maverick and Mr. Wareham, the fourth at Roxbury by Mr. Eliot, the fifth at Linn by Mr. Stephen Batcheler their first Teacher.

Dr. Wilson gave 1000 pound to New-England, with which they stored themselves with great Guns.


John Winthorp chosen Governour, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour.

Sir Christopher Gardiner descended of the house of Gardiner Bishop of Winchester, Knighted at Jerusalem of the Sepulcher, [p. 254.] arrived in New-England with a comely young woman his Concubine, settled himself in the Bay of Massachusets, was rigidly used by the Magistrates, and by the Magistrates of New-Plimouth to which place he retired.

A terrible cold winter in New-England.


Mr. Edward Winslow chosen Governour of New-Plimouth.

The number of Magistrates at New-Plimouth increase to seven.

An infectious feaver amongst the Inhabitants of New-Plimouth, whereof many dyed.

Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour.

Mr. Thomas Hooker, Mr. Hains and Mr. Cotton Ministers arrived in New-England all in one ship, and Mr.[192] Stone and Mr. William Collier a liberal Benefactor to the Colony of New-Plimouth.

Mr. John Cotton chosen Teacher of the first Church at Boston.

A Church at Cambridge gathered by Mr. Thomas Hooker their first Pastor.

Great swarms of strange flyes up and down the Countrey, which was a presage of the following mortality.


[p. 255.] Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of New-Plimouth.

Mr. Thomas Dudley chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, and Mr. Roger Ludlow Deputy-Governour.

The Countrey now was really placed in a posture of War, to be in readiness at all times.

In the Spring a great sickness among the Indians, by the small pox.

The Pequets War with the Narragansets.

Mr. Skelton Pastor to the Church at Salem dyed.

Mr. John Norton, and Mr. Thomas Shepherd arrive in New-England.

A Church gathered at Ipswich, the first Pastor Mr. Nathaniel Ward.

A Church gathered at Newberry.

Capt. Stone turn’d Pirate, at the Dutch plantation.

The cruel Massacre of Capt. Stone and Capt. Norton at Connecticut-River, by the Pequet Indians.


Mr. John Haines chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. Richard Bellingham Deputy Governour.


Mr. Zachary Sims arrived in New-England, and Mr. Richard Bellingham.

[p. 256.] This year Eleven Ministers arrived in New-England.

Mr. Norton Teacher at Ipswich, Mr. Richard Mather Teacher at Dorchester.

Sir Henry Vain Junior, arrived in New-England, Mr. Richard Saltingstal, Sir Richard Saltingstal’s Son, Mr. Roger Harlackenden, and Hugh Peters.

Hugh Peters chosen Pastor of Salem.

A Church at Hartford in the Colony of Connecticut now gathered.

Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of New-Plimouth.

Capt. William Gorges, Sir Ferdinando Gorges Nephew sent over Governour of the province of Main, then called new Sommersetshire.

Saturday the 15 of August, an Hurrican or mighty storm of wind and rain, which did much hurt in New-England.


Sir Henry Vane Junior, Governour of the Massachusets Colony, John Winthorp Esq; Deputy Governour, Mr. Roger Harlackenden leader of their military Forces.

Mr. Edward Winslow a Worcestershire man born, chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Connecticut Colony planted.

Mr. John Oldham murthered in his Barque by the Indians of Block-Island.

[p. 257.] A Church gathered at Hingham, Mr. Peter Hubbord arrived now in New-England Teacher at Hingham.


Mr. Flint, Mr. Carter, Mr. Walton, Ministers arrived now in New-England.

Mr. Fenwich, Mr. Partrick, Mr. Nathaniel Rogers, and Mr. Samuel White, arrived now in New-England.

A General Court held at Boston against Mrs. Hutchinson the American Jezabel, August the 30. where the opinions and errors of Mrs. Hutchinson and her Associats 80 errors were condemned.

A Counsel at New-town about the same business October the second, and at Boston again.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of New-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. John Wenthorp chosen Governour of Massachusets Colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley chosen Deputy Governour.

New-haven Colony began now, Mr. Eaton chosen Governour, John Davenport Pastor.

Mr. Hopkins arrived now in New-England.

A second Church gathered at Dedham, Mr. John Allen Pastor.

The Pequets wars, in which war the English slew and took prisoners about 700 Indians, [p. 258.] amongst which 13 of their Sachems to the great terror of the Natives, they sent the male children of the Pequets to the Bermudus.

This year the Antinomian and Familistical errors were broached in the Countrey, especially at Boston.

A Synod called, which condemned these errors.

A General Court held at New-town against Mrs. Hutchinson and the rest.

Mrs. Hutchinson and others banished by the Magistrates of the Massachusets Colony.


A hideous monster born at Boston of one Mrs. Mary Dyer.

Sir Henry Vane and the Lord Lee returned for England.

The Ministers that went for New-England chiefly in the ten first years, ninety four, of which returned for England twenty seven, dyed in the Countrey thirty six, yet alive in the Countrey thirty one.

The number of ships that transported passengers to New-England, in these times was 298 supposed: men, women and children as near as can be ghessed 21200.

The Spaniards took the Island of Providence, one of the Summer-Islands from the English.


[p. 259.] Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new Plimouth Colony.

Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour.

A Church now gathered at Waymouth, Mr. Gennor Pastor, Mr. Newman succeeded Mr. Thomas Thatcher.

Three English men put to death at Plimouth for robbing and murthering an Indian near Providence.

June the second a great and terrible earthquake throughout the Countrey.

Samuel Gorton of Warwick-shire, a pestilent seducer, and blasphemous Atheist, the Author of the Sects of Gortinians, banish’d Plimouth plantation, whipt and banished from Road-Island, banisht the Massachusets Colony.

Now they set up a Printing-press at Boston in the Massachusets.

This year came over Mr. William Thompson, Mr. Edmund Brown, Mr. David Frisk.


Mr. John Harvard the founder of Harvard Colledge at Cambridge in the Massachusets Colony, deceased, gave 700 pound to the erecting of it.


[p. 260.] Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour.

Mr. Higginson Teacher at Salem Church, Skelton pastor, and an exhorting Elder. This was the first Church gathered in the Massachusets Colony, and it increased to 43 Churches in joynt Communion with one another, and in these Churches were about 7750 souls.

Mr. Herbert Pelham now arrived in New-England.

A Church gathered at Hampton, Mr. Daulton pastor, and Mr. Batcheler Teacher.

Another Church gathered at Salisbury.

October the Eleventh and Twelfth, the Spanish Navy was set upon by the Hollander in the Downs, they were in all 60 sail, the Spaniards were beaten.

A very sharp winter in New-England.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. Thomas Dudley chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, and Mr. Richard Bellingham Deputy Governour.

[p. 261.] Civil Wars began in England.

Mr. Huet Minister arrived in New-England, Mr. Peck and Mr. Saxton.

A Church gathered at Braintree, Mr. Wheelright pastor.


Mr. Henry Dunster arrived in New-England.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. John Endicot Deputy.

A Church gathered at Glocester in the Massachusets Colony.

A sharp winter in New-England, the harbours and salt bayes frozen over so as passable for Men, Horses, Oxen and Carts five weeks.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, John Endicot Esq; Deputy Governour.

This Spring Cowes and Cattle fell from 22 pound a Cow, to six, seven and eight pound a Cow of a sudden.

A Church now gathered at Woeburn in the Massachusets Colony.

[p. 262.] Thirteen able Ministers now at this time in new-Plimouth Jurisdiction.

Harvard-Colledge founded with a publick Library.

Ministers bred in New-England, and (excepting about 10) in Harvard-Colledge, one hundred thirty two; of which dyed in the Countrey Ten, now living eighty one, removed to England forty one. June Warwick Parliament Admiral.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of the new-Plimouth Colony.


Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. John Endicot Deputy Governour.

May 19. the first Combination of the four united Colonies, viz. Plimouth, Massachusets, Connecticut, and new-haven.


Mr. Edward Winslow chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

John Endicot Esq; chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, John Winthorp Esq; Deputy Governour.

A Church gathered at Haveril. Mr. Roger Harlackendin dyed about this time.

A Church gathered at Reading in New-England.

A Church gathered at Wenham, both in the Massachusets Colony.

[p. 263.] The Town of Eastham erected now by some in Plimouth.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. Thomas Dudley chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, and Mr. John Winthorp Deputy Governour, Mr. John Endicot major General.

A Church gathered at Springfield.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy and Mr. John Endicot major General.

Two Suns appeared towards the latter end of the year.


This year they drew up a body of Laws for the well ordering of their Commonwealth (as they termed it) printed in 1648.

Three men of War arrived in new-Plimouth harbour under the Command of Capt. Thomas Cromwell, richly laden, a mutiny amongst the Sea-men, whereby one man was killed.

The second Synod at Cambridge touching the duty and power of magistrates in matters of Religion.

[p. 264.] Secondly, the nature and power of Synods.

Mr. John Eliot first preached to the Indians in their Native language, the principal Instruments of converting the Indians, Mr. John Eliot Senior, Mr. John Eliot Junior, Mr. Thomas Mayhew, Mr. Pierson, Mr. Brown, Mr. James, and Mr. Cotton.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

Mr. John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets Colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour, and Mr. John Endicot Major General.

Now Mr. Thomas Hooker pastor of the Church at Hertford dyed.

The Tartars over-run China.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth Colony.

John Winthorp chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour, Mr. John Endicot major General.

A Church gathered at Andover.


A Church gathered at Malden Mr. Sarjant pastor.

A second Church gathered at Boston.

A third Synod at Cambridge publishing the platform of Discipline.

[p. 265.] Jan. 30. King Charles the first murdered.

Charles the Second began his Raign.

Their Laws in the Massachusets colony printed.


John Winthorp Esq; Governour of the Massachusets colony March the 26 deceased.

Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony.

Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour, Mr. Gibbons major General.

An innumerable Company of Caterpillars in some parts of New-England destroyed the fruits of the Earth.

August the 25 Mr. Thomas Shepherd Pastor of Cambridge Church dyed.

Mr. Phillips also dyed this year.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. Thomas Dudley chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. John Endicot Deputy Governour, Mr. Gibbons major General.

A great mortality amongst children this year in New-England.


[p. 266.] Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.


Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour, Mr. Gibbons major General.

The City Bilbo totally cover’d with waters for 15 days, 16 foot above the tops of the highest houses, the loss was very much to the whole Kingdom, there being their stock of dryed fish and dryed Goat the general dyet of Spain.

Barbados surrendred to the Parliament, its longitude 322, latitude 13 degrees, 17 or 18 miles in compass.

Hugh Peters and Mr. Wells, and John Baker returned into England.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Thomas Dudley Deputy Governour, Mr. Gibbons major General.

John Cotton Teacher of Boston Church dyed, a Comet was seen at the time of his sickness hanging over New England, which went out soon after his death.

[p. 267.] The Spirits that took Children in England, said to be set awork first by the Parliament, and Hugh Peters as chief Agent, Actor or Procurer.


Oliver Cromwell Usurped the Title of Protector December the Sixteenth.

Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. Thomas Dudley chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. John Endicot Deputy Governour, Mr. Gibbons major General.


Mr. Thomas Dudley Governour of the Massachusets colony dyed, aged about 77 years at his house at Roxebury, July 31.

A great fire at Boston in New-England.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. Bellingham Governour, Endicot Deputy.

Major General Gibbons dyed this year.


Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony. Mr. John Endicot Governour of the Massachusets, Bellingham Deputy.

Jamaica taken by the English.


[p. 268.] General Mountague taketh Spanish prizes.

Mr. William Bradford chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony, Mr. John Endicot Governour of the Massachusets, Mr. Francis Willowby Deputy.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. William Bradford now dyed. Mr. John Endicot Governour, Bellingham Deputy.

Mr. Theophilus Eaton Governour of New-haven colony dyed.

Fifth monarchy-men rebell.

The Quakers arrive at new-Plimouth.


Oliver Cromwell dyed September the third.

Richard Cromwell set up.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets, Bellingham Deputy.

A great Earth-quake in New-England.

Mr. Ralph Partrick minister at Ruxbury now deceased.

John Philips of Marshfield slain by thunder and lightning.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

[p. 269.] Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony.

The Quakers opinions vented up and down the Countrey.

Mr. Henry Dunster first President of Harvard Colledge deceased.

Richard Cromwel ended May the seventh.

The Rump Parliament December the six and twentieth put down.

William Robinson, Marmaduke Stevenson, and Mary Dyer Quakers of Rhod Island sentenced to suffer death by Mr. John Endicot Governour of the Massachusets colony, which accordingly was executed within a day or two, the prisoners being guarded by Capt. James Oliver with 200 Souldiers to the place of Execution, where the two men were hanged and the woman reprieved at the Gallows and banished.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.


John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Bellingham Deputy.

James Pierce slain by lightning at new-Plimouth.

May the 29 King Charles the Second returned into England.

June the 20 a damnable cheat like to have been put upon England by a Brief for [p. 270.] New-England, which as it appeared was produced before the King came in, but not printed (by Mr. Leach in Shoe-lane) till June, pretending that 18 Turks-men of War the 24 of January 1659/60 landed at a Town, called Kingsword (alluding to Charles-town) three miles from Boston, kill’d 40, took Mr. Sims minister prisoner, wounded him, kill’d his wife and three of his little children, carried him away with 57 more, burnt the Town, carried them to Argier, their loss amounting to 12000 pound, the Turk demanding 8000 pound ransom to be paid within 7 moneths. Signed by Thomas Margets, Edward Calamy, William Jenkin, William Vincent, George Wild, Joseph Caryl, John Menord, William Cooper, Thomas Manton Ministers.

Hugh Peters put to death the 16 of October.

Thomas Venner a Wine-Cooper hang’d drawn and quartered Jan. 19.


The fifth Monarchy-men rise at London.

Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Bellingham Deputy.

Major Atherton now dyed in New-England.


[p. 271.] Sir Henry Vane beheaded, June the 14.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony.

January 26 and the 28 Earthquakes in New-England, 6 or 7 times in the space of Three days.


John Baker unduely called Capt. Baker, hang’d at Tiburn, December the 11 of February.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony.

Mr. Willowby Deputy Governour and Mr. Thomas Leveret major General.

April the fifth Mr. John Norton Teacher at the first Church in Boston dyed suddenly.

Mr. Samuel Newman Teacher at Rehoboth in New-England now dyed.

Mr. Samuel Stone Teacher of Hartford Church in New-England, now dyed also.

Several Earth-quakes this year in New-England.

[p. 272.] Charles Chancie batchelor of Divinity and President of Harvard-Colledge in New-England.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Francis Willowby Deputy Governour, Mr. Thomas Leveret Major General.


May the 20 the Kings Commissioners arrived in New-England, viz. Sir Robert Carr, Colonel Nicols, Colonel Cartwright and Mr. Samuel Maverich, with whom came one Mr. Archdale as Agent for Mr. Ferdinando Gorges, who brought to the Colony in the province of Main, Mr. F. Gorges order from his Majesty Charles the Second, under his manual, and his Majesties Letters to the Massachusets concerning the same, to be restored unto the quiet possession and enjoyment of the said province in New-England, and the Government thereof, the which during the civil Wars in England the Massachusets colony had usurpt, and (by help of a Jacobs staff) most shamefully encroached upon Mr. Gorges rights and priviledges.

The 29 of August, the Manadaes, called Novede Belgique, or New Netherlands, their chief Town New-Amsterdam, now called [p. 273.] New-Yorke, Surrendered up unto Sir Robert Carr and Colonel Nichols his Majesties Commissioners; thirteen days after in September the Fort and Town of Arania now called Albany; twelve days after that, the Fort and Town of Awsapha; then de la Ware Castle man’d with Dutch and Sweeds, the three first Forts and Towns being built upon the River Mohegan, otherwise called Hudsons River.

The whole Bible Translated into the Indian-Tongue, by Mr. John Eliot Senior, was now printed at Cambridge in New-England.

December a great and dreadful Comet, or blazing-star appeared in the South-east in New-England for the space of three moneths, which was accompanied with many sad effects, great mildews blasting in the Countrey the next Summer.



Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of new-Plimouth colony.

Mr. John Endicot chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Francis Willowby Deputy Governour, Mr. Leveret Major General.

Two Comets or blazing-stars appeared in 4 moneths time in England, December 1664. and in March following.

Mr. John Endicot Governour of the Massachusets [p. 274.] colony deceased, March the three and twentieth.

Capt. Davenport kill’d with lightning as he lay on his bed at the Castle by Boston in New-England, and several wounded.

Wheat exceedingly blasted and mildewed in New-England.

A thousand foot sent this year by the French King to Canada.

Colonel Cartwright in his voyage for England was taken by the Dutch.

The Isle of Providence taken by the English Buccaneers, Puerto Rico taken and plundered by the English Buccaneers and abandoned.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony.

Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Francis Willowby Deputy Governour, Mr. Leveret major General.

St. Christophers taken by the French.

July the Lord Willowby of Parham cast away in a Hurricane about the Caribby-Islands.

The small pox at Boston in the Massachusets colony.


Three kill’d in a moment by a blow of Thunder at Marshfield in New-Plimouth [p. 275.] colony, and four at Pascataway colony, and divers burnt with lightning, a great whirlwind at the same time.

This year also New-England had cast away and taken Thirty one Vessels, and some in 1667.

The mildews and blasting of Corn still continued.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of New-Plimouth colony.

Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Fr. Willowby Deputy Governour, and Mr. Leveret major General.

Sir Robert Carr dyed next day after his arrival at Bristow in England June the first.

Several vollies of shot heard discharged in the Air at Nantascot two miles from Boston in the Massachusets colony.

Mr. John Davenport chosen pastor of the Independent Church at Boston.

In March there appeared a sign in the Heavens in the form of a Spear, pointing directly to the West.

Sir John Harman defeated the French Fleet at the Caribbes.

Mr. John Wilson Pastor of Boston Church in the Massachusets colony 37 years now [p. 276.] dyed, aged 79, he was Pastor of that Church three years before Mr. Cotton, twenty years with him, ten years with Mr. Norton, and four years after him.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of New-Plimouth colony.


Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Fr. Willowby Deputy Governour, and Mr. Leveret major General.

Mr. Samuel Shepherd Pastor of Rowley Church dyed.

April the 27 Mr. Henry Flint Teacher at Braintry dyed.

July the Ninth Mr. Jonathan Mitchel Pastor of the Church at Cambridge dyed, he was born at Halifax in Yorkeshire in England, and was brought up in Harvard-Colledge at Cambridge in New-England.

July the Fifteenth, nine of the clock at night an Eclipse of the moon, till after Eleven darkned nine digits and thirty five minutes.

July the Seventeenth a great Sperma Cæti Whale Fifty five foot long, thrown up at Winter-harbour by Casco in the Province of Main.

April the Third, Fryday an Earthquake in New-England.


[p. 277.] Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of Plimouth colony.

Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Fr. Willowby Deputy Governour, Mr. Leveret major General.

Mr. Oxenbridge chosen Pastor of the Independent Church at Boston.

The wonderful burning of the mountain Ætna, or Gibella in Cicilia March.


Mr. Thomas Prince chosen Governour of New-Plimouth colony.


Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Fr. Willowby Deputy Governour, Mr. Leveret major General.

Mr. Fr. Willowby Deputy Governour now dyed.

At a place called Kenebunch, which is in the Province of Main, not far from the River-side, a piece of clay ground was thrown up by a mineral vapour (as was supposed) over the tops of high oaks that grew between it and the River, into the River, stopping the course thereof, and leaving a hole Forty yards square, wherein [p. 278.] were Thousands of clay bullets as big as musquet bullets, and pieces of clay in shape like the barrel of a musquet. The like accident fell out at Casco, One and twenty miles from it to the Eastward, much about the same time; And fish in some ponds in the Countrey thrown up dead upon the banks, supposed likewise to be kill’d with mineral vapours.

A wonderful number of Herrins cast up on shore at high water in Black-point-Harbour in the province of Main, so that they might have gone half way the leg in them for a mile together.

Mr. Thatcher chosen Pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Boston.


Mr. Thomas Prince Governour of new Plimouth colony.

Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Leveret Deputy, and major General.

Elder Pen now dyed at Boston, the English troubled much with griping of the guts, and bloudy Flux, of which several dyed.

October the Two and twentieth a Ship called the flying[211] Falcon of Amsterdam, arrived at Dover, having been out since the first of January 1669. and been in the South-[p. 279.]Seas in the latitude of 50 degrees, having sailed 12900 Dutch leagues, the master told us he made main land, and discovered two Islands never before discovered, where were men all hairy, Eleven foot in height.


Mr. Richard Bellingham chosen Governour of the Massachusets colony, Mr. Leveret Deputy, and major General.


Mr. Richard Bellingham Governour of the Massachusets colony now deceased.


Thomas Leveret chosen Governour.

Mr. Simons Deputy Governour.




The character ſ (long-form s) has been replaced by the normal s. A few occurrences of the ‘ct’ ligature have been replaced by the simple ‘ct’ letter pair.

The M in Mr. and the S in St. were sometimes italicized. These have been made normal M and S.

These errors were present in the original 1674 edition:
Pg 152: ‘in the Fifttenth’ replaced by ‘in the Fifteenth’.
Pg 172: ‘the Sixt Pope’ replaced by ‘the Sixth Pope’.
Pg 204: ‘Ian. 19.’ replaced by ‘Jan. 19.’.

This error was introduced in the 1865 edition:
Pg 19: ‘Fo rwo Skillets’ replaced by ‘For two Skillets’.

Other errors have been passed through without change, for example:
Pg 28: The original text of this poem had a blank line between each line of verse; these have been retained.
Pg 31: Some words are clearly missing from the original text, after “were wind bound till”.
Pg 205: The intended date is unclear in "at Tiburn, _December_ the 11 of _February_."

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