The Project Gutenberg EBook of Spain, by Wentworth Webster This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Spain Author: Wentworth Webster Release Date: January 7, 2011 [EBook #34875] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SPAIN *** Produced by Chuck Greif, Michigan University Library and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
REV. WENTWORTH WEBSTER, M.A. OXON.
WITH A CHAPTER BY AN ASSOCIATE OF THE SCHOOL OF MINES.
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON,
CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET.
[All rights reserved.]
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED,
ST. JOHN'S SQUARE.
[etext transcriber's note:
No attempt has been made to correct, normalize or de-anglicize the spelling of Spanish names or words.
For example: Calayatud/Calatayud, Alfonso/Alfonzo, Cacéres/Caceres/Cáceres, Cardénas/Cárdenas, Guipúzcoa/Guipuzcoa all appear.
Click on any of the images to view them enlarged.]
ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
THERE is a difficulty in writing a book of this character on Spain, which does not exist, we think, to the same extent with any other European country. In most European nations the official returns and government reports may be accepted as trustworthy, and the compiler has little more to do than to copy them; but in Spain this is far from being always the case. In some instances, from nonchalance and habitual inexactitude, in others, and especially in all matters of finance and taxation, from designed misstatement, all such reports have to be received with caution and scrupulously examined. The reader must remember also that in Spain smuggling and contraband dealing in various forms is carried on to such a vast extent as seriously to vitiate all trade returns. Thus it is that Spanish statistics can be considered only as approximate truths.
Another difficulty arises from the very varied character of the Spanish provinces. Hardly any statement can be made of one province which is not untrue of another. The ordinary descriptions of Spain present only one, or at most two, types, the Castling and Andalusian, and utterly neglect all the rest. The provinces of Spain have been well described as divided into "five Irelands" whose habits and modes of thought, political aspirations, and commercial interests and aptitudes, are often utterly opposed to those of the capital. A brief survey of the whole of Spain is attempted in the following pages.
In a work of this kind one other obvious difficulty is to know what to omit. Some well-worn topics will be found to be absent from these pages. No references are made to the great Peninsular War. This can be easily studied in the admirable pages of Sir W. Napier in English, and of Toreno in Spanish, or in compendiums of these, which again are filtered down in every guide-book. For a like reason Prescott's brilliant works are not alluded to.
For the chapter on Geology and Mining the reader is indebted to one of the most distinguished Associates of the School of Mines, who has been recently engaged in practical geological survey and mapping in Spain.
Much also of the present work is due to private information most kindly furnished by Spanish friends of high position in the literary and political world, and with whom some of the subjects treated have been frequently discussed. To these the author offers his warmest and most grateful thanks.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN.
|Boundaries of the Peninsula||1|
|Area and Coast-line||2|
|Six divisions of Spain||ib.|
|Cantabrian, Asturian, and Galician mountains||4|
|Oca, Sierra Moncayo, and Idubeda chains||5|
|Central Plateau and its passes||ib.|
|Culminating water-shed of the Peninsula||6|
|Sierra Morena and passes||ib.|
|Central ranges and river basins||8|
|Sierra Nevada and offshoots||ib.|
Rivers, river basins, and rainfall:
|Five great rivers||10|
|Rivers of Galicia and Asturias||11|
|Ebro and its tributaries and canals||12|
|Catalonia, streams of||14|
|Douro and its tributaries||15|
|Tagus " "||17|
|Guadiana " " and lakes||19|
|Guadalquiver, its tributaries, islands, and marismas||22|
|Segura and its irrigation||24|
|Jucar " "||25|
|Guadalaviar or Turia||ib.|
|Lakes and Albuferas||26|
|Comparative table of principal rivers||28|
|Mineral springs and Salinas||ib.|
CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.
|Five climates of Spain||30|
|Temperature and rainfall of:|
|Galicia and the Asturias||31|
|Santander and the Basque Provinces||32|
|Cartagena to Almeria||ib.|
|Malaga, Motril, Seville, and Cordova||ib.|
|Cadiz, Gibraltar, &c||ib.|
|Elevation of Central Plateau||ib.|
|Temperature and rainfall of Madrid, Salamanca, and Soria||38|
|Agricultural products of:|
|Galicia and the Asturias||39|
|Basque Provinces and basin of the Ebro||40|
|Moorish agriculture and exotic flora of Southern Spain||41|
|Products of Valencia and Murcia||43|
|Palms at Elche||44|
|Aromatic mountain shrubs||45|
|Products and wines of Andalusia||46|
|Products of the Central Plateau||ib.|
|Estremadura and law of the Mesta||47|
|Corn-lands of Castile and Sierras de Campos||50|
|Comparative Flora of Spain||52|
|Monkeys of Gibraltar||ib.|
|Beasts and birds of prey||ib.|
|Game birds and African visitants||ib.|
|Noxious and useful insects||ib.|
|Horses, cattle, and beasts of burden||55|
|Estimated total production of Spain||57|
GEOLOGY AND MINES.
|Peculiar interest of Spanish geology||58|
|Granite and Silurian rocks||ib.|
|Influence of geology on populations||ib.|
|Statistics of Spanish geology||61|
|Gneiss and crystalline schists||62|
|Jurassic limestones and marl||ib.|
|Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene||ib.|
|Production and export of six chief minerals||ib.|
|Of argentiferous ore, cobalt, silver||ib.|
|Iron of the Bilbao district||ib.|
|Locality of principal mines||66|
ETHNOLOGY, LANGUAGE, AND POPULATION.
|Pyrenees, no true boundary of||69|
|Population of Spain, mixed||70|
|Iberi, Kelt-Iberi, Basques, and Kelts||ib.|
|Foreign races in Spain||73|
|Visigoths, Arabs, and Moors||75|
|Toponymy of Spain||76|
|Language of Spanish Jews||77|
|Statistics of the Spanish language||78|
|Characteristics of " "||79|
|Population of Spain||80|
|Manufacturing and mining Provinces||82|
|Distribution of property, great changes in||83|
|Abolition of Mesta and of feudal privileges||ib.|
|Sale of Crown and Church property||84|
|Characteristics of the various populations||85|
|Galicians, Asturians, Basques, and Aragonese||86|
|Catalans, Valencians, and Murcians||86, 87|
|Manchegans, and Castilians||89|
|Gipsies, Maragatos, Passiegos, Hurdes, Sayagos, &c.||90|
DESCRIPTION OF PROVINCES.
|Division of Kingdoms and Provinces||91|
|Galicia and its provinces, Corunna, Lugo, Pontevedra, and Orense||92|
|Basque Provinces, Biscay, Guipuzcoa, Alava||95|
|Aragon and its provinces, Huesca, Saragossa, Teruel||97|
|Catalonia " Gerona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lerida||100|
|Valencia " Castellon de la Plana, Valencia, Alicante||103|
|Murcia " Murcia and Albacete||107|
|Andalusia, Mediterranean Provinces, Almeria, Granada, Malaga||109|
|Atlantic: Cadiz, Huelva||117, 122|
|Inland: Seville, Cordova, Jaen||120, 123, 125|
|Estremadura, Badajoz, Cacéres||ib.|
|New Castile and La Mancha, Provinces—Ciud ad Real, Toledo, Madrid, Cuenca, Guadalajara||127|
|Old Castile—Avila, Segovia, Soria, Logrono, Burgos||133|
|Leon—Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Palencia, Leon||137|
HISTORY AND POLITICAL CONSTITUTION.
|Early liberties, behetria, fueros||145|
|Capitulations of Moors and Jews||147|
|Conquest of the South and its results||149|
|The Santa Hermandad||ib.|
|The Austrian Dynasty||151|
|The Bourbon Dynasty||152|
|Modern Constitutional Spain||153|
|Cortés of Cadiz||ib.|
|Reign of Ferdinand VII., and loss of American colonies||ib.|
|" Isabella II.||154|
|First Carlist War||ib.|
|Ministry of Narvaez||156|
|Expulsion of Isabella II., and provisional government||ib.|
|Second Carlist War||159|
|Ministry of Cánovas del Castillo||161|
Present Constitution and Administration of Spain
|Cortés, Senate, Congress||163|
|Rights of persons, natives and foreigners||ib.|
|Quality of Spanish soldiery, pronunciamientos, &c.||168|
|Hospitals and lunatic asylums||171|
|Letters and post||ib.|
|Finances of Spain.|
|Increase of, since 1868||175|
|Deficit of budgets||ib.|
|Sources of revenue||176|
|Imports and exports||177|
|Protection and free trade||178|
|Empleomania and its results||179|
EDUCATION AND RELIGION.
|Universities, number of students, salaries of professors||181|
|Course of university study||183|
|Provincial and special institutes||ib.|
|Secondary instruction, institutes and colleges||184|
|Number of students, and salary of masters||185|
|Course of instruction||186|
|Church and Religion.|
|Early Church Councils||188|
|Roman and Mazarabic liturgy||ib.|
|Philip II., the Jesuits, and the Reformation||189|
|Expulsion of the Jesuits||191|
|Concordat of 1851||ib.|
|Archbishops, bishops, and clergy||ib.|
|Mode of appointment of bishops||192|
LITERATURE AND THE ARTS.
|Præhistoric art and architecture||194|
|Roman and Visigothic||ib.|
|Three periods of||196|
|Church furniture and minor arts||204|
|Characteristics of Spanish painting||205|
|Painters of Valencian school||209|
|" " Castilian "||ib.|
|" " Andalusian "||ib.|
|Industrial arts, goldsmith's work, iron, porcelain, glass, wood, lace||212|
|" Prose works||214|
|La Celistina and the picaresque novels||215|
|Drama and Autors||216|
|Lope de Vega||ib.|
|Calderon de la Barca||217|
|Classical and romantic schools||ib.|
|Modern writers: Poets—Espronceda, Zorilla, Becquer, &c.||224|
|Novelists—Fernan Caballero, J. Valera, &c.||ib.|
|Dramatists—Hartzenbusch, Breton de los Herreros, &c.||225|
|Nunez de Arce||226|
|Historians—Condé Gayangos, De la Fuente, &c.||ib.|
|Geographers—Fernandez Guerra, Coello, Bowles||ib.|
|Economists—Cárdenas, Colmeiro, De Azcárate||227|
|Theologians—Balmés, Donoso Cortez, C. Gonzalez, &c.||ib.|
|Philologists—F. Fita, &c.||ib.|
|Spain not a worn-out country||231|
|Two hindrances to development||ib.|
|Protection and free trade||233|
|Cruelty and charities of Spain||234|
|Appendix I.—Census of Provinces||237|
|" II.—Chief historical events||239|
|" III.—Chief books used||241|
|Dominique, the Espada||88|
|Gipsies at Granada||90|
|Leaning Tower of Saragossa||98|
|General View of Granada, with the Alhambra||110|
|Alhambra Tower by Moonlight||114|
|Fountain of the Four Seasons, Madrid||130|
|Port of Cadiz||153|
|Giralda of Seville||197|
SPAIN, with the neighbouring kingdom of Portugal, constitutes the most westerly of the three southern peninsulas of Europe, and in Cape Tarifa, latitude 36° 1', it attains the most southerly point of the whole continent. Separated from France and from the rest of Europe by the chain of the Pyrenees, and surrounded on all other sides by either the Mediterranean or the Atlantic, it presents at first sight the appearance of an exceedingly compact and homogeneous surface. It seems strange that this well-defined peninsula should contain two separate kingdoms, with peoples who speak languages allied, yet so distinct as to be mutually unintelligible to the uneducated classes.
The peninsula lies between latitude 43° 45' and 36° 1' N., and between 3° 20' E. and 9° 32' W. longitude. In shape it is thus nearly a square; a diagonal line from the N.E. Cape Creuz to the S.W. Cape St. Vincent measures 650 miles, while from Cape Ortegal, N.W., to Cape Gata, S.E., would be 525 miles. The whole area of the peninsula contains 219,200 square miles, of which 36,500 on the west belong to Portugal, and 182,700 to Spain.
The peninsular form of the country would lead us to expect that it would partake of all the characteristics of a maritime climate; but such is not the case. From the comparative evenness of the coast-line, unbroken and unindented by any deep inlets except on the extreme north-west, in Galicia, the coast-line bears a less proportion to the whole surface than that of many lands less surrounded by the sea. It counts only 1300 miles, 700 of which are washed by the Mediterranean, and 600 by the Atlantic; that is, 1 mile of coast-line to 134 square miles of area; while Italy contains 1 to 75, and Greece 1 to 7. From the configuration of the coast, and from the character of the great central plateau, a large part of Spain has really an extreme continental climate.
For while it is distinctly separated from the rest of Europe by the line of the Pyrenees, Spain is no less distinctly divided into different districts in the interior—districts which differ most widely in climate and elevation and products. Six of these are usually named: (1) The N.W. Atlantic coast, comprising Galicia, the coast of which presents a continuation of the Fiord system of Norway, and of the Firths of Scotland and Ireland; (2), the northern slope of the Cantabrian Mountains, and the narrow slip of land contained between them and the Bay of Biscay, comprising the Asturias, Santander, and the Basque Provinces; (3) the Valley of the Ebro, with Navarre, Aragon, and Catalonia; (4) the great Central Plateau—Leon, Old and New Castile, Estremadura, and La Mancha; (5) the Mediterranean Provinces, including Valencia, Murcia, and the parts of Andalusia between the Sierra Nevada and the Mediterranean; (6) the rest of Andalusia sloping towards the Atlantic.
We will treat of these in order.
But first we must speak of the various mountain systems and river basins of Spain, without which it is impossible to understand either the physical conditions of the country, or the social and political state of the various populations which has resulted from them.
First, on the north is the chain of the Pyrenees, a continuation of the great Alpine system of Central Europe, stretching from Cape Creuz, 3° 19' E., to the Bay of Biscay, 2° 12' W., a distance of 320 miles, and prolonging itself westward in lower chains of different denominations until it finally sinks into the Atlantic at Cape Finisterre. The culminating points of the Pyrenees are towards the centre of the chain, in Mounts Maladetta, 11,150 feet, and the Pic de Posets and the Mount Perdu, each about 11,000 feet, whence the heights gradually descend, on the east to the Mediterranean and on the west to the Bay of Biscay. With the exception of the little Bidassoa, which in the lower part of its course forms the boundary between France and Spain, at the bottom of the Bay of Biscay, all the other waters of the Spanish side of the Pyrenees belong to the Ebro and to the Mediterranean. Parallel to the coast of the Bay of Biscay the Pyrenees are prolonged, first, by the Cantabrian Mountains, which run through the Basque Provinces, and the Province of Santandar; thence by the Picos de Europa, 8300 feet—from the south-eastern spurs of which the Ebro and Pisuerga take their rise—and the Asturian Mountains, to the Sierra de Penamarella, at the junction of the three Provinces of Leon, Asturias, and Galicia. The chain here attains its greatest elevation, 9450 (?) feet, then descends to a plateau of about 4000 feet, whence it sinks rapidly to the Atlantic, forming the headlands of Ortegal, the extreme north-western, and of Finisterre, the extreme western, point of Northern Spain. The mountains of Leon form the western watershed, between the waters of the Ebro and those which fall into the Atlantic. The line is continued eastward by the Oca Mountains, the Sierra de Moncayo, and the Idubeda Mountains. These mountain chains divide the basin of the Ebro from that of the Douro. They also form the northern buttress of the great plateau of Central Spain, which attains an elevation of from 2000 to 4000 feet. The rise to the plateau from the Bay of Biscay is very abrupt. Within fifty miles of leaving the coast the railways from the north attain a height of 2000 feet, and reach the Central Plateau, at Quintanapalla, at an elevation of 3000 feet; while La Cañada, the highest point on the line to Madrid, is nearly 4460 feet, or about sixty feet higher than the tunnel of the Mount Cenis. From the eastern side the rise is less abrupt, and the plateau is entered at the lower elevation of 2330 feet, on the line from Alicante to Madrid. The famous Pass of Somosierra, on the old northern coach-road from Madrid, is about 4700 feet above the level of the sea. From these figures it is easy to perceive how very different is the aspect of these buttress chains when seen from the plateau, and when looked at from the plain from which they rise. Thus the Sierra de Moncayo, 7700 feet, stands out with boldness from the Valley of the Ebro, but viewed from the plateau of Castile it is scarcely noticeable. From its summit, however, the finest view of the whole range of the Pyrenees to be found anywhere on the Spanish side of the chain, is to be obtained.
Turning thence towards the south and south-east, these mountain chains—under the various names of the Sierras de Cuenca, de Molina, and Albarracin—divide the river basins of the Mediterranean from the far larger ones of the Atlantic. They have their culminating point in the Muela de San Juan and the Cerro de San Felipe, nearly 6000 feet, at the junction of the three provinces of Teruel, Cuenca, and Guadalaxara. From the sides of these mountains the waters fall with rapid course, on the north to join the Ebro, on the east and south to the Mediterranean; while with gentler slope, but in far greater volume, the Douro, the Tagus, and the Guadiana roll their waters to the Atlantic. From these Sierras the plateau tilts gradually westward and southward, but is intersected by mountain chains, peaks of which towards the west attain a higher elevation than those which form the real culmination of this part of the peninsula. The bare and bleak granite range of the Guadarrama, which divides the basin of the Douro from that of the Tagus, and from whose summits steals the icy wind so fatal to Madrid, attains in its highest summit, Peña Lara, 7800 feet, near Segovia; while in its western prolongation, the Sierras de Credos and de Gata, the Plaza del Moro reaches 8700 feet. The chains which divide the valley of the Tagus from that of the Guadiana are not nearly so well marked as are those more to the north, and rise to a much less elevation above the plateau. Beginning with a south-westerly prolongation of the Cerro de San Felipe, under the successive titles of Montes de Toledo, Sierras de Guadaloupe, Montanchez, and San Mamed, about 2000 feet, they reach the Portuguese frontier near Portalegre. The highest point seems to be in the mountains of Toledo at Villuercas, where a height of a little over 5000 feet is attained. The mountains which separate the basins of the Guadiana and the Guadalquiver, under the names of the Sierras de Alcaroz, Morena, de Cordova, Guadacanal, and Aroche, and which form the southern buttress of the central plateau, present a still greater difference than those of the northern buttress when viewed from the plateau and from the plains of Andalusia. From the former they appear only rolling undulations, and the traveller scarcely notices the rise till he finds himself descending one of the steep and savage gorges, like that of the Pass of Despeña-Perroz, on the road and rail between La Mancha and Andalusia. The Col of Despeña-Perroz is nearly 2500 feet above the sea, and but few summits along the ranges of the Sierra Morena and its prolongations attain a greater elevation, the general range being about 2000 feet, except towards the west and north of Seville, where the Sierra de Aracena reaches 5550 feet. Eastward of the Guadalquiver the ranges which divide its waters from those of the Segura, the Sierras de Segura, and Sagra, attain a greater height, the former 6500 feet, the latter to 7800 feet.
Thus as supports to the great plateau, or on it, we have the following successive ranges as we proceed from north to south. First, the Sierra de Moncayo and the Idubeda mountains, dividing the basin of the Ebro from that of the Douro; next the Guadarrama chain, with the Sierras de Credos and de Gata, separating the Douro from the Tagus; then the Mountains of Toledo, and the Sierra de San Mamed, between the Tagus and the Guadiana; and lastly, the southern buttress, the Sierra Morena, dividing the Guadiana from the Guadalquiver.
But it is south of the last stream that the culminating points of the whole peninsula are to be found—in the mighty Sierra Nevada, which separates the lovely valley of Granada from the Mediterranean, shielding it from the scorching winds of Africa, and giving it its eternal freshness and verdure. The highest of its summits are Muley Hacen and Velate, lying to the south-east of Granada, the former attaining nearly 11,670 feet, and the latter 11,400. The altitudes diminish rapidly east and west. Towards the east, outlying ranges, such as those of the Sierras de Filabrés and of Gador, attain heights of 6000 and 7000 feet respectively; while in the westward prolongations, the Mesa de Ronda is only 5000; and the chain gradually drops till it reaches the sea at Cape Trafalgar, and the rock of Gibraltar, 1400 feet.
But besides these greater chains of mountains Spain is traversed by numerous offshoots and lateral ranges, and a great portion of her territory is more or less of a mountainous character. In districts where rain is unfrequent these hills are absolutely bare of verdure for a great part of the year, and remain untenanted and uncultivated. Among the more elevated of these lesser chains are those of Monseni, Monserrat, and Montagut, in Catalonia, which attain respectively 5500, 4000, and 3000 feet in height. On the borders of Leon and Galicia, and in the latter province, there are numerous mountains and smaller ranges, which vary from 3000 to 5000 feet. The whole frontier of Portugal is covered by lower ranges, connecting the great chains of which we have already spoken with hills of from 2000 to 3000 feet. From the great eastern buttress two spurs, or rolling plateaux, run down to the Mediterranean, and terminate in the different headlands—such as Cape Gata in the south-east, Cape Palos near Carthagena, Capes de la Nao and San Antonio near Denia, Peniscola, and others. Some of these smaller ranges are exceedingly rich in minerals, and as they approach the sea form sites of picturesque and enchanting beauty, such as can be surpassed only by the better-known and historic glories of the coasts of Italy or of Greece.
Of the five great rivers of Spain only one, the Ebro, pours its waters into the Mediterranean; the other four, the Douro, Tagus, Guadiana, and Guadalquiver, discharge theirs into the Atlantic; but of these last the Guadalquiver alone is wholly a Spanish stream. In the lower and more valuable part of their course the Douro, Tagus, and Gaudiana, belong to Portugal—a fact which must always be remembered when treating of the internal commerce of Spain. But besides these larger streams there are several of slightly smaller dimensions, of which we will treat in order.
Few countries present within so short a distance so great a difference in rainfall and moisture as does Spain. In some parts of the Asturias and Galicia the rainfall is probably as heavy as that of any part of Europe—as much as 147½ inches are said to have been measured in a single year; and the average fall on the northern slopes of the Cantabrian mountains is said to be sixty inches annually. Yet the average of the whole basin of the Ebro—which rises from the southern slopes of the Picos de Europa, one of the most rainy of the rainy districts—is only eighteen inches annually, the last 300 miles of its course being through almost barren districts, where rain seldom falls.
The principal river of Galicia is the Minho, with its tributary the Sil. Each of these rises, though at some distance apart, from the southern side of the Cantabrian mountains, much nearer to the waters of the Bay of Biscay than to those of the Atlantic, into which they flow. They take thence a southerly and south-westerly course, until they unite a few miles above Orense. The lower part of the united course, which bears the name of the Minho, forms from Melgaco to the sea the frontier between the kingdoms of Portugal and Spain. The remaining rivers of Galicia are numerous but of little importance: the Tambre is the largest of those which fall into the Atlantic on the west; while on the north the sources of the Eo and the Navia overlap those of the Minho, and take their rise from the mountains which border on Leon. The whole country is exceedingly well watered. Both in its agricultural character as a grazing country, and in its flora and fauna, it resembles the milder portions of southern Ireland and of Devonshire, but with occasional products of a warmer zone. The rivers of the Asturias, Santander, and of the Basque provinces, all partake of the same general character. In the upper part of their courses they are mere mountain torrents, their course is rapid but short, and they are of but little use for navigation, though occasionally small but insecure harbours are formed at their mouth. The only great exception to this is the Nervion, on which Bilbao is situated, and which is navigable for eight miles from its mouth. The waters of the Bidassoa, the Deva, and others, are, however, utilized for the transport of ore from the mines and ironworks along the course. The Bidassoa, for some ten miles before it enters the Bay of Biscay at Cape Figueras forms the boundary between France and Spain; about four miles from its issue, between Irun and Behobie, is the celebrated Isle des Faisans, where, in 1659, the marriage was arranged between Louis XIV. and the Infanta, which eventually placed the Bourbons on the throne of Spain. The Bidassoa is the last of the northern rivers of Spain which falls into the Atlantic.
The Ebro has its rise from the source, Fontibre, in the province of Santander, and takes a south-easterly course of 466 miles, through the provinces of Santander, Burgos, Navarre, and Aragon, almost parallel with the Pyrenees, till it falls into the Mediterranean, through a sandy delta stretching some fifteen miles into the sea below Amposta. The descent for the first 200 miles of its course is exceedingly rapid, but after that the fall is gradual till it reaches the sea. In its course it receives the waters of many tributaries, both on the left from the Pyrenees, and on the right from the Idubeda mountains and the sierras of Southern Aragon. Were it not for these tributaries little of its waters would reach the Mediterranean, so dry and arid are the Bardenas of Navarre, and the Dehesas of Aragon, through which it flows. The Spaniards have a proverb that it is the Navarrese and Aragonese streams—the Arga, the Ega, and the Aragon—which make a man of the Ebro. Farther down, the Gallego runs in near Saragossa; while the united waters of the Cinca and the Segre at Mequinenza pour a far larger volume of water into the parent bed than it contains itself. From the right, the principal streams are the Xalon, with its tributary the Xiloca, which joins the Ebro between Tudela and Saragossa, the Marten, and the Guadalope near Caspe. The Ebro, notwithstanding its length, the number of its tributaries, and the extent of its basin, 25,000 square miles, is of little use for navigation. A magnificent canal—first projected and commenced by the Emperor Charles V. (I. of Spain) then after a lapse of more than two centuries taken in hand by Charles III., in 1770—runs from Tudela to Saragossa; thence to the sea it still remains in project only. The part already finished is falling into decay; and it is only the excellent quality of the masonry, and of the cement or mortar employed, that retards its utter ruin. The traffic is very small; and even as a means of irrigation its waters are allowed greatly to run to waste. At the apex of the delta from Amposta to San Carlos de la Rapita a canal of eight miles has been cut for purposes of navigation; but the formation of a bar, and the silting up of the bay, have rendered it almost useless. The other rivers which flow into the Mediterranean, between the lower course of the Ebro and the Pyrenees are the Fluvia, which flows into the gulf of Rosas, the Ter, which passes by Gerona, and the Llobregat near Barcelona. All are torrential streams, unfit for navigation; but their waters, if all utilized for irrigation like those of the Llobregat, would be sources of immense wealth to the country.
From the fact that the lower part of the course of the great rivers of the plateau—the Douro, the Tagus, and the Guadiana—flow through Portugal, their streams are hardly at all available as a means of communication or of navigation for Spain; and from the nature of the deeply cut beds which the waters have worn through the soil, flowing, especially as they approach the frontiers of Portugal, through gorges approaching in length and depth the cañons of North America, the rivers are little available for irrigation, although far more use might be made of them for this purpose than is actually done. Owing to the prejudices of the Spanish husbandman, and to his reluctance to accept any change, however profitable, in his ancient routine, neither the little that has been done in the present century, nor the remains of a wiser agriculture in former times are used by the peasantry. In the province of Zamora, for instance, both the ancient "acequias" and the modern canal of the Esla are equally neglected. The rich results that have followed the employment of the waters in the few cases in which they have been intelligently directed, stirs no one up to follow the example. It is one of the many contrasts between different parts of Spain, that the value of irrigation should be so well understood in some parts and so utterly neglected and under-valued in others. But we shall have more to say of this when we treat of the eastern and southern streams: at present let us return to the Douro, and to the other rivers of the plateau.
The Douro takes its rise in the Lago Negro, or Black Lake, on the southern flanks of the Mount Urbion, in the north-western angle of the province of Soria. It first runs eastward to the city of that name, the ancient Numantia, then turns almost directly south as far as Almazan, whence it runs westward to Portugal, receiving meanwhile the waters of the Esla, below Zamora; at the frontier, again it turns south, through deep gorges which form the boundary between Spain and Portugal, until it receives the waters of the Agueda, where it finally enters Portugal, and after a westerly course thence of about 100 miles, falls into the Atlantic below Oporto.
The basin drained by the Douro is the most extensive of all those of the rivers in Spain. Including the portion in Portugal, it comprises 35,000 square miles; the length of the river is about 500 miles; the average rainfall is stated at twenty inches. The chief affluents of the Douro descend from the north from the mountains of Burgos and the Cantabrian range. The largest are the Pisuerga, which rises not far from the sources of the Ebro among the Picos de Europa, and flows almost directly south by Palencia and Valladolid until it joins the Douro, some miles above Tordesilla; the Esla, which also rises from the western flanks of the same chain, not far from Covadonga, takes a somewhat more westerly direction, and after receiving several smaller streams unites with the Douro below Zamora. These two rivers supply water for two of the most successful canals in Spain, especially that along the Pisuerga, for over ninety miles from Alar del Rey to Valladolid. There is a considerable traffic on it, especially for passengers. It was planned in 1753 by Ensenada, but completed only in 1832. The canal of the Esla, for purposes of irrigation, begun by English engineers in 1864, and finished in 1869, has hardly been so successful. The latest report (June, 1880) states that the peasant proprietors, notwithstanding examples of the great utility of irrigation, obstinately refuse to use it. The principal affluents of the Douro on the west and south are the Tormes, which flows by Salamanca, and joins it about midway in its course as a frontier of Portugal; and the Agueda, which runs in just where it takes its final departure for the west.
The Tagus, the central river of Spain, and which divides its territory into two nearly equal portions, rises from a fountain called the Fuente Garcia, or Pié, on the south side of the Muela de San Juan, between the Sierras de Molina, Albaracin, and San Felipe, the knot of mountains which, as we have indicated above, form the great watershed of the peninsula, whence the waters flow northwards to the Ebro, east and southwards to the Mediterranean, and westwards, in the Tagus and its tributaries, to the Atlantic. Were the whole peninsula of Spain and Portugal one kingdom, the Tagus would be perhaps the most important of its rivers; but in the divided state it is of far more value to Portugal than to Spain. Its swift and turbid current, flowing between steep banks, and in a bed broken into rapids and encumbered by rocks, is scarcely navigable above Abrantes. The basin of the Tagus contains an area of nearly 30,000 square miles, and its length is estimated at about 550. The rainfall is less than that of the Douro, being only sixteen inches annually. The river, moreover, runs by no means in the centre of its basin, but far to the southwards of a central dividing line, and consequently the tributaries which it receives from the north or left bank are of much greater importance than those which come from the south or right. After flowing a few miles in a north-westerly direction, the river gradually bends, first westerly, and then in a slightly south-westerly direction, in a deep channel, through a bare rolling country, where everything takes the prevailing colour of red dusty uplands, until it arrives at Aranjuez, situated at the confluence of the Jarama and the Tagus, a royal residence whose abundance of water and of shade make it a true oasis in a desert. The Jarama, which rises in the Guadarama, brings in also the waters of the Henares, and those of the Manzanares, on which Madrid is situated. These streams have been the subjects of many projects and attempts at canalization, either for irrigation or for supplying the metropolis with water. Most of these have failed, but a canal from Porcal to Aranjuez, of seventeen miles and a half, is in working order. The canal of Cabarrus brings the waters of the Lozoya to Madrid. But the great enterprise of the canal of irrigation from the Henares, constructed by the same English company which made the canal of the Esla, and which was to have been twenty-eight miles in length, and to have irrigated 30,000 acres, is suspended by lawsuits as to the ownership of the waters. The Alberche, which rises to the north of the Sierra de Gredos, enters the Tagus near Talavera de la Reyna. The Tietjar, and the Alagon, which joins the main stream just above Alcantara, beside the frontier stream, the Heyas, are the only Spanish waters of importance from the north before the Tagus enters Portugal; and from the south the Salor and the del Monte, both of which have their rise and course in the same province of Caceres alone need mention. In the upper part of its course, however, the smaller tributaries of both the Tagus and the Guadiana often overlap, and but a very few miles separate the Tagus itself from the waters which flow into the Guadiana.
The exact source of the Guadiana has been a subject of much debate and of many fables. Its true origin seems to be in a series of lakes at the junction of the provinces of Ciudad Real and Albacete, near Montiel, in La Mancha. A picturesque stream, the Ruidosa, with many cascades and broken water, connects these lakes; but after running a few miles in a north-westerly direction, it disappears underground near Tomesillo, and is believed to rise to the surface after about twenty miles, in the Ojos (eyes) of the Guadiana, near Damiel. Very soon it receives from the right the united waters of the Zancara and the Giguela, streams whose contributions are much more scanty, especially in summer, than the length of their course on the map would lead one to suppose; thence the river flows in a westerly direction, passing near Ciudad Real, below which the Javalon enters from the left, coming from the Campo de Montiel; near Don Benito the Zuja, from the Sierra Morena, joins it, and some miles lower down the Matachet. Flowing past Medellin, five miles below Badajoz the river crosses the frontier of Portugal, changes its course from westerly to south-west, and afterwards south and south-east, till it again joins the frontier near San Lucar, and dividing the two countries till its mouth, falls into the Gulf of Cadiz at Ayamonte. In the lower part of its course the river, which before has been wide and shallow, and often almost dry in summer, narrows its course, and rushes with impetuosity through the rapids called the Salto del Lobo (the wolf's leap), near Serpa, in Portugal. The whole length of the Guadiana is estimated at 550 miles, and the area of its bed at 24,000 square miles. The rainfall is about fourteen inches.
To the south of the rivers of the plateau the only considerable stream is the Guadalquiver, with its tributaries. The character of this river is entirely different to that of the former streams. Like the Ebro, it forms a true valley, instead of merely cutting its way through rocks, cañons, and defiles. Its bed is on an average about 1200 feet below that of the Guadiana in the greater part of its course. It is also the only river in Spain of any utility for navigation; the tide is felt beyond Seville, and vessels of 200 to 300 tons ascend to that city. There are also several lines of steamboats trading thence directly with London, Marseilles, Bilbao, Cadiz, and Gibraltar. The Guadalquiver takes its rise from two sources—one, in the streams Guadalimar and Guadarmeno, rises in the Sierra Alcaraz, and not very far from the sources of the Guadiana; the other, which bears the name of the Guadalquiver, in the south-west of the Sierra Sagra; this latter branch is soon joined by the Guadiana Menor, coming down from the Sierra Nevada. The basin of the Guadalquiver presents this peculiarity, that its boundary is not formed by the line of the highest summits; on the contrary, many of its tributaries take their rise on the farther side of the Sierra Morena on the north, and of the Sierras de Granada and Nevada on the south, and have cut their way through these higher grounds to join the Guadalquiver in the plains of Andalusia. The upper part of its course is very rapid, and the junction of the two rivers Guadalimar and Guadalquiver, in the plains of Baeza, is about 5000 feet below the Punta de Almenara; but from thence to the sea the fall is very slight. After the junction the river passes by Andujar, Montoro, and Cordova, receiving on both banks the waters of many streams of but little importance; but between Cordova and Seville it is joined by its largest tributary, the Xenil, which rises in the Sierra Nevada, and flowing through the celebrated Vega of Granada, bursts through the Antequera mountains to enter the great plain of Andalusia, and loses itself in the Guadalquiver. From Seville downward the character of the stream is greatly changed; it wanders in large meanderings through low and marshy grounds for two or three leagues on each bank, mostly uninhabited, and used only for pasturing cattle. These low lands, which are called Marismas, in dry weather are covered with clouds of black dust, and in wet are an almost impassable slough of mud; mid these the river divides, and its winding beds form two islands—Isle Mayor and Menor, the former of which is wholly given to cattle, while the latter is inhabited and well cultivated; The river finally enters the Gulf of Cadiz, at San Lucar de Barameda, forcing its way with difficulty through low hills of sand, like those of the Landes in France. The marshes near the mouth are utilized as Salinas, for making excellent salt; and on the hills which overlook the Marismas some of the most renowned wines and fruits of Spain are produced. The whole course of the Guadalquiver is about 340 miles and the area of its basin 21,000: the rainfall is estimated at nineteen inches.
The other streams which fall into the Gulf of Cadiz—the Rio Tinto, which runs into the Huelva basin, and the Guadalete at Cadiz—are of no utility for navigation. The little port of Palos, whence Columbus sailed to discover a new world, is almost entirely blocked up by sands brought down by the former torrent.
The remaining rivers of Spain—those which, descending from the great plateau, flow eastward to the Mediterranean—though all useless for navigation, are among the most productive of all its streams. Flowing through a country whose temperature exceeds that of the opposite coast of Africa; where the rainfall is either scanty, or disastrous in quantity from rare but terrible storms; and through districts in which no rain falls for years together—the waters of these rivers, skilfully applied to irrigation, have rendered what would otherwise be a barren land one of fertility unparalleled in Europe. Unlike the peasants of Castile, the cultivators of Murcia and Valencia have learnt to value the use of water in agriculture; although even there, works which were first constructed by the Moors have been allowed to fall into ruin, and are yearly becoming of less utility. Of this we shall speak more at length below. The three great rivers we have yet to notice are the Murcian Segura, and the Jucar and Guadalaviar, in Valencia.
The river Segura takes its rise in the Sierra de Segura, between the Sierras of Alcaraz and Sagra. The upper part of its course is that of a mountain torrent, leaping from terrace to terrace of the mountains as it descends, until after the junction of the Mundo, which rises from a cirque in the Sierra Alcaras, like the cirque of Gavarnie in the Pyrenees, and flows through a deep ravine from the north-east. Its waters are dammed up, cut into numberless channels, and almost wholly utilized for irrigation, so that only about ten per cent of them reaches the sea; the rest are dissipated in the huertas of Murcia, Orihuela, and part of Elche. Its tributary the Sangonera loses almost all its waters in the plains of Lorca. With the little Vinalapo, almost 15,000 acres are rendered productive by the waters of these streams in one of the driest districts of Spain. The wheat of Orihuela is some of the finest in Spain; and so certain is the crop as to give rise to the proverb, "Rain or no rain, there is always wheat in Orihuela." The Segura has a course of about 217 miles, and an area of about 850 square miles; the average rainfall is estimated at about twelve inches, but the difference is very great in different years, as the district is liable to rare but most heavy and destructive floods.
The Jucar takes its rise not far from the sources of the Tagus, on the south side of the Muela de San Juan, which we have before mentioned as the culminating watershed of the peninsula. It flows first in a south-westerly direction as far as Cuenca, whence it gradually turns south and south-east, and at Jorquera, to the north-east of Albacete, strikes eastwards for the Mediterranean, which it finally enters at Cullera. Like the Segura and Guadalaviar, its waters are drained off for irrigation; but its basin is narrower, and it can boast of no fertility equal to the huertas of Murcia or Valencia. Its course is about 317 miles, the area of its bed 580, and the rainfall some twelve and a half inches; the irrigated land is over 30,000 acres.
The Guadalaviar, or Turia, rises on the north side of the Muela de San Juan, and descending rapidly, flows eastward past Albarracin and Teruel; at which latter town it turns abruptly southwards till it enters the province of Valencia, where it again takes a more easterly course, flowing with ever-diminished stream through the rich garden of Valencia, at which city it falls into the Mediterranean, with water which, except in time of flood, scarcely rises above the ankle. The length of its course is about 187 miles, the area of its basin 320 square miles; it irrigates over 25,000 acres near Valencia.
Besides these larger rivers, there are on the Mediterranean slope innumerable smaller streams, whose waters, though of little geographical importance, are of the greatest utility to agriculture. In summer scarcely a drop of their waters reaches the sea; all is either employed for irrigation, or dissipated by evaporation; often they are dammed up to form reservoirs or pantanos, sometimes employed for rice culture. But small as these streams are, it is to them that this burning coast owes its beauty and fertility, its almost tropical vegetation and its rich products. The fair gardens of Castellon, of Gandia, of Murviedro would be barren and valueless without these waters. Still farther to the north the waters of the Llobregat, and the canal of Urgel in Catalonia, are used for the same purpose.
The lakes of Spain are neither large nor numerous, but some are curious from a geographical point of view. On the high plateaux whence the Guadiana, the Guadalimar, the Segura, and the Jucar take their rise, either a dam or a trench would suffice to turn the waters either to the Atlantic or the Mediterranean; and here alone in Western Europe are found temporary lakes with no outlet, and consequently salt from excess of evaporation. For the same reason salt springs and brackish streams abound in these highlands. All around the coast, both on the Atlantic and Mediterranean, salinas, or salt-works for making salt, either from the sea or from the brackish water of lagoons and tidal marshes, abound; those of Cadiz, and of the coast between Cartagena and Alicante are celebrated for the excellence of their salt. Besides these are the five Albuferas, or lagoons, of Valencia, Alicante, Elche, Auna, and Oropesa. Of these that of Valencia is far the largest, and feeds enormous quantities of fish and of aquatic fowl of all kinds. The interior lakes, as that of Sanabria in Zamora, Gallocanta in Aragon, and those from which many of the rivers take their source, are noted only for their picturesque beauty. We can hardly show the value of water in Spain better than by directing the reader's attention to the number of places which take their name from water of some kind: thus there are forty-four villages or towns whose names are compounded of Aguas, waters; 238 into which the word Fuente, fountain, enters; 144 Rios, rivers; 54 Arroyos, brooks; 44 Pozos, wells; 30 Salinas, salt waters; 9 Rio Secos, dry rivers; and about 600 Molinos or water-mills. The multiplicity of these last dates perhaps from the time when every seigneur had his own mill, and obliged his vassals to grind their corn there; but assuredly in a moister climate water would not have played so great a part in the nomenclature, or toponymy, of the country.
We add the following table, deduced from Reclus' "Nouvelle Géographie Universelle," 6° Serie, p. 886, compared with an article in "La Revista Contemporanea," December 30th, 1880:—
|Guardiana & Zancara||24,000||553||14||20|
E. & S.E.
The mineral springs of Spain are very numerous, as might be expected in a mountainous country, at the junction of different strata in the metamorphic fissures, and in the neighbourhood of extinct volcanoes. Many of them were known and used by the Romans, and possibly by other races before their time. The Moors made use of many, more especially in the south. The majority of these springs are much neglected, and the bathing establishments in their roughness are a striking contrast to those of Germany and of France; there is, however, no reason to suppose that the waters themselves are less efficacious. The best known springs lie along the line of the Pyrenees, in Catalonia, Navarre, and especially in the Basque provinces and Santander. Another noted group are in the neighbourhood of Granada, and on the northern slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Those in the Guadarrama range are more frequented, from their vicinity to Madrid. Many of the Salados and Salinas in the higher parts of the eastern range, as well as the springs in the neighbourhood of Valencia, might be utilized with advantage. In this, as in many other things, Spain has not yet recovered the threads of a lost civilization, and in many points of material comfort and well-being is behind the Spain of Roman and of Moorish times.
SPAIN may be roughly divided into five climates: (1) that of the north and of the Pyrenees, where rain is abundant; (2) the west or Atlantic climate, including Portugal; (3) the north-east or Mediterranean; (4) the east and south, or African climate; and (5) lastly, the climate of the great Central Plateau, or the Continental. All these are well marked, and differ greatly in their temperature, in elevation, in exposure, in rainfall, and in prevailing winds. To speak of an average temperature, or of an average rainfall in Spain, is only to mislead. The temperature of the south and south-east is higher than that of the opposite coast of Africa, while the winters in Castile recall those of Scandinavia in their bitterness. In some of the Asturian valleys there is, perhaps, the heaviest rainfall in Europe; while the lower valley of the Ebro is almost a desert, from want of rain; and in parts of Valencia and Murcia, and even in Andalusia, not a drop will fall for years; yet at times these provinces, and their driest portions, are visited—as in 1802, 1879, and 1881—by overwhelming and destructive floods. To strike an average, then, even for the same spot, through several years, is often merely deceptive.
We have remarked above on the similarity of the conformation of the western coasts of Galicia to those of Norway, Scotland, and Ireland. They partake also of the same Atlantic character in their climate and productions. Galicia and the Asturias are essentially grazing countries; and from the Galician ports, up to 1878, about 20,000 head of fatted cattle were annually sent to England. Except in the more sheltered valleys, where the productions of a warmer clime will flourish, the native flora is not unlike that of the milder parts of Ireland and of Devonshire. The average temperature of Santiago is about 55° Fahr., with a maximum of 95°, and a minimum of 28°; Oviedo is given as 54° average, maximum 80°, and minimum 24°; while the rainfall of the former is from 58 to 68 inches, and that of the latter varies from 38 to 50 in ordinary years, but in 1858 it attained 80 inches. Proceeding eastward we meet the northern or Pyrenean climate, where the rainfall is not so great, and, except in the immediate vicinity of the highest mountains, lessens gradually as we either go eastward or descend into the plains. The moisture is condensed and wrung out of the clouds brought by the watery western winds, and precipitated on the mountains of the west and north. From the Picos de Europa, in the province of Santander, which may be considered as the meeting-point of the two climates, the waters descend on the one side by the Ebro to the Mediterranean, by the Pisuerga to the Douro and the Atlantic, and by the shorter northern streams to the Bay of Biscay. In the valley of the Cabuervega (Santander) the rainfall is 57½ inches. Passing eastward we find Bilbao and San Sebastian, with an average temperature of 56° and 55°, a maximum of 93°, and minimum 23°, while the rainfall has diminished from 55 to 48 inches. At Vergara, more inland, it is 52. At Huesca, in Aragon, notwithstanding its proximity to the mountains, the rainfall is only 25 inches; at Balaguer, in Catalonia, only 15½. At Saragossa the climate becomes more extreme; the average is 60°, the maximum 96°, and the minimum 20°, while the rainfall descends to 14 inches. The equalizing influence of the neighbourhood of the sea is felt in the Mediterranean climate at Barcelona; for while the average is 63°, the maximum is only 88°, and the minimum 32°, and the rainfall ascends to 24 inches. The difference is still more marked if we compare the extreme oscillation between the maximum and minimum temperatures. At Saragossa this is from 120° to 130°; at Barcelona from 90° to 100° Fahr.
The productions of this northern zone vary greatly according to elevation and exposition. Those of the Basque Provinces still belong to the north temperate zone climate—cattle, corn, and cider, as well as wine. The olive, and the mulberry for silk, are almost unknown; but maize is largely grown. As we approach Catalonia these products give way to those of the Mediterranean region of Provence and of the Riviera—the olive, the grape, the mulberry. A powerful red wine is made on the lower southern spurs of the Pyrenees and of the Cantabrian Mountains, in the Riojas, in Navarre, and in Aragon. Much of it would be excellent if more attention were paid to the preparation, and especially to the conditions of transport. Great quantities are at present exported to France by sea from Bilbao and San Sebastian, and also by rail, for the purpose of mixing with the thinner and poorer clarets of Bordeaux, to fit them for the taste and market of England. In Catalonia the wine improves, and is less used for mixing. The chief kinds are a red wine, like Rousillon, and sweet, luscious wines, Rancio, somewhat like Muscat or Malaga. Of late the manufacture of effervescing wines like champagne has been carried on with considerable success. The wine made in Catalonia amounts to one-fifth of the whole produce of Spain. Already the orange and the palm appear.
Proceeding southwards from Catalonia, we gradually advance into the south-eastern and southern climate of Spain, a climate which is rather African than European in its character, and both whose products and dryness have more relation to the African continent than to that of the rest of Europe. It is here that the date-palm ripens—which it does not on the opposite coast of Algeria—and the camel breeds, and can be used as a beast of burden equally as in Egypt and the East. Sheltered by the mountain ranges to the east and north from the cold winds which sweep the plateau of Castile, exposed by the slope of the country to the full influence of the southern sun and its powerful evaporation, the characteristics of the climate are warmth and dryness, while the vicinity of the Mediterranean partly tempers the extreme range of heat and cold which might be found in lands more remote from the sea. Thus the average temperature of Valencia is 65°, its maximum 102°, its minimum 41°, and extreme range 100°. Alicante, still further south, has an average of 66°, a maximum of 100°, and a minimum of 35°. The average rainfall at Valencia is stated at 17, and that of Alicante at 18 inches; but, as remarked above, in this south-eastern district of Spain averages of rainfall are quite deceptive. In some years the quantity marked is only a very few inches, 3 or 6, over the whole district, and there are considerable portions where rain does not fall for years. The country is rendered fertile and productive, not by its rains, but by irrigation from the rivers, fed by the winter snows on the mountains which border the great plateau. At times, however, as in 1802 and 1879, storms of rain descend on the high lands of Murcia and the eastern sierras, and floods rush down, sweeping away dams which have stood for centuries, washing away towns and villages, and spreading destruction far and wide. To compute the rainfall of such floods into an average is only to play with figures. Murcia has an average temperature of 64°, maximum 112°, minimum 24°, and an extreme range of 120°. The rainfall averages about 12½ inches on the coast, but varies greatly; at Albacete it is said to average 13 inches. The directly southern coast, from the Cabo de Gata to Gibraltar, has a milder and more equable climate than that of the south-eastern coast; but in the inland valley of the Guadalquiver the range is more extreme, both for heat and cold. The dryness in the eastern district still continues from Cartagena to Almeria; the rainfall is said to be only 12 inches. At Malaga, while the average temperature is 66°, about the same as that at Valencia and Alicante, the maximum is said to be only 78°, and the minimum 53°. At Motril, between Malaga and Almeria, the maximum is 77°, and the minimum 52°. In Seville on the other hand, the average is 68°, with a maximum Of 118°, and a minimum of 30°. Cordova, somewhat colder, has a maximum of 93°, and a minimum of 27°. The rainfall is also more moderate at Malaga, 15½ inches, and 23 at Seville. Granada, in its upland but sheltered valley, at an elevation of 2681 feet, defended from the east and south by the snowy range of the Sierra Nevada, and by the mountains of Granada to the north, has still an average of 65°, with a maximum of 97°, and a minimum of 42°. The rainfall varies considerably in different years, and various geographers give its average as 23½ 33½, and the latest (Reclus) 48½. Cadiz has an Atlantic climate, which in temperature and greater rainfall, 37 inches, closely approximates to that of Madeira. Moving westward it decreases, at Gibraltar, 34½, San Fernando, 27; while at Huelva and Tarifa, where the moisture of the north-west gales is intercepted by the Portuguese mountains, it descends to 24½. We have now only to treat of the climate of the great central elevation, the plateau, which ranges at an average height of some 2000 feet above the sea. Thus, Madrid is 2148, Segovia 2299, Burgos 2873, Soria 3504, and the Escorial, 3683 feet above the sea-level. But even these altitudes do not wholly account for the rigour of the climate in the latitude of Naples, Rome, and Constantinople. We have seen how excellent is the climate of Granada at a nearly equal elevation, only three degrees further south. The extremes of heat and cold felt at Valladolid and Madrid are due more to the uncovered mountain ranges to the north, the treeless, waterless plains, over which the wind sweeps unchecked, than to mere elevation. The want of rain is greatly owing to the ranges of mountains parallel to the frontier and to the Atlantic in Portugal, which condense and wring all the moisture from the rain-clouds of the Atlantic, and distribute it almost wholly on the western slope. Thus at Lisbon the fall is 29, at Coimbra 35, at Oporto 63, in the mountains of Beira and Tras os Montes from 68 to 100 inches; while on the eastern slope, at Salamanca it is 9, Valladolid 12, at Badajoz 12½, Ciudad Real 14. From the bare granite range of the Guadarrama steals down the treacherous icy wind so fatal in Madrid—not sufficiently strong to extinguish a candle, but quite enough to destroy human life. It is the dislike of the Castilian peasant to trees, which would overshadow so much of his small property, the destruction of the mountain forests, and the want of good agriculture, which has embittered the climate of these plateaux. Were the hill-sides clothed with wood, the country dotted with farms, the wide and bare plains covered throughout the year with varied agricultural produce, the climate would soon be modified and become sensibly warmer, and no longer, as it at present is, an obstacle to civilization and to improvement. In spite of all neglect these plains grow some of the finest wheat in Europe, and the lower mountain ranges supply pasture in the summer for the immense flocks which return to winter in the plains of Estremadura. The average temperature of Madrid is 59°, its maximum 104° to 107°, and its minimum only 7°. That of Salamanca is said to be 57°, with a maximum of 97°, and a minimum of 12°. The average rainfall of Madrid is only from 9 to 14 inches, that of Salamanca 9, while Soria, nearer to the mountains, in some years reaches 25 inches.
From the above sketch of the climate the reader will expect to find the productions vary greatly in the different districts. The north and north-west are the lands of cattle and of pasture. In Galicia and in the Asturias the products are almost like those of the warmer parts of the south-west of England and of Ireland, save that in the more sheltered valleys the orange, citron, and pomegranate flourish; a palm is even now and then to be seen; and the wine, especially on the confines of Portugal, is excellent, and needs only more care in preparation to be a rival to the famous Port of the neighbouring country. In the eighteenth century, that of Ribadavia was considered to be the finest wine in all Spain. Maize, too, is freely grown; but on account of their extreme poverty, rye and spelt often replace both it and wheat as food for the peasantry. The upland plateaux afford excellent pasture, especially for cattle and horses; the hardy and sure-footed hacks of Galicia and the Asturias are celebrated. The mountains here are often clothed with wood; oaks of various kinds, and the edible chestnut, and the hazel-nut—of which over 1000 tons, value 23,000l., are annually exported from Gijon—grow on the lower spurs, giving food to herds of swine; beech, and pine, and fir appear as we approach the tops. In the lower woods the arbutus especially flourishes, and the young wild boars in autumn are said to become half stupefied with its narcotic berries. As we proceed eastward from Galicia to the Asturias the climate becomes sensibly colder—the valleys face the north instead of the west; the orange is less known, the mulberry will not flourish sufficiently well to pay for silk cultivation, the olive will not grow, and the cork does not pay for cultivation; the wines lose somewhat of their strength and lusciousness; and cider, made from the excellent apples of the country, rivals the juice of the grape in popularity. The mountains are covered with heath, and fern, and furze, but the aromatic plants are fewer than in Galicia. This description applies to the northern slope of the Cantabrian chain and to the rolling hills and plateaux of the Basque provinces; but the southern slopes of the chain, towards the Ebro, are again a land of vine and olive, and of maize, which is everywhere the staple. In the Basque provinces the plough is replaced by the ancient "laya," an instrument as old, at least, as Roman times. It is a heavy two-pronged steel or iron fork, with prongs one and a half to two feet long. A strong man will work two of them at once, one in each hand, driving them into the ground to their full depth, then with a backward strain turning up the deep soil. Usually, four or five men work together, and raise their arms, plunge the fork downwards, and heave, in perfect time. The cultivation thus effected is excellent, but the expenditure of labour is immense The productions do not vary greatly along the slopes of the Pyrenees from those above described until we reach Catalonia; but in the lower valley of the Ebro, where rain is rare, in the Bardeñas reales of Navarre, and in the monegros, or despoblados of Aragon, we meet with a phenomenon only too frequent in Spain—tracts of almost utter barrenness. The Bardeñas reales are low spurs of the Pyrenees, with table-lands, bluffs, and deep gorges, and these could scarcely be brought under cultivation; but the "despoblados" (dispeopled lands) of Aragon might be irrigated, either by the Ebro or by its tributaries, if the water of the canal of Charles V. were but economically applied. The sterility of some parts seems to have been the slow result of an oppressive land tenure; for as Don Vicente de la Fuente has remarked, the lands which belonged to the ancient señors (the feudal lords) lie barren, while the lands of the comunidades, the free districts, are still fertile. In treating, of the cultivation and the products of eastern and southern Spain two facts become evident at once—how many of the products are exotic, and how much of the cultivation is still Arabian. We shall see in another chapter how deep a mark the Moor or Arab has left on the population and toponymy of Spain; and the agriculture of the greater part of central and southern Spain is still Arabian. The methods of the Spanish peasant are almost all Arabian; often he uses the Arabian hoe in preference to the Roman plough. The noria, or water-wheel; the sha'doof, or swipe, the pole and bucket for lifting water; the huge dams and reservoirs, the canals and ditches (acequias), the regulations for the fair distribution of the water,—all these, and even the very superstitions as to times of sowing, the rotation of crops, the treatment of his animals—for all these the Spanish peasant of the South is indebted to the Moors. The treatise of Abu Zaccaria, with its traditions of Nabathean agriculture, is still one of the manuals of agriculture in Spain. It is the Moors, too, who first made the winter gardens in the sands near San Lucarde Barameda, at the mouth of the Guadalquiver, and which supply Cadiz and Seville with the earliest and latest vegetables. The Roman, with his lofty aqueducts, brought water to the towns; but it was the Moor who gave that blessing to the thirsty soil of the country districts of Spain. And not only the methods of agriculture, but many of its fruits and products were introduced by the Arab from the East, and some of these are now the very staple of Spanish produce. It is they who brought into Spain the cotton plant, rice, and the sugar-cane; mulberries, both for fruit and for silk culture; sesame, the caper, the locust bean, the castor-oil plant, alfalfa (lucerne), the pomegranate, almond, the walnut and filbert, the chestnut and the ever-green oak, the wild olive, the jujube, the pistacchio nut, the palm, several kinds of roses, the wall-flower, with many another garden herb or flower. It was they who improved the Andalusian steed into one of the most excellent in Europe for riding, and the strain may still be traced even in the ponies of the north. But the cultivated vegetation of the south which meets the stranger's eye is perhaps still more indebted to the Americas. It needs an effort now to picture what Spanish agriculture and what Spanish life was before the time of Columbus, when maize, and the potato, and sweet potato, were unknown; when not a cigar was smoked or cigarette made, or leaf of tobacco grown in Spain; when only garlic was known, and those indispensable condiments of every dish, the tomato, and the pimentos had not yet entered a Spanish kitchen, and chocolate had not yet been sipped by Spanish ladies; when the hedges were bare of aloes, and the prickly pear gave the beggar no fruit. And besides these common gifts, there are the more luxurious ones of pine apples, grenadines (the fruit of the passion-flower), abocado pears, chirimoyas, guavas, earth-nuts, bananas, and many others, while the gardens are enriched with magnolias and passion-flowers, and a wealth of creepers of all kinds. The Australian eucalypti, also, are highly valued in Spain, both as a febrifuge and for their prophylactic qualities in prevention of malaria in marshy ground; and a decoction from their leaves has quite passed into the popular pharmacopeia.
 For the converse of this, the plants and fruits introduced by the Spaniards into America, see Markham's "Peru," in this series, p. 120.
The most common plant on the sun-dried hills of Valencia and Murcia, the esparto-grass (Stipe tenacissima), after having been long used in various native manufactures, has since 1856 become an article of exportation, and an important addition to the wealth of Spain; but the cultivation of the barilla plant for soda has much decreased. It is from Valencia that the oranges come which are such favourites in Paris. The tree is so valuable, both for fruit and flowers, that an acre will sometimes give 600l. worth of produce. The dried raisins and almonds so familiar in England, so eagerly looked for at Christmas time, and the green preserved grapes, come from the districts of which we are now speaking, the coast-lands from Valencia to Almeira and Malaga. The wines are equally celebrated, from the strong red wines of Benicarlo, near the frontiers of Catalonia, to the sweet wines of Alicante and of Malaga, which are preferred by Continental taste to the drier and more fiery sherries, wines of the Guadalquiver valley, which please the English palate. Near the coast on the lower grounds, wherever there is sufficient water, rice is grown; but, on account of the unhealthy character of the cultivation, its culture is forbidden in the neighbourhood of towns. Sugar-cane is extending on the southern coast. In Andalusia alone more than 7000 acres are devoted to this culture, and the total yield of the sugar-cane in Spain is estimated at nearly 20,000 tons. Palms are grown as an ornament and garden-tree from Barcelona to Malaga, but in Murcia, and especially at Elche, they are planted for production. Though the number seems declining, there are still some 40,000 palms together in the neighbourhood of Elche; in the last century they are said to have numbered from 50,000 to 70,000. It is not for the fruit alone, the date, but for the leaves (the so-called palm-branches) that the trees are grown. In the winter these are tied into a close bundle to exclude the rays of the sun, in order that they may become white, and they are then exported to Rome and Italy, for use in the Easter ceremonies of Palm Sunday. Oils and essences, extracted from many plants and flowers, are also products of this region. The liquorice-root, and many another flower, or fruit, or root of medicinal value grows wild on the hills. The slopes of the eastern mountains are covered with aromatic herbs, thyme, myrtle, box, rosemary, southern-wood, mint, lavender, marjoram, nearly all the sweet-scented herbs which were once carefully cultivated in the gardens of our ancestors, are natives of these hills; and the flocks of goats returning from their pastures bring the sweet odours into the tainted towns and villages, and the first draught of milk from them is highly flavoured thereby. On these treeless hills, and the warmer parts of the higher plateaux, these aromatic herbs are often the only fuel which the peasant can employ. The wealth of this portion of the Spanish soil, the variety and beauty of its products, can be best seen in a visit to a fruit or flower market in any of the towns of the south and east. The richness of colour, the size and beauty of form, are amazing to the stranger; but the quantity and the cheapness, the way in which these fruits and exotic vegetables enter into the diet of the poor, is that which most astonishes those from less generous climes. We have not space to enumerate in detail a tithe of these productions; this must be sought in more special treatises.
Almost equal in agricultural and garden wealth to that of the coast-line, and superior to it as regards the culture of the vine, is the valley of the Guadalquiver. The oranges of Seville (the civil oranges of our forefathers, the main ingredient of marmalade), sack, and sherry, are known in every English home of the middle and upper classes. It is in the valley of the Guadalquiver, from San Lucar de Barameda to above Cordova, that the finest sherries are produced. From San Lucar comes the pleasant Manzanilla, the lightest and most wholesome of all the sherries, but with a peculiar bitter taste and bouquet, like that of the wild camomile-flower. In the neighbourhood of Jerez de la Frontera the best sherries are produced, both brown and golden; the Amontillado, the nutty-flavoured wine so much sought after, comes from Montilla, to the south of Cordova. Several other kinds are manufactured, and have a great local reputation. Comparatively very little of these strong and fiery wines is consumed in Spain. Spaniards take them only as a liqueur, not as the usual accompaniment of a meal or desert. Sherry, though grown in Spain, is the foreigner's, and especially the Englishman's wine. The red Valdepeñas, from the northern slope of the Sierra Morena, replaces it at the Spaniard's table. For the modes of preparation of the various sherries, we must refer our readers to special treatises; of its statistics as an article of commerce we shall speak in another chapter. The first palm-tree introduced into Spain is said to have been planted near Cordova. The olives of this district are considered the finest in Spain. Comparatively little of the oil is exported, but the home consumption is enormous. The cork forests, too, are abundant; their bark forms an important article of commerce.
We have now only to speak of the great central plateau, the Continental climate of Spain, and its productions. This is peculiarly the corn-growing district of Spain, the land of wheat and maize, especially in the Castiles. Estremadura and Léon are rather pastoral districts. It is in these provinces that the laws of the Mesta, for the protection of the celebrated merino sheep, ruled supreme, and which, though modified at the close of the last century, and some of their worst abuses done away with, were finally repealed only in 1835. By these laws the sheep and cattle which fed in the winter in the plains of Estremadura, and in the summer on the mountains of Léon, were privileged to enter almost any property on their line of march, to feed or to pass the night there. A space of ninety yards wide was reserved on each side of the highways for their accommodation; no land, especially no corn-field, was allowed to be enclosed; and right of forcible entrance was given to all orchards and vineyards where pasturage might be found. Wherever the flocks had once fed, the land could not be sold or alienated to any other purpose. The shepherds who tended these flocks became almost as savage and ignorant as the beasts they looked after; their privileges produced in them a contempt and hatred of all kinds of fixed property, and they were ever trying to extend their oppressive right at the expense of the more settled and agricultural portion of the community. Under the influence of these laws Estremadura, which, in the time of the Romans and Moors had been one of the richest provinces of Spain, became under their Christian conquerors not only one of the poorest and most thinly peopled districts, but also a curse and source of destruction to the rest. Not only were all the evils of the old Roman "latifundia" reproduced in this mediæval system, but the locust, which never breeds in cultivated lands, or where the plough passes, was enabled to make its home in the wilds and pastures of Estremadura, whence it periodically sallied out to devastate the fairest and richest portions of the land. In the years 1754 to 1757 it desolated the whole of the provinces between Estremadura and the Mediterranean. In 1686 and the following year it reached the principality of Barcelona, and, in spite of exorcisms, ravaged the country till there was nothing more to destroy. The provinces nearer to Estremadura are much more frequent sufferers, and in recent years (in 1876 the crops in Ciudad Real were utterly destroyed) a division of the army has been more than once employed to destroy or to check them on their march. The only plant they spare is the tomata, which they will not touch. Besides flocks, Estremadura maintains huge herds of swine, which feed on the sweet acorns and chestnuts of its woods, and whose flesh is renowned through Spain. Owing to its situation on the borders of Andalusia, in which province the Moors retained their powers long after they had lost the rest of Spain, Estremadura was exposed to their frequent incursions; every flock and herd was liable to be carried off, every fruit-tree to be cut down, the farms burnt and crops destroyed; and in their retaliation the Christian knights were almost as fatal as the Arab horsemen. The country was never thoroughly peopled after the reconquest, and the sense of insecurity remained long after the cause of it had been removed. The laws of the Mesta and the emigration to the Americas (both Cortes and Pizarro were Extrameños) finished the work of depopulation, and left the province, as it has since remained, naturally one of the richest, actually one of the poorest in Spain. The products, besides those above mentioned, are cork, oak-bark and acorns for tanning, honey, nuts, and chestnuts.
The bare plains of the Castiles are now the great corn-producing country of Spain. But they have little or nothing of the beauty and variety of cultivated land in other countries. There is no succession of crops, no mixed husbandry, no scattered farm-houses, neither tree nor fence to break the bare monotony. The hill-sides and mountains are given up to pasture, the plains to wheat and maize. The husbandmen live in villages, and ride out on donkeys in early morn to their distant fields, and return home at night. A sense of insecurity seems still to brood over the land, as if the peasant dared not trust himself outside the walls of village or town. Only at harvest-time, in the warm summer and autumn nights, he camps out among his crops, to thresh them on the spot, and bring the produce home, a habit which often produces fever and ague. Year after year the process is repeated; no improvement is ever made; if rain falls the harvest is plentiful—so plentiful sometimes that the lazy peasant will not reap his most distant fields, or procure new skins or barrels for the over-abundant wine, though with the extension of railways this evil is fast disappearing. There is hardly a greater contrast than between the habits of the Castilian peasants and those of the peasant-proprietors in the Basque provinces and in those of north and north-west. In the Basque provinces the farms are scattered all over the country, and travellers from other districts of Spain speak of the whole district as if it were one city. The farm-house stands in the midst of its grounds, with orchard, garden, trees and fences, meadow and corn-land round it. To Englishmen this description is almost a matter of course, and one must read the narrative of travellers from Castile fully to appreciate the force of the contrast. There is, moreover, no natural impediment whatever to a similar course of life in many districts of the Castiles. Barren and dreary as they look, the plains called the "Sierras de Campos," and some others, are watered by a kind of natural capillary attraction; dry as the surface appears, water is always to be found at a few inches below the surface, and the roots of the wheat and other cereal crops penetrate to it. It is only the mixture of pride and laziness and ignorance of the Castilian peasant, his senseless disdain of all improvement, his want of ambition for anything better, that prevents progress in this part of Spain. He refused to make use of the machinery invented for him in the last century, nor will he avail himself of the means of irrigation and the still better machines provided for him now. Yet there is no agricultural country in which machinery could be introduced to greater advantage.
Perhaps no better idea can be given of the productions of Spain, and of the diversity of its climates and fruits, than by comparing those of Murcia with those of the north-west and the centre. In January the bean is in flower in Murcia, in April in Madrid; the vine and the wheat flower in April in Murcia, but not till May or June in the province of Madrid. The climate of Galicia, with its almost continual rain, and Murcia with its droughts, are perhaps the most opposite climates of Spain. The one is a land of pasture and of flax cultivation; its fruits are the apple, the pear, the peach, strawberries, currants, and nuts of all kinds; the predominant plant on the hill-sides is the furze, in Murcia it is the Esparto grass. The fruits there cultivated in the gardens are exotic, and have almost wholly replaced the indigenous flora; the "huertas," the gardens or cultivated plains, are there almost like oases in a desert.
The fauna of Spain—except in one particular, the monkeys (Macacus Innuus) which inhabit the rock of Gibraltar, and which are the only animals of their kind wild in Europe—does not greatly differ from that of the rest of Southern Europe. In the highest part of the Pyrenees, in the Sierra de Credos, and in the Sierra Nevada, the izard or chamois still exists in considerable numbers. Whether the bouquetin is really extinct, or still survives in the Spanish Pyrenees, is a disputed point. In the forests which clothe the lower spurs, roe and fallow deer, wild goats and wild boars, and in some districts red deer, are still to be found. The beasts of prey are the bear, the wolf, the lynx, the fox, wild cat, marten, ferret, weasel, &c.; and these are assisted by the no less rapacious birds of prey—the vultures, eagles, hawks, falcons, kites, harriers, pies, and jays. The game birds and animals are the pheasant, now very rare, partridges of both kinds, bustards, both large and small, sand-grouse, quails, which come in immense quantities to the vineyards and maize-fields in the summer and autumn, woodcock, snipe; wild duck, geese, all kinds of water-birds and waders, visit the marshes of the rivers and the lagoons of the coast in winter; and on the southern shores meet the flamingoes, pelicans, spoonbills, and other birds from the African coast. From the same quarter come numerous and brighter-plumaged birds of passage; orioles, bee-eaters, hoopoes, and other natives of a warmer zone, are brought over by the hot south wind so irritating to the nerves and temper of a southern Spaniard. It is then that the shores of the Mediterranean are lined with sportsmen, when the moon is near full, to take heavy toll of these winged travellers. The entomology of Spain is probably very rich. We have spoken of the locusts of Estremadura; and in the wilds where they breed—mere solitudes in summer, when the flocks are absent in their northern pastures—many a rare species of butterfly, cicada, and insect is doubtless to be found. The insects of Spain, however, are not all noxious or without value. Silk-worms are largely bred in the coast provinces of the east and south, not only for their silk, but also for the gut so precious to all trout and salmon fishermen. The cochineal insect, which feeds on the leaves of the prickly pear, is cultivated for its brilliant dye.
Of useful and domesticated animals, the sheep of Spain have always been celebrated; the very name, "merinos," has been given to the softest kind of wool or woolly tissue. It is said that the breed attained its excellence through a present of English South Down rams by Edward I. to the father of his Castilian bride, and that the wool has improved under climatic influences. However this may be, the superiority has hardly been maintained, and careless shepherding has sadly deteriorated the breed; still the half-bred Spanish merinos are the favourite flocks throughout the north of Spain and Southern France, and they are slowly superseding the coarser native and local breeds. The Spanish cattle from Galicia are well known in the English market, but they are not the choicest of their kind. The bulls that are bred for the bull-fights are reared chiefly along the marshy banks of the Guadalquiver, which, like the delta of the Rhone, supports herds of half-wild cattle and buffaloes. Cow's milk is little known or used in many districts of Spain, and butter still less. Sheep or goat's milk supplies the place of the former, and the olive-oil, excellent were it not too often kept till rancid, that of the latter. Cheese and various kinds of curdled milk or whey are also made from the milk of sheep. Since the advent of the Arabs the Andalusian steed has been much celebrated. It is now scarcely equal to its former fame, but, like many a horse of warmer climes, its performances are better than its looks; hardy, sure-footed, swift, and docile, if not over-weighted it will do more than one of many a finer-looking but less enduring breed. The horse, however, is not the true beast of burden in Spain; he is the charger, or the luxury of the rich. The real work of the country is done by the humble mule or ass, or, in some districts, by the ox. The fine Spanish mules are now seldom bred in the country, but are procured from Poitou, or from the south of France, where great attention is paid to their production, and where the average price of a mule of six months old is higher than that of a horse of the same age. For long journeys, and for carrying produce over the mountain paths, or along the bad roads of the interior, the mule and pack-saddle is still generally used. In fact, in some districts no other mode of conveyance is possible; but the loss to commerce from want of better communications is immense. It is this mode of carriage which necessitates and continues the use of the tarred wine-skin, by which so much excellent wine is rendered unsalable and almost undrinkable. It is hard to recognize the delicious wine when tasted at the vineyard, in the pitch-flavoured, half-fermented liquor which has travelled for days in a skin exposed to the sun's heat by day, and the closeness and fetid odours of the inns by night. Besides these, the camel, buffalo, and llama, and vicunâ have been introduced successfully as an experiment for breeding, but not in sufficient numbers to affect the means of transport in the peninsula.
The fisheries in Galicia and along the north-west Atlantic coast, and also at Huelva and at Cadiz, are very valuable. Not only are they an abundant means of support to the inhabitants of the coast and of Léon and Northern Castile, but the fishermen engaged in them furnish the best sailors to the Spanish navy. The chief kinds of fish are sardines and pilchards, of which great numbers are preserved in oil, the tunny, and the sea-bream, of which enormous quantities are annually taken. The rivers, from the Minho to the Bidassoa, furnish trout and salmon. In the Mediterranean, tunny, and the anchovies which replace the sardines, are the chief fisheries, but many Spaniards are also engaged in the coral-fishing off the coasts of Catalonia, of Algiers, and of Tunis.
The total production of Spain has been approximately valued at
EVEN in geological features Spain is a land apart. Divided from the rest of Europe by the regular Palæozoic band of the Pyrenees, the rocks of the Peninsula are only susceptible of separate study. Hence no consistent geological history can be deduced from the fragmentary and superficial observations that as yet form the basis of the geological map of Spain. A few striking features and geological statistics may however be presented; and the recently-published map of Botella, as well as the mass of valuable matter already collected by the Comision del Mapa geologico de España, are an earnest that Spanish geology will soon occupy a place corresponding to its peculiar interest.
A mass of Granitic, Cambrian, and Silurian rocks forms the central plateau of Spain, extending in a south-easterly direction from Galicia to the valley of the Guadalquiver, and spreading to the north-east, as shown by the chains of the Guadarrama and the mountains of Toledo, to terminate in the Celtiberian range, running nearly parallel to the Ebro by Soria and the Moncayo. In this mass the main folds of the strata appear to run in a south-easterly, the main fractures in a north-easterly, direction; whence the gridiron arrangement of the mountain chains and river valleys, directed by these leading features of the rocky structure. Great buttresses of the Carboniferous formation occupy the corners of the central mass, to the north and south-west, and occasional patches of its upper and coal-bearing beds are scattered over the interior. The whole valley of the Ebro occupies a trough of Secondary rocks, which extend in a south-easterly direction from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean, forming a wide boundary to the older central mass, and running along the north coast towards Oviedo. The Secondary formations of the Ebro sweep over the chain of the Moncayo on to the central plateau by Burgos, Soria, and Calatayud; and their latest member—the Upper Cretaceous—advances in two long tongues on to the granite of the Guadarrama, and far to the east of Madrid, it being probable that at least this member formerly extended over the central plateau. Another wide band of Secondary rocks, running in a north-easterly direction, forms the long strip of Andalusia south of the Guadalquiver; and by Valencia and Cuenca this band is widely prolonged to the Ebro basin; otherwise, a narrow and interrupted strip along the south coast, and a bay-like expanse from the Atlantic, between Lisbon and Oporto, are the only Secondary tracts of the Peninsula. These Secondary rocks are however in great part concealed by Eocene Tertiary beds, formed in marine gulfs in the valley of the Ebro and the Guadalquiver, and overlaid by Eocene and Miocene fresh-water deposits; the latter being also represented by vast lacustrine sheets, which contemporaneously accumulated, and conceal the crystalline and palæozoic formations in the elevated river basins of the central primary plateau. Patches of Pliocene sands and clays along the Mediterranean coast, sheets of diluvial gravels below the mountains, and alluvial sands along the larger rivers represent the local and most recent effects of water and ice.
The consequences of this general structure are apparent on every hand. The population of Galicia is in many respects similar to that of the Portuguese mountaineers, who occupy the same band of naked granitic and primary rocks. The inhabitants of the varied and fertile Secondary band of Andalusia and Valencia have many traits in common. The Biscayans are a race apart, like the labyrinth of Cretaceous precipices and green rainy valleys which they inhabit. All are distinct from the Castilians, whose monotonous and isolated existence on the vast treeless steppes of crumbling Tertiary sands and marls that carpet the primary plateau 2000 feet above the sea has deeply influenced their character. Finally, the inhabitants of the Ebro basin, a region where the dry Tertiary soil of Castile is combined with many characteristics of the Secondary tracts, afford a curious mixture of Castilian with Basque or Valencian traits. The inhabitants of the greater Spanish cities are of course products of civilization, not of the soil.
Of the visible surface of Spain 37 per cent. is occupied by Crystalline and Palæozoic rocks, 34 per cent. by Tertiary, 19 per cent. by Secondary, and 10 per cent. by Quaternary deposits. The Palæozoic rocks are greatly contorted and fractured, the Secondary scarcely less so, the older Tertiary are crumpled up against the flanks of the mountain chains, and even upturned Pliocene deposits testify in some places to the late continuance of the movements that have contributed to the production of the peculiar elevated character of the Peninsula. The remains of undoubted volcanoes are confined to the insignificant groups of Olot, Cabo de Gata, and Ciudad Real, but innumerable dykes and bosses of igneous rock are scattered over the primitive plateau where unconcealed by Tertiary sheets, and are also frequent in the Secondary tracts. This abundance of igneous injections is intimately connected with the exceptionally metalliferous character of Spain, while the fractured and contorted condition of even the latest rocky formations has contributed to a general diffusion of mineral wealth.
The granite and other igneous rocks form rounded bosses or prominent pinnacles, according as they are more or less subject to atmospheric decomposition; the pine and the Spanish chestnut flourish on their slopes; iron, lead, copper, tin, graphite, phosphorite, kaolin, steatite, and serpentine are among the products of these crystalline masses. The gneiss and crystalline schists that in part probably represent the Laurentian formation, contain silver, bismuth, molybdenum, and tin; while metamorphic rocks of unknown age are amongst the richest in mines, affording iron, lead, silver, copper, zinc, mercury, manganese, and graphite. The Cambrian formation, a mass of lustrous fissile slate, traversed by white quartz veins, furnishes lead, silver, phosphorite, and gold. The Silurian slates and quartzites yield iron, lead, silver, copper, mercury, manganese, antimony, cobalt, nickel, anthracite, and gold. A few limited patches of Devonian sandstones, quartzites, slates, marls, and limestones, afford iron, zinc, phosphorite, cobalt, and nickel. The Carboniferous series, occupying two per cent. of the surface, includes valuable coal-fields, the immense masses of iron and copper pyrites of the Rio Tinto, Tharsis, and other mines in the province of Huelva, besides iron, zinc, mercury, manganese, antimony, cobalt, nickel, and phosphorite in other districts. The silver-bearing metamorphic rocks of Cartagena, and a portion of the slopes of the Sierra Nevada are classed in the Permian formation. The Triassic conglomerates, sandstones, and variegated marls, which form the usual base of the Secondary rocks, are rich in salt, gypsum, and iron, and afford some copper and zinc. The Jurassic limestones and marls contain asphalte and bituminous slate. The Cretaceous—mainly Neocomian in the south, the Upper Cretaceous predominating in the north—contains the immense iron deposits of Bilbao; valuable beds of lignite resembling coal; lead, zinc, and asphalte mines in the northern provinces, and gold in Granada. In the Eocene formation, which includes the Nummulitic limestone that forms some of the highest summits of the Pyrenees, the celebrated salt-mine of Cardona, in Catalonia, is usually classed. The Miocene beds contain valuable sulphur deposits along the southern coast, and great accumulations of sulphate of soda on the arid steppes of Madrid and other provinces; while gypsum, in which Spain is probably richer than the whole remainder of Europe, is abundant in this formation. Lastly, some native silver is found in the Pliocene deposits of Almeria, and in the Tertiary clays of Guadalajara, while the later gravels of Galicia afford stream tin and gold, the last similarly occurring in Leon and Caceres.
The quantity of mineral contained in the rocks of Spain is no less remarkable than the exceptional variety of its distribution; but owing to a series of adverse circumstances, the industrial production affords a most inadequate idea of the capabilities of the mines, if developed by a fair amount of capital and skill. The following figures, showing the production in 1875, are derived from the last official reports issued by the Spanish Government, and are certainly below the truth:—
|Tons of ore
|Tons of metal|
These figures do not include the bar iron produced directly from ore in Spain, nor 160 tons of argentiferous copper ore, 89 tons of cobalt ore, and 440 tons of nickel ore. The silver extracted in Spain amounted to more than 16,000 lbs. troy, while four times that amount was contained in exported argentiferous lead. The coal extracted amounted to 666,000 tons, lignite above 27,000, sulphur above 3000, and phosphorite above 12,000 tons. The year 1875 was, however, peculiarly unfavourable to Spanish mining, and the working of the Bilbao mines, which now produce nearly 2,000,000 tons yearly of excellent iron ore, was then practically suspended by the Carlist war. All disadvantages cannot, however, arrest the steady increase of mineral production in Spain, although under more normal political circumstances the above figures would have been greatly exceeded.
The chief coal district is that of Oviedo, Palencia, Leon, and Santander. The coal-field of Oviedo, occupying an extent of 230 square miles, and including a large number of workable beds, is of excellent quality, but as yet little developed, owing to high railway tariffs, bad condition of ports, traditional prejudices, want of skill and capital, and of a local market for inferior qualities. These obstacles will probably soon be overcome, and the development of the associated iron ores afford an important field of enterprise.
The coal-field of Palencia, a continuation of that of Oviedo, is in course of development by the Northern Railway Company. Smaller coal-fields of great local importance exist in the provinces of Cordova, Seville, Gerona, Burgos, Cuenca, Guadalajara, and Ciudad Real; that of Gerona, although of small extent and very friable quality, has already occasioned the construction of a railway of considerable length. Iron is mainly obtained from Biscay, Oviedo, Murcia, and Almeria, but is abundant in other provinces. Lead is worked chiefly in Murcia, Jaen, Almeria, Badajoz, and Ciudad Real; the presence of antimony or of a predominating admixture of blende is very common, but Spain is on the whole the most important lead-producing country in Europe. Copper is obtained mainly from the Rio Tinto mines and others in Huelva; also from Seville, Palencia, Almeria, and Santander; but many other districts contain veins yielding more or less of copper ore. Zinc has been chiefly procured from superficial pockets of calamine in Santander and the neighbouring districts; but in the form of blende it is widely distributed in association with lead. Silver ores are worked in Almeria and Guadalajara. The immense impregnation of cinnabar of Almaden, in Ciudad Real, affords nearly all the mercury, but a little is obtained from other mines in the same province and in Oviedo, Granada, and Almeria. Manganese is obtained from Huelva, Oviedo, Teruel, Almeria, Murcia, and Zamora. Nickel ore is worked in Malaga; cobalt in Oviedo and Castellon. Tin occurs in a number of small veins in Galicia; and in the rocks of Salamanca, Murcia, and Almeria, as well as in diluvial gravels. The Spanish side of the Pyrenees contains numerous veins of argentiferous lead, many of copper, and some of cobalt, nickel, argentiferous copper, pyrolusite, &c., few of which are worked. The lead-mines on the border between Catalonia and Aragon supplied the Carlists with ammunition during the late civil war. The fact that more than 12,000 concessions of mines already exist in Spain, while a large number of lapsed concessions may be found, affords a better idea of the mineral wealth of the country than the enumeration of the mines actually worked.
That such enormous mineral resources should have as yet yielded no greater results is easily explained. The Roman and Moorish workings, although traditionally of fabulous yield, are of small depth, owing to insufficient machinery for pumping. Till the present century, the working of mines was forbidden by the Spanish Government, with the object of favouring the development of the American colonies. The mining laws of 1825 and 1849, suddenly placing the acquirement of mines within the reach of every substantial peasant, produced a fever of speculation, and a recklessness in the application of unskilled labour, which naturally conduced to the discouragement of mining enterprise, while the recurring civil wars excluded foreign capital and skill. Spaniards have a mania for erecting smelting-works on the mines, a practice occasionally justified by difficulties of transport, but which has caused much loss of capital through inherent difficulties and want of metallurgical skill. Endless litigation, arising from the defects of the first mining laws, and the inexperience of the surveying engineers, contributed to ruin the small capitalists who had attempted to work the mines. Foreign capital is now the chief requirement. The existing mining law, greatly improved since 1868, is the simplest in Europe; the expense of a concession is almost nominal, and the royalties on ore are extremely moderate. Large mining adventures in Spain rapidly develope industrial conditions and profoundly affect the habits of the population. Even in times of civil war a modus vivendi between the conflicting parties can be more easily secured than might be expected. The development of means of transport, already considerable before the last Carlist war, is being seriously resumed under the present Government. The Spanish peasantry, when suitably treated, will be found a fair-dealing, intelligent, and industrious class. It must, however, be remembered that in the peculiar physical, political, municipal, and fiscal conditions of Spain, no mining enterprise can safely be undertaken without thorough investigation of all the external circumstances, claims, and prospects concerned; since more mining speculations have failed from inattention to such matters than from any disappointment as regards the quality or quantity of ore. P. W. S. M.
ON the first glance at a map of Spain and Portugal we are apt to think that few countries could have so well-defined a frontier as that formed by the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic. In so compact a country, and one so distinct and so shut off from the rest of Europe, we should expect to find a more unmixed and a more homogeneous population than in any of those states whose frontiers are more open and conventional. But such is very far from being the case. Even at the present time the Pyrenees are no boundary throughout their whole course, either as to race or language. The Basque overlaps them at one end, and the Provençal at the other. Moreover, they have been a political boundary throughout their whole length only since the middle of the seventeenth century. Navarre was united to the Spanish crown in 1515, and Rousillon to France only in 1659. Ecclesiastically, both the dioceses of Bayonne and of Narbonne advanced far into Spain. So far from the population of Spain being unmixed and pure, the contrary is far nearer the truth. As Senor Tubino has well observed, from its position at the south-western angle of Europe, and the most westerly of Mediterranean lands, beyond which lay only the impassable ocean, it must early have become a very eddy of nations, where all the tribes and races who have successively held command of the Mediterranean must necessarily have halted, over which and in which all invaders who have crossed the Pyrenees from Northern Europe, or have passed the Straits of Gibraltar from Africa, must have surged in almost ceaseless conflict. To think of Spain as ever having been at any given time occupied solely by any single race or people is to lose the clue to her whole history. Of this not only the social and political condition of the country, but the toponymy and nomenclature of her map afford decisive proof.
We first hear of Spain in history about the sixth century before Christ, as then inhabited by the "Iberi" and "Kelt-Iberi," with here and there colonies of more unmingled Kelts. It is more than probable that both of these races succeeded anterior ones, the existence of which we trace only through the remains of præhistoric archæology, in the flint, stone, and bronze instruments, similar to those found elsewhere in Europe; these were also probably followed by races whose remains we find in the sculptors of the so-called "Toros" (bulls) of Guisando, and in the builders of the Megalithic monuments, the dolmens, menhirs, and circles which are found from Algeria to the Orkneys. For all purposes of history we must take the "Iberi" and the "Kelts," with their mixed tribes, as our starting-point. These we find scattered in much confusion throughout the Peninsula. Either the tribes were constantly shifting their ground, owing to petty wars and tribal dissensions or to unknown economic conditions, or the successive Greek and Latin writers from whom we get our information have not themselves been clear as to the distinction of these races. Speaking loosely, we may say that the more purely Keltic tribes held their ground in the north-west and west, in Galicia and Portugal, with a few scattered colonies further south. Andalusia, parts of the centre, the north and north-east were inhabited by the "Iberi;" while the Kelt-Iberian tribes lay chiefly in the centre and on the eastward slope. Both of these great races have left clear traces on the maps of ancient Spain. There can be no reasonable doubt that the "Illiberris" which we find in classical maps is a transcription of the Basque "Iriberri," which we still find in the French Basque country and in Navarre, meaning "New-Town," or more exactly, "Town-new;" that when the Romans called a town which they built in Galicia "Iria-Flavia," in honour of their then empress, they really used the Basque word "Iri," a town or city, just as the colonists of the United States and Canada used the French "ville" or English "town," and named a new city Louisville, Charleston, Georgetown, in the North American colonies. So, too, any one who compares the name "Peña," given to mountains and mountain-chains on the map of Spain, together with the river names, "Tamaris," "Deva," and the town and district of "Britonia" or "Britannia" in the north-west, can hardly doubt that these names were given by the same Keltic race who have left us so many "Pens" and "Bens" in Northern Britain, who gave the names "Tamar" and "Dee" to Devonshire and Cheshire streams, and called our own island Britannia, and themselves Britons. Which of these races is the older? the Iberi, i.e. Basque, or the Keltic? How can we decide this? Language is a deceitful tool as regards race. A people may utterly forget their original language, and adopt that of their conquerors or of some superior race with whom they have come in contact. Of this we have not only numerous examples in the past, as in the Latin and romance tongues superseding many a more ancient idiom, but we can see the same change actually going on in our colonies and dependencies in our own day. Still there is a certain rough chronology in language. A monosyllabic language we may presume, in default of evidence to the contrary, to have preceded one whose characteristic is agglutination; and again, a language which agglutinates or incorporates its members is presumably prior to an inflexional or analytic one. Now the Basque, the modern form of some one of those tongues which the Greeks and Romans called Iberian, belongs to the second of these classes, and the Keltic to the third. Another mode of investigating the antiquity of a language is to study the original names of the most necessary objects of daily life, and see if they can reveal to us anything about the state of civilization of those who used them before the language took a literary shape or any books were written in it. A language in which we find all the words expressing articles of greater civilization to be borrowed from other tongues we may presumably deem older than the languages from which it has borrowed them. Now in the Basque, Escuara, the undoubtedly native words for cutting instruments seem all to have their root from words signifying stone, or rock, and all such words which imply the use of metal seem to be borrowed. The language as it were represents the "stone" age, before the use of metals was known. It is also singularly poor in collective and general terms; thus, while many of the names for separate kinds of trees are native, the most common collective term arbola, "the tree," is clearly borrowed from the Latin. Although the arguments from anthropology, the form of the skull, &c., as compared with other races, are of still more dubious value than those derived from language, yet they all tend to the same conclusion. We may then hold from these convergent lines of reasoning, at least as a provisional hypothesis, that the Iberian or Basque race is older in Spain than the Keltic, and consequently that in the representatives of the former we have the remains of the oldest historical people of which we have any record in the country.
We said above that, from its geographical position, the Peninsula would necessarily be the final-halting-place in ancient times of all the masters of the Mediterranean as they pushed westward. There we should find their farthest outposts. Thus in Spain we have, at first dimly seen, successive colonies of Egyptians, Phœnicians, and Greeks. There it was that Carthaginians and Romans met to dispute the supremacy of the Mediterranean and of the civilized world. When, after a long occupation, during which it Latinized Spain more completely than any other country except Italy, the Roman Empire fell, successive waves of barbarian destroyers swept across the land, Sueves, Alans, Vandals, Visigoths, in wild confusion and internecine strife, wrecked the civilization which they could neither appreciate nor understand. The last of these races, the Visigoths, who ruled the longest, strove hard to found an empire from 450 to 710, but without success. The real power which held society together then, and which wrought what little order and law still existed, was the Church, and not the State. The Councils of the Church were the true legislative assemblies, and the real representatives of the people in those times. Yet, with all the power of the Church to uphold it, the Visigothic Empire remained so weak that it fell at the first shock of the Mohammedan Arabs. The Moors or Arabs landed in Spain in the year 711. In ten years they had conquered all of the Peninsula that they cared to hold; in eleven years more, 732, they had been defeated at Poictiers by Charles Martel, and had withdrawn for ever from France, except from the district of Narbonne. This rich province they held for many years, and it would seem to them to be more than an equivalent for the bare and humid mountains of Galicia and the Asturias, or the higher Pyrenees, which alone in the Peninsula were exempt from their sway. The Arabs and the Moors of Barbary are the last great race that has occupied Spain. Jews and a few Gipsies are the only peoples that have entered since. A few remnants of Berber tribes, isolated from their countrymen by the rapid advance of the Christian army in the tenth and eleventh centuries, like the Maragatos of Astorga, have remained in North-Western Spain, and doubtful remains of other peoples are found here and there, but none of these are in sufficient numbers to influence the nation as a whole. No country was more completely Romanized than Spain. In fact, after the Augustan age we might almost say that the best Latin writers were Spaniards born; Seneca, Quintilian, Lucian, and Martial were all natives of Spain. Hosius, the champion of Latin Christianity in the early part of the fourth century, was a Spaniard. The names of many of the towns are still Roman. Yet the Arabs have left almost a deeper mark upon the toponymy of the country. Look at the map of Spain, and we see, even up to the Pyrenees, how many Arabic names there are, especially of rivers and mountains, upon the map of Spain. Only in Galicia and the Asturias the Keltic and the Latin, in the Basque Provinces the Basque, and in Catalonia the Romance names have held their own. In all the rest the Roman names would have probably died away, but that the language of the Church was Latin, and preserved the Roman names of cities, monasteries, and shrines. Down even to the twelfth century it might seem doubtful which language would prevail, so many Arabs wrote in Spanish, and Spaniards in Arabic, or wrote Spanish in Arabic characters. The struggle was decided by the sword; the expulsion of the Arabs was also the expulsion of their tongue. Yet the Arabs have left far more traces on Spanish than Spanish has done on Arabic. The Spanish Jews, however, had forgotten their Semitic tongue, and to this day the sacred language of the Jews of the Balkan Peninsula, and of many of the Syrian Jews, even of those at Jerusalem, is not Hebrew but Spanish; their liturgical works are written in that tongue, and they use it always in the synagogue.
In spite, however, of all this mixture of races and of languages, Spain and the Spanish language has perhaps fewer dialects than any other European speech. From the Central Pyrenees to the Straits of Gibraltar only one dialect is used, the Spanish or Castilian, the purest and noblest of those which sprang from the decaying Latin. At the inner angle of the Bay of Biscay Basque is still spoken by a population of about 400,000 souls. The Galician dialect is far more closely allied to the Portuguese than to the Spanish, and should be considered as belonging to the former tongue. Between Galicia and the Basque Provinces are the many Patois, or Bables, of Asturia, which alone of the Romance tongues in the Peninsula have kept the three distinct genders, the masculine, feminine, and neuter terminations of the Latin adjective. The speech of Leon, too, may be classed as a separate dialect. In Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Isles a Provençal or Romance dialect is spoken, the Lemosin as it was called in mediæval times, and which stretched from the Loire to the frontiers of Murcia, and from the western coast of the Bay of Biscay, with few interruptions, almost to the Black Sea. In the thirteenth century the Catalan dialect more resembled that of the Gascon Béarnais, or the Western Languedocian, than of the neighbouring Provence, but centuries of intercourse have since modified it, and the three dialects of Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Isles must now be classed as a Provençal speech.
The tongues of all these successive occupiers of the soil have doubtless left traces in the noble Spanish language, but in very unequal proportions. A very few words belong to the old Iberian speech, but it is to that, perhaps, that Spanish owes the purity and the paucity of its vowel sounds, as from the Arabic it has gained the gutturals which have prevented its sinking to the effeminate softness of the Italian, and it still preserves the lofty sonority of the Latin. Some few of the elements of its vocabulary may be traced to the Keltic, less to the Teutonic languages. From Arabic it has taken more, and those words of more important character. But the bulk of the language still remains Latin. It is essentially one of the Romance dialects which sprang from the "lingua rustica," the country speech of the decaying Roman Empire. It has been calculated that six-tenths of its words are Latin, a tenth Gothic or Teutonic, one-tenth liturgical and Greek, one-tenth American or modern borrowings, and one-tenth Arabic. But as to this last, we must not forget that the different parts of the vocabulary of a language have a very different value. Some could be well dispensed with, some are of first necessity. There are words which we only see in print, and seldom or never hear spoken; there are words which belong only to science or to pedantry; but there are others which are in daily and hourly use, and whose employment is many times more frequent than the whole number of words in all the rest of the language put together. It is thus that the contribution of Arabic to Spanish vocabulary is of far more importance than is apparent by its numerical proportion; many of the most common terms, especially of those used in the south of Spain, are of Arabic origin.
Thus has been formed the noble Spanish tongue, the richest and most dignified of all that have sprung from the decay of Latin. Marvellously adapted to oratory and to verse, most incisive and mordant in the tongues of the lowest class, stately and sonorous almost to a fault, it is yet unequalled in grace and tenderness in the old romances and in the mouths of women and of children. Italian is its only rival. While reading its stately sentences, and marking the majestic rhythm of Scio's grand translation of the Bible and of its other religious literature, we can well understand why Spain's greatest emperor, the lord of many lands and of many tongues, spoke Spanish only to his God. It is rare to find a foreigner who has mastered Spanish, who does not ever afterwards delight in its use above all other tongues except his own.
The population of Spain, according to the census of 1877, is 16,625,000, including the Balearic and Canary Islands, and the North African possessions. The number of inhabitants in Spain has fluctuated much at different periods, according as war, emigration, or bad government have affected the condition of the people. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the population, according to the only estimates procurable, was about 9,000,000; in 1621, at the close of Philip III.'s reign, it had sunk to 6,000,000, the lowest point on record; it gradually rose from 7,500,000 at the end of the seventeenth century to 10,500,000 at the close of the eighteenth. The wars of Napoleon then lowered it by 500,000, but in 1821 it had recovered, and reached 11,600,000. A more rapid increase then took place till 1832, when the population numbered 14,600,000. The Carlist and civil wars which marked the beginning of the reign of Isabella II. reduced it by more than 2,000,000, if the returns are exact. In 1837 and in 1846 it stood at 12,200,000. In 1857 at 15,500,000, whence it mounted rapidly to 16,800,000 in 1870, a total which the late Carlist war and that in Cuba has reduced by some 200,000; and at the last census, 1877, as said above, the returns were 16,625,000.
The number of inhabitants to the square mile is 90, just half that of France, about a third that of Great Britain, and a fifth that of Belgium. This comparative scarcity is easily accounted for when we consider that nearly one-half (46 per cent.) of the territory still remains uncultivated; and although a considerable portion of this consists of mountain or of naturally sterile soil, a still larger portion of it is susceptible of some kind of cultivation, and even the portion under cultivation would under good husbandry, support a much larger population than it actually does.
More than two-thirds (66.75 per cent.) of the whole working population of Spain are engaged in agriculture, and the total produce, including cereals and cattle of all kinds, wine and fruits, cork, woods, esparto grass, &c., after supplying the demand for home consumption, leaves a surplus of agricultural produce for exportation of the value of 14,000,000l. sterling. Those engaged in manufacturing industry and in commerce are reckoned at 10½ per cent, of the working population; but in Spain, as elsewhere, the relative numbers are slowly changing, following the conditions of modern European life; a greater proportionate number are annually withdrawn from agriculture, and are being added to the population of the great towns, and to the manufacturing industries. Thus, until the last census the highest population of Spain per square kilometre was to be found, not in the manufacturing provinces of Barcelona and Valencia, nor in the great mining provinces, but in the fishing and agricultural province of Pontevedra, in Galicia. In 1870 Pontevedra numbered 107, Barcelona 98 inhabitants to the square kilometre. In 1877 it is Barcelona that numbers 108, and Pontevedra 100 only. Next after these provinces come the two Basque ones of Guipuzcoa 88, and Biscay 87. The one almost wholly agricultural, the other mining and agricultural. The nearest after them is the province of Madrid, with only 77 per square kilometre, and Corunna and Alicante with 75. These figures will, we think, sufficiently indicate the character of Spanish industry.
The chief centres of manufacturing industry are Catalonia and Valencia, in which provinces nearly all the textile goods of Spain are produced. The chief mining districts are those round Carthagena in Alicante, Linares in Jaen, the Rio Tinto in Huelva, Somorrostro in Biscay, and of quicksilver at Almaden in the province of Ciudad Rodrigo; but valuable mines, as detailed in a former chapter, are found in many other provinces of Spain. In fact, there is scarcely one without a mine of more or less importance.
Those engaged in professions of all kinds—lawyers, doctors, artists, journalists—are only about 10½ per cent. of the whole working population. The clergy, who once numbered, it is said, one-third of the whole population, have greatly diminished during the present century, and are still gradually declining. Including religious orders of all kinds, inquisitors, and the secular clergy, they still numbered, at the close of the last century, nearly 250,000, out of a population of 10,500,000. In 1826 they had sunk to about 60,000, in 1858 to 44,000, in 1862 to 40,000, and their present numbers are probably about 35,000.
Immense changes have taken place in recent times, and more particularly in the present century, with regard to the distribution of land in Spain. The large amount of property held by the Crown, the religious orders, the clergy, and various municipal bodies, and the restrictions imposed by the laws of the Mesta on the enclosure of land, rendered the number of private proprietors formerly very few. Even in 1800 their number was only 273,760. In 1764 it was estimated that the clergy possessed one-sixth of the real property, and one-third of the movable property of all Spain, and the property of the Church paid scarcely any taxes, or none at all. From the beginning of the sixteenth century protests were continually being made against abuses of Church property, but only towards the end of the eighteenth century were measures of reform seriously undertaken. Little, however, was really effected till the Cortes of Cadiz in 1812-13, when the feudal dues on land, of whatever nature, regal, ecclesiastical, or seignorial, were abolished. The religious orders were also suppressed. In 1820 a law was passed forbidding the Church to acquire any more real property. Tithes, of which the clergy possessed 60 per cent, and the laity 40, were diminished by half in 1821, and wholly suppressed in 1837. In 1836 the possessions of the clergy were declared to be national property, and the sale of them was begun. This, with various interruptions, according as a liberal or reactionary Government has been in power, has been continued to the present time. The Crown and municipal property had been sold at an earlier period, from 1813 to 1855. The Mesta was totally abolished in 1837 as to its privileged rights on property, and in 1851 became merely an agricultural association for the improvement of the breed of cattle. The serfs in Galicia were declared to have become proprietors of their land by prescription in 1763.
The result of these successive measures, and of these immense sales of territorial property, has been to throw the land into the hands of a much greater number of small landed proprietors, who now number 3,426,083, so that, in spite of some large estates still existing, especially in Andalusia, the average quantity of land held in Spain by each proprietor would seem to be only about some 30 acres. Yet in Galicia alone does there seem to have been any suffering caused by a too great subdivision of land, and this perhaps was caused more by the perpetuation of habits acquired while the land was burdened with seignorial dues, when the occupier could neither quit his land nor sell it. In this district the people are still miserably poor, their food and houses are equally wretched, and nothing but the large emigration that has taken and is now taking place will restore the province to any real prosperity.
From what has been said in the preceding pages as to their ethnology, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the different populations of Spain have very different characteristics. The Galicians and Asturians are the hewers of wood and drawers of water in Spain. They are often fine, stalwart men, brave, and make excellent sailors. It is they who reap the harvests for the more lazy Castilians and gather the vintage of Oporto; it is they who do nearly all the hard work in all the chief towns, not of Spain only, but also of Portugal. They are proverbially honest and trustworthy as servants, though slow and somewhat lacking in intelligence. Abroad, and as emigrants, they are trusted as men of no other race are: in the countries of La Plata in South America, the town-house, during the summer absence of the proprietor and his family, is given over to a Gallego, as it stands, to be taken care of, and rarely indeed is an article missing. The Asturian partakes of the same general characteristics as the Galician, though in a less marked degree. In the Montaneses, the inhabitants of the province of Santander, we have the favourite nurses and female servants of Madrid. The Asturias and Santander are remarkable for the number of statesmen and economists they have produced in proportion to the population. In the Basque Provinces we find an entirely different race, not perhaps of so muscular a build, but active, and capable of great endurance.
Intelligent and proud of their ancient race and liberties, they almost always retain their self-respect, and are for the most part free from that cruelty towards animals which is so disfiguring a trait in the character of other Spaniards. The Basques are generally found among the upper and more trusted servants in civil life, in the army and navy they make excellent petty officers; as seamen they are among the best of Spain; as soldiers they are brave, enduring, capital marchers, and as light infantry second to none of any nation. The Aragonese, like the Galicians, count among the hard workers of Spain; generally of shorter build, and very thick-set, but somewhat dull and very obstinate, they are employed in the heaviest work. In literature they are known as jurisconsults and historians. In Catalonia and Valencia we have the bright Provençal race. A race apt for commerce and for manufacturing industries; pushing, energetic, they gather to themselves the greater part of the commerce, manufactures, and shopkeeping of all kinds, as far as these are done by Spaniards, throughout the kingdom. Fiery in temper, and not to be implicitly trusted, especially in Valencia, their weapon is the knife, which they use sometimes on slight provocation; the hired assassins and bandits of Spain have always been recruited thence. Socialists and Federalists in politics, they have ever been disaffected towards the central government. In Catalonia this may be the result of memories of former independence; but it is curious to remark that Barcelona and the cities of the Mediterranean, as compared with Cadiz and Ferrol on the Atlantic, have played analogous parts in Spanish history to those of Marseilles and Bordeaux in French; the Mediterranean in each case being the home of the ultra-democrat and the man of the "Montagne," and the Atlantic of the constitutionalists and the Girondins. More to the south we find undoubtedly a greater mixture of Moorish blood. The Andalusian is almost oriental in character, he is fond of song and dance and colour, yet lazy withal, and disliking sustained labour. He delights to deck himself with finery, and his women with flowers; and his taste though glowing is never utterly debasing. Excelling in wit and repartee, the Andalusian gamin is the most amusing rogue in Europe. He has a wild, fierce, momentary energy, and is courteous and gracious in speech; his proverbs and songs are innumerable, and sparkle with a peculiar wit and charm; but he altogether lacks the more solid qualities of the men of the north. Philosophers, orators, and poets rather than men of industry and science are the product of these provinces. The Andalusian barely keeps up the works which the more highly civilized Moors had done for him in agriculture and in vineyard, but he does not improve upon them; and both in mining and in wine cultivation, in manufactures, and in coasting shipping, he allows nearly the whole of the trade and commerce of the south to pass into the hands of foreigners or of Catalans. The men of central Spain, except in the towns, the men of Leon, of the Castiles, and of La Mancha, and in a less degree the men of Estremadura, have changed but little for the last few centuries.
They are Spaniards of the type generally conceived by foreigners as applying to the whole nation. Grave and slow of speech, exceedingly courteous unless their prejudices are offended, fond of formality and proud of it; they are bigoted (but less so than formerly), prejudiced, ignorant to an extreme, each thinking his own town or village the élite of the universe; content with few comforts and preferring semi-starvation to exertion, the Castilian is half ashamed of honest labour, but by no means averse to corruption in any shape, and sees no disgrace in beggary. Cruel in the extreme, when his passions are aroused, it is one of the misfortunes of Spain that from the advantage of their elevated central physical position, the Castilians, as warriors and statesmen, at all times among the least civilized of her people, have been able to rule and control the more civilized and more advanced (especially in political freedom and administration) communities of the sea-board. It is a want of discernment of this fact which makes so many of the picturesque histories of Spain utterly fail in explaining the origin and the progressive causes of her present condition. There are a few other tribes in Spain which it may be worth while to notice, such as the Gipsies, who seem still to keep themselves tolerably distinct in Andalusia and in the south, but who in more than one instance have completely coalesced with the Basques in the north. The Maragatos, the trusted Arrieros or muleteers of Leon, a remnant apparently of a wild Berber tribe, left behind when the more civilized Moors retreated southwards before the advance of the Christian conquerors; the Passiegos near Bilbao, the men of the Sayago, the Hurdes of the Batuecas, the Chuetas of Majorca, these and several minor tribes, remnants, perhaps, of older populations whose ethnic affinities have never been made out, are too few in numbers to affect the general population; but are of interest to the ethnologist from the survivals of ancient laws and customs which are still observed among them. One class, not a tribe, the wretched commercial policy of Spain has developed to a greater extent than in any other country, that of the smuggler or contrabandista. He differs greatly in different districts, and even on the same line of frontier. In some parts contrabandista is almost synonymous with bandit, in others he is honest in his illegal trade, and more to be trusted with immense sums than the officials who arrest him. In a small way he is a type of the many contradictions of Spanish character and of "the things of Spain."
SPAIN was formerly divided into some fourteen separate provinces or kingdoms, once ruled by distinct and independent sovereigns, and under very different political conditions. It was not until the taking of Granada, in 1492, that the whole nation became, even nominally, subject to the joint sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella; and for long afterwards Aragon and Catalonia preserved a semi-independence, while, even to our own day, the Basque Provinces and Navarre were really an independent republic united to the Spanish crown.
Since 1841, however, the whole country has been divided for administrative purposes into forty-eight provinces, including the Balearic Isles.
We shall now hastily sketch the chief features of the old kingdoms, with the modern provinces included in each. Beginning from the north-west, we have the kingdom of GALICIA, with its four provinces, Corunna, Lugo, Pontevedra, and Orense. We have before remarked on the Frith or Fiord-like character of the western coast of Galicia, a conformation which gives it by far the finest harbours of the whole Spanish coast. Thus, in the province of Corunna there are the harbour and city (33,000 inhabitants) of the same name, so well known by our forefathers under the title of "the Groyne," and the scene of many a gallant fight both by land and sea from the days of Queen Elizabeth to the fall of Sir J. Moore, but now the chief port of the cattle-trade with England. Its port is frequented by about 130,000 tons of British shipping annually; and about 20,000 bullocks are exported annually, mostly in small schooners. It has also a tobacco factory. A little to the north-east Ferrol (23,000) has a still better harbour, and is one of the principal naval establishments of Spain. It is capacious enough to almost contain the united fleets of Europe; and its only drawback, a singular one in so humid a climate, is the want of good water. But the most famous city in the province, and indeed, in all Galicia, the pilgrim-town of Santiago (St. James) de Compostella (24,000) owes its magnitude to devotion rather than to commerce. The legend of the voyage of St. James to Spain, the finding his body at Compostella, and his subsequent appearances in battle as the champion of Spain, made this the most celebrated shrine in Europe. Roads led to it from every land, and one of the popular names of the "Milky Way" was "The road to Compostella." The wealth both of the military order of Compostella and of the cathedral and chapter was immense. Even now, after all its spoiling, the cathedral is rich in precious goldsmiths' work, in architectural, and in literary treasures. Pontevedra (8000) is the capital of the thickly-populated province of the same name, whose inhabitants reap a harvest both from sea and land. Vigo (6000) has an excellent harbour and roadstead, but its commerce has greatly fallen off in comparison with that of Corunna. It was formerly the port at which the galleons disembarked their treasures for Northern Spain. The total tonnage of the harbour in 1878 was 208,000. Orense, an inland province east of Pontevedra, has a capital of the same name (11,000) on the banks of the Minho. It is the head of an agricultural and pastoral district, and in it are produced some wines which were considered in the eighteenth century the finest of all Spain. Here, too, is one of the grand bridges of Western Spain, possibly of Roman construction. Lugo, with its city (8000), faces north instead of west, and has its harbours, Vivero and Rivadeo, on the Bay of Biscay; but the near neighbourhood of Ferrol and of Corunna deprive them of all but coasting trade.
The ASTURIAS, the home of the Spanish monarchy, and the only ancient kingdom of which no part was subdued by the Moors (though they raided once to Oviedo), contains but one province, called after its chief town Oviedo (34,000), with a cathedral, university, and a most pleasant situation. In this province is Covadonga, where the Visigoth Pelayo, in 719, repulsed the Moors, and thus took the first step towards the recovery of Spain. The whole country slopes rapidly from its southern frontier, the summit of the Cantabrian Mountains, towards the Bay of Biscay. Cangas de Tineo (22,000) is the centre of a mining district. Owing to the great development of mining operations in this province within the last ten years the small towns of Siero, Tineo, Grado, and Villaviciosa have suddenly sprung into importance, and each now contains over 20,000 inhabitants. The chief port is Gijon (30,000), of which the chief trade is in hazel-nuts for England, of which over 1000 tons are annually exported, to the value of 23,000 l. Here is one of the seven government tobacco manufactories, and also important glass-works, conducted chiefly by Swiss and French artisans; but it is far outstripped in commercial importance by SANTANDER (41,000), the capital of the neighbouring province, and the great port of outlet for the agricultural riches of Leon and of the Castiles. Santander has also a great trade with Cuba and Porto Rico, and possesses almost a monopoly of the supply of cereals to those islands. A port of equal natural excellence is Santoña, which the first Napoleon would have made the Gibraltar of Northern Spain, but which is now frequented only as a bathing-place by the inhabitants of the interior. The mountain scenery of these two provinces is most picturesque, both along the sea-board and in the interior, where the snow sometimes lies on the Picos de Europa until July or August. The coal-mines of the Asturias are rapidly assuming importance. The output was, in 1878, 400,000 tons, at a cost on board ship of 13s. per ton. The extent of the bed is estimated at 667,200 acres.
The BASQUE PROVINCES (Las Provincias Vascongadas) are Biscay, Guipuzcoa, and Alava. The union of the three is often represented by a symbol like the heraldic bearings of the Isle of Man; and they are, with Navarre and the French Pays Basque, the home of the Basque race, but only one province, Guipuzcoa, is wholly inhabited by them. Biscay has for its chief town the busy mining city of Bilbao (32,000) on the Nervion, with a commerce of over 2,000,000l. annual value, notwithstanding an inferior harbour, exceeding that of Santander. The chief mines, iron, are in the Somorrostro district, a few miles to the east of the city, and they are worked mainly by English, French, or German companies. In 1879 the exports from Bilbao amounted to 1,160,248 tons of iron minerals, while the imports included 72,196 tons of English coke and coal, chiefly for the use of the mines. In this province is the Oak of Guernica, where the Spanish sovereigns swore to observe the constitutional privileges or fueros of the Basques. The chief city of Guipuzcoa is San Sebastian (21,000), a sea-port with a strong citadel. Of less commercial importance than Bilbao, it is much frequented in summer as a city of pleasure; the town has been almost wholly rebuilt since the siege of 1813. The province, though almost wholly agricultural, and famous for its cider and apple orchards, contains also some mines, and a few manufactures grouped round its old capital, Tolosa (8000). Eibar and Plasencia, two small manufacturing towns on the Deva, have preserved the art of inlaying iron with gold and silver, and are noted for their manufacture of fire-arms. Alava has but one town of importance, Vitoria (25,000), a picturesque city at the foot of the Cantabrian Mountains and the head of the fertile plains of the Upper Rioja. These two districts, the Riojas, divided by the Ebro, are noted for their wines, which need only more careful preparation to become an important article of commerce; at present they are chiefly exported to Bordeaux, for mixing with inferior French wines, to be re-exported as claret to England. NAVARRE, the only other province where Basque is spoken, once formed part of a petty kingdom which stretched on both sides of the Pyrenees, and of which the Spanish portion was definitely secured to Spain by the Duke of Alva in the reign of Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1512, has Pampeluna (25,000), a fortified city of Roman origin, for its capital. The upper part of Navarre is extremely mountainous, but it contains some useful iron-mines, and a Government foundry at Orbaiceta. The southern parts, along the banks of the Arga, and in the valley of the Ebro, are extremely fertile; but at the south-eastern corner in the Bardeñas Reales, we encounter a series of bare, stony hills, scored with deep ravines, and on which nothing will grow, the first of the desert tracks so common in Spain. Tudela (9000) on the opposite side of the Ebro, is united to the rest of the province by a fine bridge; it is here the traveller first sees in operation the norias or water-wheels of the East.
The kingdom of ARAGON contains three provinces, Huesca, Saragossa, and Teruel. The kingdom is almost bisected by the Ebro, towards which it slopes on both sides, from the highest summits of the Central Pyrenees on the north, and from the Idubeda Mountains and the Molina de Aragon on the south. Aragon divides with the Asturias the honour of having been one of the cradles of the Spanish monarchy. In 795 Don Asnar defeated the Moors near Jaca, in the province of Huesca. But the progress of the reconquest was very slow; from 714 to 1118 the Moors held possession of the town and kingdom of Saragossa, and it is from this occupation of four centuries that the traveller first meets here distinct remains of Moorish architecture. A still more lasting note of their sway is found in the nomenclature of the country. The rivers Guaticalema, Alcanadre, Guadalope, the names of the sierras, Alcubiere, and of many of the lesser towns and villages, sufficiently attest the former presence of the race who gave those names.
Huesca (10,000), the capital of the province of the same name, is an episcopal and university town, the bishop's palace being on the site of an old mosque. The upper part of this province is exceedingly mountainous, and is entered from France by the Central Pyrenean road, that of Somport, originally constructed by the Romans. The only other towns are Barbastro (7000), Monzon (4000), and Jaca (3500), nearer the mountains. Saragossa (84,000), on the Ebro, formerly the Cæsar Augusta of the Romans, then for four centuries the capital of a Moorish kingdom, rivals Santiago de Compostella as a place of pilgrimage to the shrine of the Virgen del Pilar. The worship has, however, much declined of late years, and her devotees are not now a tithe of those who frequent the more recent shrine of Notre Dame de Lourdes on the other side of the Pyrenees. The art treasures of the cathedral were sold in 1870, when many fine examples of jewellery and art were acquired for the Kensington Museum. Saragossa, though now fallen as a place of commerce, must again become important if the railway project is carried into effect, which will place it on the most direct line between Paris and Madrid. The Ebro, from its shallowness, is of no service for navigation; and, from neglect, the canals of Charles V. and of Tauste do not render the services they might, either for transport or for irrigation. Hence the despoblados and desiertos in the valley of the Ebro, both above and below the town. Calayatud (12,000) was one of the four comunidades of Aragon, and is in the midst of a mineral district, the wealth of which seems at present almost wholly undeveloped. Teruel (7000) is the capital of a very mountainous province which slopes towards the north-west from the Sierras de Molina and Albarracin, the mountain ranges which form the eastern boundary of the great watershed of the peninsula. Excepting the mines in these sierras, the province is almost wholly agricultural, but with no towns of importance. The historian Don Vicente de la Fuente has remarked that while the lands of the comunidades, the four free towns of Aragon, Calayatud, Teruel, Daroca, and Albarracin, have remained fertile under their more liberal government, the lands of the Seigneurs in the valley of the Ebro, where, almost alone in Spain, feudalism received its full development, have been for centuries barren and despoblados.
CATALONIA.—The ancient principality of Catalonia is now separated into four provinces, named after their chief towns, Gerona, Barcelona, Tarragona, and Lerida. The first three lie along the shores of the Mediterranean—the last, inland, and stretches from the Ebro to the Pyrenees. To the north of Lerida, and buried in the mountains, is the so-called republic of Andorra, which owes its practical independence to the singular fact of a double seigneurie. Both the Counts of Foix, in France, and the Prince-Bishops of Urgel, in Spain, were supreme Lords of Andorra. On paper its constitution is by no means so free as that of several other Pyrenean communities; but by skilfully playing off the jealousies and rivalries of its two lords, and preventing either from getting absolute power, this little state of twenty-eight miles by twenty has remained unsubdued, and unattached to either nationality. The chief trade of the republic may be said to be smuggling. Lerida, except in the valley of the Segre, is extremely mountainous, and like all the hill country of Catalonia is rich in minerals, especially in salt, near Solsona. The rest of its products are chiefly agricultural. The province is but thinly peopled; its chief town contains 20,000 inhabitants. Balaguer (5000), Urgel (3000), Solsona (2500), are the most populous of the remaining. With Gerona we enter the Mediterranean or Provençal region and climate, and come in contact not only with picturesque and glowing scenery, with a gorgeous variety of natural productions, but also with traditions and remains of the great works of all the races that have dominated this inland sea. From the Pyrenees to Carthagena the names of the chief towns recall classic reminiscences, and bring before us the struggles of ancient nations, contending on her soil for a far mightier empire than that of Spain. The province of Gerona contains Cape Creuz, the extreme north-easterly point of the peninsula, not far from the old Greek cities of Rosas and Emporium (Ampurias). Of its towns, Gerona, on the Ter, and Figueras have each 8000, but are surpassed by Olot, 10,000, around which town are grouped the most recently extinct volcanoes in Spain. Coal is found in San Juan de las Abadesas. Here the Spanish gravity is mingled with the fire and dash of the Provençals, and the inhabitants both of Gerona and Barcelona, are more Provençal than Spanish, in language, political character, and in commercial and industrial aptitudes. The natural productions, and the flora too, are almost identical with those of the more sheltered parts of Provence and of the Riviera. Palm trees are seen as common ornaments in gardens and public squares, oranges and olives flourish, the mulberry is cultivated and silkworms are reared, and all announces a warmer zone than any that we have hitherto traversed. Barcelona (250,000) the first industrial and commercial city of Spain, and the second in point of population, is also the capital of the most thickly inhabited province. The greater part of the trade and navigation of the whole Spanish sea-board from Catalonia to Cadiz, or even to Seville, is in the hands of its merchants. The cotton industry of Catalonia employed in 1870 a capital of 6,000,000l., and 104,000 workmen, distributed in 700 factories. The chief of the other manufacturing towns are Gracia (33,000), and St. Martin de Provensals (24,000). The annual commercial movement of Barcelona is estimated at about 11,000,000l. sterling. The British imports, chiefly of coal and iron, amount to nearly 1,000,000l. sterling; but the exports are a mere trifle, 10,000l., most of the ships returning in ballast; while on the contrary, the exports of Tarragona, Palamos, Mataro, and Villamena, and the smaller ports amount to nearly 1,000,000l., chiefly in wine, and the imports are only half that amount. Irrigation is successfully carried on in the valley of the Llobregat. Tarragona (23,000) is rich in Roman remains, in the picturesque beauty of its site, in its Gothic architecture, in the mildness of its climate, and in the goodness of its wines; but it is surpassed both in wealth and population by the neighbouring manufacturing city of Reus (27,000), and also by Tortosa (24,000) on the Ebro, to which town all the river transport converges. The Ebro below Tortosa forms a sandy delta, and its channels are continually silting up. The canal of San Carlos, to connect Amposta with the sea by the port of Alfaques, has had but little success.
VALENCIA includes the three provinces of Castellon de la Plana, Valencia, and Alicante, all three lying along the Mediterranean, and facing east and southwards from the mighty buttress sierras which form the eastern wall of the great central plateau. It is in these provinces that we gradually pass from the Mediterranean climate to the "Tierra caliente," the warm lands and African products of south-eastern Spain. Here too we meet with the finest Roman remains; and Moorish architecture begins to form a prominent feature in the characteristics of each city. The speech is still a dialect of the Provençal, and the fiery Provençal nature is still apparent in the political history of the cities of Valencia. The hill-sides, bare of trees, are covered either with the esparto grass or with strongly aromatic herbs and shrubs. The rainfall gradually lessens; the streams all assume a torrential character, nearly dry in summer, swollen with rapid floods in winter; but they are greatly utilized for irrigation. By this means are formed the "huertas," gardens, and "vegas," plains, oases of beauty and fertility lying in the bosom of the barren hills, which serve as frames to pictures as valuable for their productiveness as they are enchanting in their beauty. The chief towns in the province of Castellon are Castellon de la Plana (23,000), Vinaroz (9000), Villareal (8000), both near the Mediterranean; Segorbe on the Palancia, and numerous smaller towns in the interior. Benicarlo and Vinaroz, on the coast to the north of the province, are noted for their excellent red wines, quantities of which are exported to France for mixing with inferior French vintages, whence they find their way to England as Rousillon or Bordeaux. Valencia, a city of 143,000 inhabitants, and with a fine artificial harbour called the "grao," is the third city in population in Spain; but its commerce is little more than that of Santander and Bilbao, cities only one fourth of its size. The value of British imports, chiefly of coal, cod-fish, guano, and petroleum, in 1878, was 136,450l., and of exports, chiefly of fruits to Britain, 524,984l. The "huerta" of Valencia, with its canals for irrigation, its "acequias," "norias," and other devices to draw the waters of the Guadalaviar, is one of the most successful examples in Spain of regulated application of water to agriculture. The quantity of water allotted to each property, the hour of opening or closing the sluices, are regulated according to laws and customs descended from Moorish times. So great is the drain upon the streams that the waters of some of the smaller rivers are entirely absorbed in the summer, and even of the Guadalaviar but little then reaches the sea. It is from the huerta of Valencia that the oranges come which form the delight of the population of Paris at the new year; hence are the raisins and the almonds and candied fruits equally dear to the British housekeeper. Rice is successfully cultivated on some of the lower grounds near the coast, and fruits and vegetables of every kind abound; but the Spaniards complain that they lack the richness and lusciousness of flavour belonging to those grown in other parts. "In Valencia," say they, "grass is like water, meat like grass, men like women, and the women worth nothing." The district was formerly noted for its silk-growing and stuffs of silk; also for the fine pottery known as Majolica ware from its carriers to the Italian ports, the sailors of Majorca and the Balearic Isles. It was also the earliest place of printing in Spain, and celebrated as a school of poetry and the arts; but nearly all this ancient fame is lost. To the south of Valencia is the large lake or lagoon of Albufera, the most extensive of the many lagoons along the Mediterranean coast, about nine miles long and twenty-seven miles round; it is full of fish, and frequented by wild fowls, and its varied inhabitants recall those of the Nile rather than those of any part of Europe. In the north of the province is Murviedro (7000), the ancient Saguntum, with its port almost entirely blocked up. Considerable remains of the older city still exist, with inscriptions in idioms yet unknown, and are a treasure to archæologists. The largest of the other cities are Alcira (13,000) on the Jucar, and Jativa (14,000). The southern coasts of Valencia and the neighbouring districts of Alicante abound in sites of picturesque beauty, and the position of many of the ruined monasteries, built generally on the hills with a distant prospect of the sea, can hardly be excelled.
Alicante, whose huertas and vegas with their appliances for irrigation rival those of Valencia, has but 34,000 inhabitants. Orihuela, in its rich wheat-growing district of never-failing harvest, has 21,000, and Alcoy 32,000. The smaller towns are numerous, and from the little ports in the north of the province, round Cape Nao, a good deal of coasting trade is done with the neighbouring Balearic Isles. From Denia, Tabea, and Altea, nearly 100,000 tons of raisins are shipped every year, chiefly for Great Britain. At Elche (20,000) is the celebrated forest of palms of which we have before spoken, and the leaves of which are sent to Rome for the ceremonies of Easter week. The number of the trees is gradually declining, as the produce hardly repays the great amount of labour required. In the church at Elche religious plays or mysteries are occasionally performed, with an enthusiasm and solemnity both of actors and spectators equal to that of the Passionspiel of Ober-Ammergau.
MURCIA contains the two provinces, Murcia and Albacete. The first faces the Mediterranean; the second, besides comprising the Sierras of Alcazar and Segura, climbs those boundary mountains, and advances far into the plateau of La Mancha, and thus contains within its limits the sources of the Guadiana as well as those of the Mundo and the Segura. Murcia, in its higher parts, is very thinly peopled, and in spite of the fertile plains in the lower course of the Segura and the Sangonera, and the rich mining district round Cartagena, has only two-thirds as many inhabitants to the square mile as Valencia. Murcia is perhaps the driest province of Spain, and the one in which the want of water is the most generally felt, yet it is in this province that the floods are the most pernicious and destructive. Year by year the irrigation works become less effective. Ancient dams broken down by the floods are not restored. Since 1856, however, a new source of wealth has been opened to this province by the export of the esparto grass, which grows on all the low hills, and which, in addition to its use in the country for numerous native fabrics, is now largely exported for paper-making. The export began only in 1856. In 1873 it had reached 67,000 tons for England alone; in 1875 the money value of the whole export was 400,000l., but it declined to 30,000l. in 1877, and 284,000l. in 1878, since which date it has gradually lessened. Murcia, the chief city, is an irrigated plain on the Segura, has a population of 91,000. It is one of the chief seats of silk cultivation in Spain. Lorca (52,000), on the Sangonera, offers another example of the extreme fertility that can be obtained by irrigation in a suitable climate. Cartagena (75,000), with its grand harbour and docks, is one of the three naval arsenals in Spain; but has greatly fallen from its ancient wealth and importance. Like Barcelona and Valencia it has distinguished itself by its extreme democratic and cantonalist opinions, and has revolted against the republic equally as against the monarchy. In its neighbourhood are some of the richest lead and silver mines in Spain, and which have been worked since Carthaginian and Roman times. The coal imported from England for smelting purposes amounts to 80,000 tons yearly. The tonnage of British vessels employed was over 200,000 in 1877. Along the coast are various lagoons and salt-lakes (salinas), where salt is made on a considerable scale; it is exported chiefly to the Baltic. The Barilla plant, for making soda, is also cultivated along the coast; and, of the plants in the salinas, it is computed that at least one-sixth of the species are African. Albacete (16,000), situated at the junction both of road and railway from Murcia and Valencia to Madrid, is chiefly celebrated for its trade in common cutlery. It is here that the large stabbing knives (navajas) are made, and for the use of which both Valencians and Murcians have an unenviable notoriety. On the plateau of this province (Albacete) are found (Salinas) salt-lakes formed by evaporation, the only examples of this kind in Western Europe. The only other town of any importance in the province is Almanza (9000), on the edge of the plateau before making the descent into Valencia. The numerous names compounded of "pozo," well, and "fuente," fountain, in this province, attest its arid character, where fresh water is scarce enough to make its presence a distinguishing mark to any spot.
ANDALUSIA embraces the whole of southern Spain from Murcia to the frontier of Portugal. Its seaboard includes both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. In Cabo de Gata, 2°10' W., it has the extreme south-easterly point of Spain; and in Cabo de Tarifa, 36°2' N., the extreme southerly point, not only of Spain, but of Europe. One chain of its mountains, the Sierra de Nevada, contains the highest summits of the peninsula; and its river, the Guadalquiver, from Seville to the ocean is the only stream of real service for navigation in the whole of Spain. Its wines and olives, its grapes and oranges, and fruits of all kinds, are the finest, its horses and its cattle are the best, its bulls are the fiercest, of all Spain. The sites of its cities rival in their entrancing beauty those of any other European land; while, wanting though they may be in deeper qualities, its sons and daughters yield not in wit or attractive grace or beauty to those of any other race. The Moor has left a deeper mark here than elsewhere, even as he kept his favourite realm of Granada for centuries after he had lost the rest of Spain. And when the sun of Moorish glory set, it was from Andalusia that the vision of the New World rose upon astonished Europe. The year of the conquest of Granada (1492) was also that of the discovery of America. All things take an air of unwonted beauty and of picturesque grace in this land of sun and light; even the gipsy race, avoided and abhorred in other countries of Europe, at Granada, as at Moscow, becomes one of the attractions of the tourist. The province is not entirely of one type. It unites many kinds of beauty; even in Andalusia are "despoblados" and "destierros," dispeopled and deserted wastes, under Christian hands, but once fertile and inhabited under Moorish rule. Savage wildness and barrenness reign in its lofty mountain chains as much as softer beauty does in the "huertas" and "vegas." But from the minerals the one district is equally valuable as the other. The province possesses the richest mines, as well as the richest fruits and wines, of the whole of Spain. ANDALUSIA, is divided into the provinces of Almeria, Granada, Malaga, on the Mediterranean; Cadiz, Seville, Huelva, on the Atlantic coast; and Cordova and Jaen inland, along the upper waters of the Guadalquiver.
In Almeria (40,000) the flat-roofed houses are built round a central court, the "patio," wherein is often a fountain, and palm and vine for shade; while oranges, myrtles, passion-flowers, and other gay or odoriferous shrubs or flowers, add their colour and perfume. The type and the manners of the inhabitants tell us that we are already in the land of the Moors. Almeria has declined from what it was when one of the chief ports of transit between the Moors of Africa and their brethren of south-eastern Spain; but from the growing importance of the Spanish colony in Oran, its trade is now fast reviving. The exports are lead and silver ore from the mines of the neighbourhood, fruits of all kinds, and a little wine. The tonnage of British shipping employed at Almeria was, in 1875, 117,123 tons; 1876, 85,840 tons; 1877, 89,988 tons. The chief exports in 1877 were about 10,000 tons of esparto grass, 280,000 barrels of grapes, 10,000 tons of minerals, and nearly 10,000 of calamine. The sugar-cane is also grown here. The whole province is mountainous, covered with the spurs and offshoots of the mighty Sierra Nevada, the Sierras de Gador, de Filabres, de Cabrera, de Aljamilla, all which have their terminations in headlands which run into the Mediterranean. The basins of the rivers of the region are often cleft by these smaller ranges, and thus they receive their waters from both the northern and southern slopes of the Sierra Nevada. The only other towns of importance are Cuevas de Vera (20,000), and Velez-Rubio (13,000), in the north of the province on the road between Murcia and Granada, where some lead-mines have been lately opened. The ports, except Almeria, are all small; Dalias, on the confines of Granada, is noted for the magnificent grapes and raisins shipped there.
Granada (76,000) is one of the most celebrated spots of Europe, a city of enchantment and of romance. It is one of the few places of renown, the sight of which does not disappoint the traveller. The natural advantages of its position would be sufficient to mark it as a city of unusual beauty, were there no masterpieces of art and of architecture, or storied memories, connected with it. It is situated in an upland valley, at an elevation of 2200 feet above the sea level—sufficiently high in that climate to prevent the summer's heat from being oppressively exhausting, and not too high to hinder the choicest semi-tropical fruits and flowers from growing in the open air—surrounded, yet not too closely, by mountain ranges, of which those to the east are the very highest in Spain—Mulhacen (11,700), Alcazaba (11,600), and Veleta (11,400). The ice and snow on their summits not only cool the hot winds which blow over them from Africa, but provide the means of making the iced water which is the Spaniard's greatest luxury. Its climate is second in its equable range only to that of its coast towns, Motril and Malaga. It is watered by the united streams of the Darro and the Jenil, which meet within the city, both hurrying from their mountain home to join the Guadalquiver between Cordova and Seville; and with their fertilizing waters dispersed in irrigation they make the "Vega," or plain, of Granada one of the noted gardens of the world. Granada is worth all the praise that has been sung or written of it. On an isolated hill to the east, cut off from the town and from the Generalife by the ravine through which the Darro flows, and enclosed with a wall flanked by twelve towers, stands the celebrated group of buildings known by the name of the Alhambra, perhaps the fairest palace and fortress at once ever inhabited by a Moslem monarch. Almost unrivalled in the beauty of its site, it outstrips all rivals in the beauty of its Arab architecture. The mosque of Cordova is grander, and the tombs of the Caliphs at Cairo may be in a purer style, but they lack the variety and richness of these diverse buildings. The Alhambra hill is to Arabic what the Acropolis of Athens was to Hellenic art; only to the attractions of the plastic arts were added in the case of the Alhambra the triumphs of the gardener's skill. Shrubs and flowers delighted the eyes with colour, or gratified the sense of smell with sweetest odours, while water, skilfully conducted from the neighbouring hills, purled among the beds, or leaped in fountains, or filled the baths with purest streams. Thus every sense and taste was gratified, and Granada was indeed an earthly paradise to the Moor. Even in its decay, and seen in fragments only, it is one of the world's wonders, a treasure and delight to pilgrims of art from every land. But we must not waste our space in detailing the beauties of Granada; its trade, sadly diminished from what it was formerly, is chiefly in fruits and silk and leather stuffs. Next to Granada, the chief city in the province is Loja (15,000), near the Jenil, and the little port of Motril (13,500), sheltered under the highest summits of the Sierra Nevada, is said to possess the most equable climate of the Spanish Mediterranean ports. It is here, in the extensive alluvial plain stretching from Motril to the sea, that the sugar-cane is most extensively cultivated, producing in 1877, 113,636 tons of cane. Far inland, and separated from Motril by the mountain mass, is Baza (13,500). The mineral riches of the Sierra Nevada have never been adequately explored; from specimens used in the construction of Granada, it must possess marbles of rare beauty; metals, too, abound, but few of its mines are worked. In picturesque beauty, when seen near at hand, these mountains are not nearly equal to the Pyrenees and to many minor chains; with rounded summits, they are bare and denuded of wood, and are entirely without the glacier forms, and the lakes and rushing streams, which delight us in the Alps.
Malaga.—The greater part of this province lies in an amphitheatre of mountains, stretching from the Sierra de Almijarras on the east to those of De la Nieve and of Ronda to the west. It faces the full southern sun, but is watered and irrigated by torrential streams from the mountains, at times almost dry, at others, as in December, 1880, rushing down in most destructive floods. The city, with over 110,000 inhabitants, boasts not only the finest climate in Spain, on which account it is greatly frequented by invalids in the winter, but its commerce is second in value to that of Barcelona. Its wealth and exports are almost wholly agricultural, consisting of luscious wines—which, however, have a greater reputation on the continent than in England—oil, fruits, and especially dried raisins; oranges, olives, figs, sugar, and sweet potatoes. Bananas, and all other tropical and semi-tropical products of Spain are here found in perfection. Upwards of 2,000,000 boxes of raisins, 3,000,000 gallons of oil, and 1,100,100 gallons of wine, besides other fruits, esparto grass, and minerals (chiefly lead), are annually exported. The tonnage of British vessels in 1878 was about 158,000 tons. It has been a city and port from great antiquity; but though a favourite residence of the Moors, they have left fewer remains here than at Granada, Seville, Cordova, Toledo, and many a place of lesser note. Antequerra (25,000), on the Guadaljorce, on the northern slope of the sierras, guards the defile leading to Malaga, and was formerly of great military importance. The Cueva del Menjal, in the neighbourhood, is a fine dolmen. Ronda (20,000), the chief town of the sierra of the same name, is remarkable for its position on both sides of an enormous fissure (el Tajo) from 300 to 600 feet deep, and which is spanned by a magnificent bridge, constructed by the architect Archidone, in 1761. Velez Malaga (24,000) is a small sheltered port to the east of Malaga, with a trade in fruits and wines.
Cadiz, the most southerly province of Spain, includes the capes of Trafalgar and Tarifa, and the Punta de Europa, or the English Rock of Gibraltar. This province is also the principal seat of the great sherry trade. The town (65,000) and port have greatly fallen from their former importance, when Spain possessed nearly all the Americas south of California, and but for the Transatlantic steamers to Cuba and the West Indies, and to the Philippine Islands in the East Indies, would probably decline still more. The application of steam, allowing ocean vessels to ascend the Guadalquiver rapidly to Seville, has arrested there a great deal of the produce which formerly came to Cadiz, but which is now shipped at the former town. The total tonnage of the port is now about 800,000; the imports over 2,000,000l., of which about one-sixth is British; but of the exports, which are about the same in value, fully two-thirds go to Great Britain. Cadiz itself is undoubtedly one of the oldest ports of Western Europe, and is situated on a narrow promontory, formed into an island by the channel of San Pedro. Unlike most of the southern cities of Spain, its houses are of great height and of several stories, the contracted space of its site having occasioned this architectural modification. The city is excellently supplied with fish; the market is noted both for the quantity and the variety of its supply, which amounts to nearly 900 tons annually. Round the Bay of Cadiz are situated towns and harbours of considerable size, whose united commerce is almost equal to that of Cadiz itself. Of these, Puerto de St. Maria (22,000), on the northern side of the bay, is the great harbour for the shipment of sherry wines. Immense quantities of salt are made, chiefly for exportation, in the Salinas between Puerto Real and San Fernando (26,000), and Chiclana (20,000), on the San Pedro canal, which cuts off the Isle of Leon from the mainland. The export of wine from the whole Bay was, in
Xeres de la Frontera (64,000), situated about thirty miles from Cadiz, surrounded by vineyards, is a city of Bodegas, or wine-cellars, the principal of which, as well as of the vineyards, are in the hands of foreigners. It is one of the busiest of Spanish commercial towns, and, like Barcelona, is on that account less peculiarly Spanish than many others. The exportation of sherry wines from the district, and those shipped at Port St. Mary, amounted, in 1873, to 98,924 butts; 1874, 65,365 butts; from Jerez alone, in 1875, 43,727 butts; 1876, 42,272 butts; 1877, 41,660 butts; 87 per cent, of which goes to Great Britain and her colonies. The decrease in later years is probably caused by the greater amount of lighter French wines now consumed in England. San Lucar de Barrameda (22,000), at the mouth of the Guadalquiver, is noted for its winter-gardens, which are said to date from Moorish times, and which supply Cadiz and Seville with their earliest fruits and vegetables. From its vineyards, too, comes the stomachic Manzanilla sherry, flavoured with the wild camomile, which grows abundantly in its vineyards. Arcos (12,000), on the Guadalete, is the only other Spanish town of importance in the province; but to the south lies the isolated rock and fortress of Gibraltar (25,000), captured by the Earl of Peterborough in 1704. Though held only as an English garrison (5000), and made almost impregnable as a fortress, it is yet of considerable commerce from its position as a port of call for vessels passing the Straits of Gibraltar, and also from its contraband trade with Spain, which is a source of constant irritation between the two nations. In natural history, it is remarkable for its apes (macacus inuus), as the only spot in Europe where any species of monkey lives, and it is doubtful whether even these would survive without the aid of occasional importations from Morocco.
Seville is the typical province of Andalusia, and its city of 133,000 ranks fourth in population of the cities of Spain. The Moors have left deeper outward traces at Granada, but here they have fused more thoroughly with the population, and have given it the Oriental grace and culture which is lacking in the former place; their wit belongs to themselves. Seville is peculiarly the home of Spanish art; the greatest of her painters, Murillo and Velasquez, were born there, and Zurbaran painted his best pieces to adorn her walls. Her writers are scarcely less noted. The most celebrated novelist of modern Spain, Cecilia Bohl de Faber (Fernan Caballero), had her home there. There Amador de los Rios composed his chief works. The Becquers—both the painter and the novelist—were born there. It is a city of predilection for all of artistic tastes. The Giralda, a tower of Moorish architecture, rivals, if it does not surpass, in its exquisite proportions the campanille of Italian art. The Alcazar is a home of beauty. The patios, or inner courts, of many of the houses have remains of Moorish decoration. The Cathedral shows that Christian lags not far behind Moslem architecture. But Seville, on the Guadalquiver, is not a mere city of pleasure. Like Paris, its gay exterior contains a great deal of real work and commerce within. Since the invention of steam, allowing sea-going vessels to breast with ease the current of the Guadalquiver, it has drawn to itself a great deal of the traffic which formerly passed through the harbours of the Bay of Cadiz. The tonnage of its shipping amounts to about 120,000 tons, and the value of its imports to over 2,000,000l., and of its exports to 1,750,000l., one-half of which belongs to Great Britain. Among its manufactories, one of porcelain, carried on by a British company, but employing Spanish methods, is celebrated; and its tobacco manufactory, with its 1000 women workers, is the largest government establishment of the kind in Spain. The city long enjoyed almost a monopoly of West Indian and of Manilla productions; the wealth brought by the galleons was deposited here, and here are still preserved the "Archivos de las Indias." It possesses both a university and a mint. The lower part of the Guadalquiver runs through marshy lands, which in places present almost impenetrable jungles. In these are bred the bulls which supply the bull-fights with their victims, and which make Seville the great school of tauromachia in Spain. The finest Andalusian horses are also produced in this province, and the wines, though not equal to those of the neighbouring provinces of Cadiz and Cordova, are still highly esteemed. Besides Seville, the chief towns are Ecija (24,000) on the Jenil, a place of large trade; Carmona (18,000); Ossuna (16,000). Utrera, Lebriga, and Marchena would be considerable towns in other provinces, but we can only indicate them here. From the absence of mountains Seville has not the mineral wealth of some other provinces, but coal is worked at Villanueva del Rio, and the copper-mines at Arnalcollar yield 20,000 tons of ore; other outlying deposits of the Huelva beds are found in this province, and a great part of the lead from the Linares mines is shipped here.
Huelva, the last maritime province of Spain, conterminous with Portugal on the west and with Seville on the east, with its capital of 10,000, is one of the richest mining districts in Europe. Worked in prehistoric times, and in the mythical dawn of history, by Iberians, Phœnicians, Carthaginians, and Romans, the mines of Tharsis and of the Rio Tinto were strangely neglected by the Spaniards until purchased by an Anglo-German company in 1873 for 3,850,000l., but with the certainty of a rich return. There are now over 7000 men employed by this company, and 906,600 tons of copper ore were extracted in 1879 from the south lode only; about 10,000 tons of hematite iron were also sold. The mines contain sulphur, copper, iron, and silver. In fact, the mountains round the source of the Tinto seem to be almost one mass of mineral ore. From the working of these mines the development of the riches of this province has been most rapid of late years, and the tonnage of shipping from the port of Huelva will probably soon rival, if not surpass, that of Cadiz: in 1873 the foreign shipping was 180,000 tons; this had ascended to over 300,000 tons in 1877. The imports were valued in 1873 at 168,000l., of which 112,000l. were British; and in 1877 to over 300,000, of which not quite one-half was British. The exports are of far greater importance, ranging from 750,000l. in 1873, of which 667,000l. were British, to 1,236,243l. in 1877, of which 1,132,782l. went to Great Britain. Except in minerals, the province is not rich; but a trade which will probably increase, has lately sprung up in wines, fruits, and cork. The frontier stream the Guadiana is of little use to Spain, and the little port of Palos, whence Columbus set out to give a new world to Spain, is now completely silted up.
Cordova.—The interior provinces of Andalusia are Cordova and Jaen, both on the Guadalquiver, the latter embracing the sources and upper part of the course, the former the central portion before it enters the province of Seville. The northern part of the province of Cordova is covered by parallel ranges of low mountains running east and west—the Sierras de Cordova and de Pedroches within the province, and the Sierras de Almaden and Morena, which form the boundary of Castile. Cordova, the capital, contains now but 49,000 inhabitants in place of the 1,000,000 who dwelt there when it was the seat of the western khalifat. Its mosque, almost the sole remnant of its former splendour, with its 1200 columns, is to Islam what the temple of Karnac at Thebes, and that of Karnac in Brittany, with their 100 pillars, are to the religions of Egypt and of prehistoric Europe. It is perhaps the grandest building for worship ever raised by Moslem hands; its materials were pillaged without scruple from shrines of older civilizations, but were wrought into new and fairer forms of beauty by the magic of Arabian art. As a Christian city, Cordova is of only second rank. It is chiefly noted for its leather work, and for its commerce in wines and fruits. It is to Cordova that the Amontillada sherry—the most prized of Spanish wines—comes, from the vineyards round Montilla (15,000). The only other town of importance in the province is Lucena (16,000), to the south.
Jaen, like Huelva, at the opposite extremity of Andalusia, is a mining province, and like those of Huelva its mines are chiefly in the hands of Englishmen and of foreigners. Linares (36,000), north of the Guadalquiver, is the centre of the mining district, and is far the most populous town in the province. Nearly 11,000 men, women, and boys were employed in the lead-mines in 1877, and the ore raised amounted to 70,000 tons. It has been calculated that the production of the world is about 300,000 tons of lead, of which Spain furnishes 100,000 tons and the United Kingdom 100,000 tons. The capital, Jaen, south of the great river, has only 24,000 inhabitants; Ubeda and Baza, close together, a little south of Jaen, have each 15,000. Andujar (11,000), with its old bridge over the Guadalquiver, is noted for its porous pottery, the cooling water-jars used throughout the whole of Southern Spain. In the north of this province is the celebrated Pass of Despeña-perros, through the Sierra Morena, one of the wildest gorges through which the traveller passes in any part of Europe; a few miles to the south of it is Las Navas de Tolosa, the field of the battle in 1212 which first proved how fast the power of the Moors was waning in Southern Spain.
ESTREMADURA, conterminous on the west with Portugal and on the south with Huelva, is the wildest and least peopled of all the provinces of Spain, and has been almost sufficiently described in a former chapter. It is divided into the two modern provinces of Badajoz and Caceres, through which run respectively the two rivers, the Guadiana and the Tagus. Desolate as it is now, the numerous Roman remains at Merida (6000) and Trajan's mighty bridge at Alcantara tell what it was in Roman times; but in Moorish days it suffered more from war than any other province, and the curse, the "mesta," the only means the Christian conquerors had of utilizing their vast and thinly-peopled properties, has ever since rested upon it. Besides its flocks and herds its chief wealth consists in acorns and bark for tanning, and cork for other purposes. The rivers run in deep gorges, almost cañons, and are useless for either navigation or for irrigation. Badajoz (22,000), on the Guadiana, one of the frontier fortresses of Spain towards Portugal, is by far the largest city. Higher up the river are Merida and Medellin, but Don Benito (15,000) is of greater commercial importance than either.
Caceres, a province still more thinly peopled than Badajoz, having only fifteen inhabitants instead of nineteen to the square kilometre, has 12,000 for its chief town; Plasencia, on the Xerte, an affluent of the Alagon, has only half that number. In the north-east of this province, on the southern spurs of the lofty Sierra de Gredos, stands the monastery San Juste, to which the Emperor Charles V. retired on his resignation of his many crowns. The shepherds of Estremadura, notwithstanding the scanty population, gave numbers of emigrants to the New World; Cortez and Pizarro were swineherds, the one of Medellin, the other of Truxillo. The town of Alcantara gives its name to one of the three great military orders of Spain.
NEW CASTILE and LA MANCHA comprise the five modern provinces of Ciudad Real, Toledo, Madrid, Cuenca, and Guadalajara, which all take their names from their chief towns. The province of Ciudad Real, which lies between the Sierra de Morena and the mountains of Toledo, is traversed by the Guadiana. It is the most thinly populated of all the provinces of Spain, having only thirteen inhabitants to the square kilometre; but it is by no means the least wealthy. It contains within it the quicksilver-mines of Almaden (9000), the richest deposit in the world before the late discoveries in California. They were a source of revenue to the Spanish crown for centuries, with an annual rent of over a quarter of a million. They were however mortgaged by the Government for thirty years in order to raise a loan of 2,318,000l. at five per cent., to be extinguished in 1900. The average annual extract is estimated at 12,000 tons of mercury. The vineyards round Valdepeñas (11,000) supply the red wine which is the favourite beverage of the Spaniards throughout the centre and the south, and the home consumption of which is far beyond that of the sherries. Almagro (14,000) is known for its lace manufacture; but Ciudad-Real, the capital (12,000), is fallen from its ancient importance. Damiel (13,000) and Manzanares (9000) are the only other towns that need mention.
Toledo (21,000), watered by the Tagus, was for centuries the most important city of Spain. It is here that the great councils which really regulated the civil as well as the ecclesiastical administration of Spain, from the fourth to the eighth centuries were held. Here too was one of the centres of Arabic civilization: the waterworks, clocks, and observatory of Toledo were among the wonders of the world from the tenth to the twelfth centuries, and even after its capture by the Christians, in 1085, the conqueror seemed for a while to have fallen under the same spell. The court of Alfonso X., the Wise, was a semi-Moorish court, and his tolerance excited the indignant wonder of travellers from other parts of Europe. Moorish and Christian architecture is still most strangely blended in many of its buildings, and Moorish architects were long employed to keep in repair not only the structures which their ancestors had raised, but even the Christian churches. The skill of its ironworkers and the temper of its sword-blades were renowned throughout Europe. The superiority of its steel was said to be due to some peculiar virtue of the water of the Tagus used in tempering; but the best of the iron was taken from the mines of Mondragon, in Guipuzcoa. The manufactory has greatly fallen from its ancient splendour, but some good weapons are still made, though they cannot compete in price with British or foreign goods. The insurrection of its inhabitants under the "Comuneros" in 1520, in defence of the ancient constitutional liberties of Castille probably determined the selection of the more obsequious town of Madrid as the capital of Spain by the Emperor Charles V. Toledo, with its narrow streets and semi-Moorish houses, is emphatically the city of Old Spain; the purest Spanish is said still to be spoken there, and for native poets and romancers it seems to have an attraction beyond that of any of the cities of Andalusia. The only other town of importance in the province is Talavera, with its fifteenth-century bridge of nearly a quarter of a mile in length.
Madrid.—The province of Madrid lies between the Sierra de Guadarrama on the north and the Tagus on the south. The city, which now contains almost 400,000 inhabitants, was a third or fourth-rate town until Charles V., and after him Philip II., chose it for the capital of Spain, in place of either Toledo or Valladolid. Its recommendations seem to have been its central position, and the absence of any strong traditions of ancient constitutional liberties, such as might hamper the sovereign in developing his new despotism. A city which owed its creation entirely to the sovereign, and its riches to to the presence of his court, would be certain to be obedient to its rulers. If Charles V. and Philip II. did not make it the centre of a free and constitutional government, they at least enriched it with all the treasures of art which the rulers of the greater part of Europe could collect from the various parts of their vast dominions.
It is at the museum of Madrid, which owes its existence to Ferdinand VII., that not only Spanish, but also many of the Flemish and some of the Italian painters can be best studied; and by a happy chance the royal palace, built in the eighteenth century, is one of the least faulty and most impressive structures of that age. At the west end of the city, on the banks of the Manzanares, are the royal gardens; at the opposite extremity the promenades of the Prado and the gardens of the Buen Retiro. These artificial parks and walks in some way compensate for the dreary and almost desert aspect of the country round Madrid; for there are "despoblados" and "destierros" almost within sight of the greatest city of Spain. It is now approached by rail from all sides, and the convergence of these iron roads and of the highways will probably secure its future position as the capital of the nation; but until the present century, contrary to that of most European capitals, the approach to Madrid seemed to be an approach from civilization to barbarism. As the traveller neared the capital, whether from the north or from the east and south, the inns grew worse, the roads more impassable, and the difficulty of procuring food greater in the neighbourhood of the capital than elsewhere; the contrast of magnificence and meanness, of dirt and discomfort and formal etiquette in the city itself, until the time of Charles III., is the theme of every visitor. Of late its character has much changed; the increase of its population has not been caused by the natural growth of its inhabitants, but by the migration thither of Catalans, Gallegos, Asturians, Basques, and especially of Andalusians; and thus the Puerta del Sol, the heart of Madrid, has become, as it were, the heart of Spain, and almost every political and social movement which stirs the nation has its origin there. Though not quite to the extent with which Paris absorbs France, still Madrid collects to itself the greater part of the intellectual and literary life of the nation. It is Madrid that supplies most of the daily journals, the scientific periodicals, reviews, and literature to the rest of Spain. Here is the seat of the learned academies and of the chief literary, educational, and scientific institutions. The universities, the national and the free, the Ateneo, the great public libraries of Madrid, are the best in Spain. It is here that Cortés meets, here that the elections are arranged, all the lines of Spanish administration converge hither, and it is here that the intrigues for place or power are principally conducted, and unhappily we must add it is thus that Madrid is also the focus and example of administrative corruption for the rest of Spain.
Besides Madrid, the province contains two other royal residencies, Aranjuez to the south, at the junction of the Tagus with the Jarama, and the Escorial to the north, at the foot of the Guadarrama. The chief attractions of the former consist in its abundant supply of water, in its fountains and running streams, and in the avenues and groves of lofty trees, whose roots are fed by these waters. The Escorial is of an entirely opposite character. This vast and extraordinary structure was raised by Philip II., in pursuance of a vow made at the battle of St. Quentin, August 10 (St. Lawrence's Day), 1557; the ground-plan is that of a mighty gridiron, to recall that on which the martyr suffered. The central piece of architecture is a chapel, impressive from its grand simplicity; and however faulty the general design of the vast edifice, several details, and especially the frescoes of the ceilings and some of the paintings, are of great beauty. The whole fabric, in its severe and sombre majesty, harmonizes well with the bare and wind-swept granite mountains near which it is placed. Like most of the other treasure-houses of Spain, it suffered severely from pillage during the French invasion. Acala de Henares (8000) was celebrated in the sixteenth century as a university under the patronage of the Cardinal Ximenes, and here the celebrated Complutensian Polyglot Bible was printed. It was also the birthplace of Cervantes. The canal of Henares is described above, pp. 18, 19.
Cuenca, one of the most thinly populated as well as one of the most mountainous provinces of Spain, stretches on two sides of the chief watershed, and the waters of the streams which rise in this province from different slopes of the Cerro de San Felipe flow to the Atlantic and to the Mediterranean. Cuenca (7000), the capital, is still untouched by railway routes, and slumbers on its lofty cliff, and emerged into temporary notoriety by its capture and sack by Alphonso, the brother of Don Carlos, in 1874.
Guadalajara (6500), on the Henares, though on the line of railway between Saragossa and Madrid, is scarcely more lively than Cuenca, but it contains the school for military engineers, the most distinguished corps in the Spanish army, and which has never stained its character by political intrigue. The province supports a slightly higher population than that of Cuenca.
OLD CASTILE was with Leon for several centuries the chief of the rising kingdoms of Spain, and the one into which all the rest gradually merged. It now contains five provinces, Avila, Segovia, Soria, Logroño, and Burgos. Avila (7000), still surrounded by its mediæval walls in excellent preservation, is one of the most picturesque cities in Spain, at an altitude of nearly 3500 feet above the sea-level. The province is remarkable as the one in which the rudely-sculptured stone monuments of boars and bulls, the "Toros de Guisando," are chiefly found. They are the art remains of a population whose name, age, and ethnic affinities are totally unknown. The southern half of this province is traversed by the lofty Sierra de Gredos, and hiding in its secluded valleys are some of the most primitive peoples of Spain. There are no other large towns in the province.
Segovia (7000), another of the picturesque cities of Spain, contains fine specimens of Roman, Moorish, and Christian mediæval architecture in its wondrous aqueduct, cathedral, the Alcazar, and castle. It was formerly a place of great commercial as well as of political importance, and was the centre of a trade in woollen goods which employed 34,000 workmen, and made the cloth of Segovia celebrated throughout Europe. This commerce has now utterly departed, both from it and from the other cities, such as Avila, Medina del Campo, which shared its reputation. It is now visited by the lover of the picturesque, whose taste will be here abundantly gratified. Not far from Segovia, under the Peñalarra (7800 feet), on the northern slope of the Guadarrama range, are La Granja and San Ildefonso. At a height of 4000 feet above the level of the sea, this is the most agreeable of all the inland royal residences of Spain. Built in French taste by Philip V., it is redeemed from banality by its pleasant surroundings. But retired and peaceful as it looks, La Granja has been the scene of some of the most important political events in the modern history of Spain. The celebrated passes of Somosierra (4700 feet), and that of the Col de Guadarrama (5000), lead from this province to Madrid; the railway, too, attains at La Cañada a height of 4457 feet above the level of the sea.
Soria, on the north-eastern edge of the great plateau, is one of the poorest provinces of Spain. Leaning on the Sierra de Moncayo, the whole of the northern and central part of the province slopes gradually to the west, and is watered by the Douro, which takes its rise in the Sierra de Moncayo. The southern angle of the province contains also the sources of the Jalon, which, flowing through a break in the Idubeda range, finds its way to the Ebro, and thence to the Mediterranean, the upper courses of the two rivers completely overlapping. In spite of these two river-valleys the province is very unproductive. Soria, near the site of the Keltiberean Numantia, which held out for twenty-nine years against the Romans, contains but 6000 inhabitants. Osma, on the Douro, has barely 1000, and Agreda (4000) is celebrated only for the visions of a nun in the sixteenth century.
The province of Burgos overlaps the plateau, and in its northern and southern extremities embraces the valleys both of the Ebro and the Douro, with their respective towns, Miranda del Ebro and Aranda del Douro. The basins of these two rivers are separated by the Oca or Idubeda mountains, which cross the centre of the province. The difference of the elevation of the two valleys may be seen in the fact that while Miranda del Ebro is 1600 feet above the sea-level, Burgos is more than 2800. Burgos (29,000) and Aranda del Douro were formerly towns of considerable commerce, and the former had at one time a claim to be considered the chief city of Northern Spain. It has now greatly fallen, but will always be visited for the noble remains of Gothic architecture in the city and its suburbs. Miranda del Ebro (3000), when the river formed the customs line for all commerce passing from the Basque Provinces into Spain, was of great consequence, and is now the point of junction for the northern lines of railway from Bilbao and from Irun. In this province, too, is the pass of Pancorbo, through which both road and railway wind; for savage wildness it is inferior only to that of the above-mentioned Despeña-perros in the Sierra Morena.
The whole province of Logroño lies in the southern half of the valley of the Ebro, and leans against the mountains which form the supports of the great plateau. The Ebro forms its northern boundary, and its chief towns, Logroño (12,000) and Calahorra (7000), are both on the river. Here the traveller from the north first sees the Noria or Moorish water-wheel at work. The province is noted chiefly for its strong, rough wines, and for its agricultural products. Navarete is known in English history as the spot where the Black Prince and Bertrand du Guesclin fought out their mightiest duel, the one as the partisan of Pedro the Cruel, and the other of Henry of Trastamare.
The kingdom of LEON is divided into five provinces, Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Palencia, Leon. Salamanca lies along the Portuguese frontier, which is here formed by the Rivers Douro and Agueda. The city (15,000) was famous throughout the early part of the Middle Ages for its university and for its Arabic and Hebrew learning. It thus became in popular estimation the home of magic and of the black arts, and as such its name is found in the folk-lore tales of many parts of Europe; its students, poor, riotous, and witty, made it the birthplace of the peculiar, picaresque romance literature of Spain, from Lazarillo de Tormes to Gil Blas. Like all the Spanish provincial universities, it is but the shadow of its former self, nor does the city preserve any of the older features which still make Toledo a delight to the tourist. Its old bridge over the Tormes is said to date from Roman times. Bejar (8000) does a fair trade as a manufactory of cloth. Ciudad Rodrigo (5000) is one of the strongest fortresses of Spain, and guards, with Badajoz, the frontier against Portugal. The provinces of Salamanca and Zamora contain some of the most peculiar and picturesque peasantry yet remaining in Spain; even around Salamanca the festal dresses of the Charros and Charras are rich with gold and silver ornaments of Moorish type. In the valley of the Batuecas, amid the Sierra de Gata, the Hurdes, and to the west of Zamora, the Sayagos, and again, the Maragatos, to the north-west of the province, in the mountains of Leon, are all remnants of ancient races, preserving habits and tribal customs and laws, differing from their neighbours, and well worthy of the study, as survivals, of the comparative ethnologist. The contrabandistas of the province are among the boldest in Spain; they cross the Douro and its deep ravine, sometimes on rafts or on inflated skins; at others, when the river is in flood, in baskets suspended from ropes flung across the whole ravine.
Zamora (10,000), formerly a strong walled city on the Douro, in a rich country, notwithstanding the rail which unites it to the Medina del Campo, still remains one of the decaying towns of Spain. Toro (9000), higher up the stream, is a busier town. A great impulse will probably be given to all this district, now one of the most behindhand in Spain, by the completion of the Portuguese lines of Beira-alta, connecting Lisbon and Oporto with Paris by the North Spanish lines. Benavente (5000), on the Esla, is the only other town we have to notice.
Leon, which gave its name to one of the old kingdoms of Spain before the re-conquest of the Castiles, is full of towns which recall the glories of the past, but which are of little importance in modern times. The capital (9000) is noted for its cathedral and churches, which are perhaps the purest specimens of Gothic, unmixed with Arabian art, to be found in Spain. The province is generally mountainous, especially to the north and west, and the higher lands afford excellent summer pasture for flocks from the plains, and even from Estremadura. The valley of the Esla is extremely fertile. Astorga (5000) may be considered as the Capital of the Maragatos, of whom we have spoken above; like Sahagun (3000), it is a town of ancient consequence now dwindling to insignificance. The "fuero" or charter of Sahagun, 1085, was the model of the "fueros" or constitutional privileges of the Castiles, which were eventually lost in the war of the comuneros in the time of Charles V.
Palencia.—Through this province passes the canal of Castile from Alar del Rey to Valladolid, borrowing its waters from the Pisuerga, and is the most useful for transport of all the canals of Spain. This waterway is less needed now, owing to the railway of the north from Valladolid to Santander, to Bilbao, and to San Sebastian, which runs parallel to it; but it will be always available for local traffic. The capital is a walled city on the banks of the Carrion, a little above its junction with the Pisuerga, an affluent of the Douro; its cathedral is remarkable for its size and simplicity, but is otherwise inferior to Leon. The valleys, watered by these rivers are very rich in cereals, which find their outlet for exportation at Santander. The great coal-field of the Asturias extends into the north of this province, and at Barruelo de Santillana is largely worked by the Northern Railway Company, and supplies Madrid with a yearly increasing quantity of coal. The villages near the mines are fast becoming populous towns.
Valladolid (52,000) was till the middle of the sixteenth century the capital of Spain, and is likely to become of great importance in the near future as the point of junction of all the Spanish and Portuguese railways of the north and west. The Douro flows through the centre of the province, and the plains of Valladolid are perhaps the most fertile of all those in North-western Spain. It is a great centre for the corn-trade of the Castiles, and the smoke from its tall chimneys tells also of manufacturing industry. There are here two colleges for Scotch and Irish students for the Roman Catholic priesthood. They were established at the time of the persecutions in England, but are much less frequented now than formerly. Medina del Campo (4500) an ancient commercial city, was ruined in the wars of the comuneros, but may recover somewhat of its former traffic as a junction of railways. A town of similar name and standing, Medina de Rio Seco (4500), is in the north of the province; both are situated in rich corn-growing plains. Tordesillas (3500), on the Douro, owes its existence to the junction of roads which cross the river by its noble bridge. In this province is the Castle of Simancas, wherein are deposited the archives of Spain, as those of the Indies are at Seville. Long closed to the world, they are now open to the researches of scholars, and guides and inventories in aid are being published during the present year.
These islands are geologically a submarine continuation of the Valencian mountains which sink into the sea at Cape Nao. They are divided into two groups: (1) Minorca, Majorca, Cabrera, and a few islets; the nearest point of which to the mainland is Soller on Majorca, ninety-three miles distant; (2) Iviza and Formentera, with some smaller satellites, are within sixty miles of the Spanish coast. The whole superficies of the islands is nearly two thousand square miles. The inhabitants number about 290,000. The climate is equable but exceedingly variable within somewhat narrow limits; the average both for Minorca and Majorca being sixty-four, the highest temperature ninety, and the lowest forty-four. The average rainfall is nearly twenty inches. Majorca, the largest of the islands is about sixty miles from east to west, and fifty from north to south. The surface is very broken, but with a few fertile plains; the greatest elevation is 5000 feet. Minorca, twenty and a half miles to the east of Majorca, is twenty miles long by six broad. Iviza, the largest island of the western group is only four miles by four. The highest points of these two islands are about 1000 feet; but Iviza retains traces of volcanic action which seem to connect it geologically with the extinct Catalan volcanoes, by way of the Columbretes rocks, and the Point de la Baña at the mouth of the Ebro. Majorca and Minorca are remarkable for erections called "Talayots," similar to the "Nuraghies" of Sardinia; they are the work of one of the many prehistoric, or at least unrecorded races whose blood mingles in the veins of the present inhabitants, and the origin of them has given rise to almost as many theories as those of the round towers of Ireland and Scotland. In the west of Majorca is the remarkable and extensive cavern of Arta. The language of the islanders is one of the purest dialects of the Provençal speech. The only separate race now in the islands is that of the "Chuetas" or converted Jews, who still keep apart notwithstanding their nominal Christianity. The population is mostly engaged in agriculture, and the islands export fruits, oil, leather, and a few cattle, to an annual value altogether of 350,000l, while the imports amount to 210,000l. The land is cultivated mostly by peasant proprietors and metayers in small holdings, and by reason of steady emigration those who remain are fairly prosperous. The people show strong aesthetic tastes, and the art school of Palma is one of the most flourishing of the whole of Spain. The chief towns on Majorca are Palma, on the east coast, of 58,000 inhabitants; Manacor, in the centre, of 12,500; Felanitz, 10,000; and Llummayor, Soller, Inca, and Pollensa, of about 8000 each. Minorca has only two towns of importance, Port Mahon, 22,000, and Ciudella, 7000, at opposite extremities of the island. Port Mahon is perhaps the finest harbour in the Mediterranean, and is also one of its strongest fortresses; during the English occupation the town attained great prosperity. Iviza has only one town, of the same name as the island, containing 5500 inhabitants. We have noticed before that the majolica ware was not made in these islands, but at Valencia, and that it acquired the name from Balearic vessels being used for its export to Italy.
IN order to understand the present constitution, the political condition, and the aspirations of the Spanish nation, it is absolutely necessary to have some slight acquaintance with its previous history. This we propose to give as briefly as possible.
In the eleventh and twelfth centuries there is no doubt that the inhabitants of Northern Spain, under some of the petty kings, enjoyed more constitutional liberty than any other people in Europe; that their institutions generally, and especially their municipal privileges, were more in accordance with the ideas of modern freedom and self-government than those of any other nation at that date. The feudal system never attained in Northern Spain, except in parts of Catalonia, the systematic development, and the organized oppression of the lower classes, which it reached in many other parts of Europe. The peculiar institution of "behetria," which prevailed in Leon and the Castiles, and by which a serf was free to go whither he would "from sea to sea," with all his goods, and to put himself under any lord he chose, was of itself an almost sufficient check to excessive tyranny by the nobles. The old Roman municipal organization, of the towns had been preserved by tradition throughout the whole of the Visigothic times down to 711, nor had the practical working completely died out at the epoch of the early reconquest of the north. Hence many of the charters or "fueros" granted to the towns and cities by the kings are evidently founded on a recollection of former institutions, modified according to the necessities of the times. Thus the charter of Leon (1020) expressly allows exemption from all arbitrary exactions, and grants the free election of the Alcalde, and of the municipal council, with only the appointment of the judges by the king. By the fuero of Arganzon (1191) it is expressly stated that if these royal officers overpassed their duties, it would be lawful to kill them without incurring any responsibility. Similar but still more strongly-worded clauses are found in all the Basque fueros, and in the coronation oath of Aragon.
The representatives of the burgesses, "el estado llano," the low estate in the "Cortés" or parliaments, began much earlier in Spain than in other countries. Burgesses sat in the Cortés at Leon certainly in 1188, if not in that of Burgos in 1169. In Aragon they were present still earlier, in 1134, in Navarre in 1194, in Catalonia, where feudalism was more developed than elsewhere, in 1218. These dates are simply those of the first mention of the fact, not necessarily that of its first institution; the records rather imply their presence at former sessions. We find also early protests against judicial and administrative abuses which prevailed long afterwards in other parts of Europe. In the fuero of Arganzon (1191) the inhabitants claim exemption from the ordeal of iron, hot-water, or battle. In 1152, the fuero of Molina demands that justice be done to all, and truth spoken without favour or bribery of any kind whatever. The original capitulations granted to the Moors and Mudejares of Castile, and especially to those of Aragon, breathe the same liberal spirit. They are granted full liberty in the exercise of their own religion, and to live under their own laws in their own quarters, subject only to some fixed tribute and service. The spirit of bigotry and of hatred between the two races commenced with the foreign monks, with the semi-religious military orders, and with the legal classes; afterwards it spread to the common people through envy at the better use which the Jews, Mudejares, and Moriscos made of the privileges granted to them, and the consequent superiority of their condition compared with that of the serfs and lower classes of the Christians. It is this fact which explains the rising of the population at Saragossa in favour of the inquisition against the Mudejares and Jews. Travellers in Spain, even to the middle of the fifteenth century, were scandalized at the toleration of the Moors by the king and the court. Theologians, lawyers (except the royal judges), medical men, and traders were they who called for oppression of the Moors; the two last classes evidently through jealousy of the superior skill and industry of Moors and Jews as doctors and merchants; the literary class, the poets, nobles, and kings were in favour of toleration. Afterwards indeed, in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, the ravages of the pirate ships of Algiers and Tunis roused an indignation and excited a far more intense abhorrence than had existed in earlier times, when Christian and Moslem knights met in fair and equal warfare.
The development of these early liberties, and the progress of the cause of toleration and of true civilization in Spain, were checked by circumstances which would assuredly have acted in a similar way in any other nation. The establishment of the military orders, the conquest of the south, especially the last campaign against Granada, put forces into the hand of the king greater than those possessed at that time by any other monarch. The richest half of Spain, the newly-conquered Mussulman provinces, had not only no liberties of their own except those granted in their respective capitulations, and which were speedily revoked, but had neither knowledge of, nor any interest in the liberties of the north. They were entirely at the mercy of their conquerors, Ferdinand and Isabella, who had the control of the finest army of Christendom. The mastership of all the great semi-monastic military orders, which had hitherto been elective, was now granted to Ferdinand by Pope Innocent VIII. (1492), and they were incorporated with the crown by a bull of Adrian VI. (1523). An almost equally powerful engine in the royal hands was the secret police of the Santa Hermandad (1476), founded to restrain the excesses of the nobles and the practice of private war. The success of this institution in the cause of order explains both the institution and the popularity of the inquisition. It is easy to see what a leverage was thus put into the royal hands to destroy the liberties of the north of Spain. Add to this that the separate kingdoms, Navarre, Aragon, Valencia, the Castiles, and the Basque Provinces had not yet been united under a single head, nor had learned to work together, except in war, for a single purpose. Catalonia and Aragon had indeed some sympathy with each other, but they had none with Leon and Castile; their peculiar language and habits isolated the Basque Provinces and Navarre from any of the rest. A century of free representation and debate in a national Cortés might have changed all this, but the opportunity was not given. The discovery and the conquest of America, and the subsequent emigration of the bolder spirits, turned men's thoughts away from internal reform and the home constitution. Next the fatal election to the empire of Charles V. threw into his hands fitting agents, in his foreign and ecclesiastical ministers and governors, wherewith to crush any rising of the people. Cardinal Ximenes was the only minister in Europe who at that date could have pointed to a standing army with the proud words, "With these I govern Castile; and with these I will govern it, until the king, your master and mine, takes possession of his kingdom."
Yet even to the end of the seventeenth century the king swore to preserve the ancient privileges of Aragon and Catalonia. The "fueros" of Navarre were intact until 1840, and those of the Basque Provinces till 1874. The wonder is, not that the Spanish liberties were crushed, but that the memory of them should have continued so long, and after so many ages of repression should yet be a living force with which every statesman and ruler of Spain has still to make his account.
The suppression of Spanish liberty had already begun under the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, but the death of Francis I. and the retreat of Charles V. into the cloister of San Juste definitely closes both the period of chivalry and of such liberties as existed through the Middle Ages in Europe. With Philip II. begins the era of statesmanship and of bureaucratic centralization, when nations were really ruled from the closet and with the pen, not with the sovereign's sword or by his presence in the field. It is difficult for an Englishman to sympathize with the view, but the period of Philip II. is still looked upon by the majority of Spaniards as the golden era of the external position of Spain. His absolutism, and his concentration in his own person of all civil and religious rights, are condoned in their eyes by the glory of his having made Spain the arbiter of Europe and the champion of Catholicism. But with his successor set in that strange and progressive decadence of intellectual power in the sovereigns of the Austrian dynasty in Spain, which ended in the almost idiotcy of the childless Charles II. Spain, which in the reign of Philip II. had all but imposed the sovereign of her choice in France, in the reign of Charles II. was ruled according to the intrigues and caprice of the court of Versailles. Philip V., the grandson of Louis XIV., though vastly superior to the late Austrian sovereigns, could never thoroughly emancipate himself from the tutelage of the country to whose armies he owed his crown; and the family degeneracy, which had shown itself in the Austrian sovereigns, again appeared in the Bourbon family, and communicated itself to the whole nation. The military and naval greatness of Spain disappeared, the very wish for constitutional liberty died out, commerce and literature were almost extinct, the population was declining in numbers and increasing in misery, the country was daily growing poorer, and its wealth was ebbing slowly away to other lands. The noble aristocracy of Spain, once so full of loyal self-respect in the age of the Cid, grovelled at the sovereign's feet, jealous only for precedence in matters of court etiquette, or clamorous for posts in the colonies as a means of corruption, and of enriching themselves by the plunder of the provinces they administered. The only king who showed some royal talent, and who intelligently endeavoured to effect the improvement of Spain, was Charles III. (1759—1788). Unfortunately both he and his able ministers, instead of basing their reforms on the native liberties and constitutions of Spain, imitated almost wholly the spurious liberalism of the encyclopædists and doctrinaires of France. Hence few of their reforms took root. Those that were not immediately done away with did not grow or develope. The successors of Charles III. were still more feeble than his immediate predecessors, and the condition of the royal family was such that Napoleon had no difficulty in forcing them to abdicate, and to crown his brother Joseph king of Spain; but the nation, unlike the royal family, refused to acquiesce in this usurpation of their rights, and rose as one man to avenge the burning wrong.
The modern history of Spain begins naturally with that of the War of Liberation, May 2nd, 1808, and politically with the Cortés of Cadiz, 1812, and with the constitution then promulgated. This declares: That the Spanish nation is not the patrimony of any family or person; that the sovereignty resides essentially in the nation, which is the conservator of its own liberties and rights. The sole religion is and shall always be the Apostolic Roman. The legislative power resides in the Cortés with the king. The suffrage was universal, and one deputy was to be elected for every 70,000 souls. Entails and feudal privileges had been abolished by a law of August 6th, 1811, the liberty of the press was voted, and in 1813 the inquisition was suppressed. The French had been expelled, chiefly through the assistance of England, and the king had returned from captivity; all looked well for the new era. But in 1814 Ferdinand VII. violated the oath which he had sworn to observe the constitution; the inquisition was re-established; the feudal exactions on real property were restored; and the fatal policy of violent reaction and of ruthless vengeance on political opponents was inaugurated which has wrought such deadly harm to the cause of progress in Spain. After an absolute government of six years, Riego raised the standard of revolt at Cadiz, and again Ferdinand swore to observe the constitution of 1812: further reforms were established. In 1820, tithes were partially suppressed, and the Church was forbidden to acquire any more real property. A law of May 3rd, 1823, affirmed in stronger terms the law of 1813 on the abolition of entail: the religious orders were done away with. But in the same year, with the assistance of a French army under the Duc d'Angoulême, Ferdinand conquered the liberals and again violated his oath to observe the constitution. Every act of the Cortés for the last four years was annulled. Riego, with other chiefs of the liberal party, was put to death under circumstances of atrocious cruelty, others were banished, and a crafty and tenacious system of persecution was directed against every liberal for the rest of the reign. During this reign, too, through denial of all reform or suppression of any abuse, the whole of the vast colonial empire of Spain on the continent of the Americas was totally lost.
On the death of Ferdinand VII., June 29, 1833, another element of discord was introduced. The first Bourbon king, Philip V., in defiance of ancient Spanish precedents to the contrary, had introduced the Salic law from France, and had procured its solemn promulgation by Cortés. Ferdinand VII., with the consent of Cortés, abrogated this law, and left the crown to his only child, Isabella II., an infant of less than three years old, with her mother, Christina of Naples, as regent. His brother, Don Carlos, who, since the king's last marriage, had been intriguing against him with the ultra-conservative party, claimed the throne under the law of Philip V. Henceforth a dynastic question was added to the standing constitutional one.
The Carlists declared themselves the champions of legitimacy, the divine right, and of absolutism; and thus forced the party of Isabella, the Christinos, to appeal for support to the liberal and constitutional party, though they had no more real attachment to the cause, and no more intelligent appreciation of its benefits than had their opponents. A blunder of the liberal party in hesitating to confirm the "fueros" of the Basques, the last vestige still intact of the ancient constitutional and municipal liberties of Spain, greatly strengthened their opponents, who at once seized the opportunity and loudly confirmed them. A war of seven years followed, in which the older liberal generals lost all their former military prestige against Zumalacarregui in the Basque Provinces, and against Cabrera in Aragon. But the assistance of England, and still more the incapacity of Don Carlos, at length enabled Espartero to finish the war by the convention of Vergara, August 30, 1839, by which fueros were confirmed to the Basques on their laying down arms. Cabrera continued the war in Aragon and Catalonia, but two years afterwards was forced with his followers to take refuge in France. During this period constitutional liberty had apparently made great progress in Spain, and several useful reforms had been set on foot. But its course had been marred by deeds of atrocious violence, such as the massacre of the monks and the destruction of the convents in 1835, when valuable treasures, both in art and literature, which had been spared in the great Peninsular War, were finally lost. All ecclesiastical and church property had been declared national, and the sale of it had been commenced, tithes were wholly suppressed, the mesta was abolished—with results as to the division of property detailed in a former chapter. From the regency of Christina dates, in a great degree, the shameless corruption, the selfish intrigues, the abuses of all kinds among the upper employés, which with rare exceptions have marked every subsequent government of Spain. A reaction set in in 1843, with Narvaez as its real chief. To his stern administration, however, are due the establishment of the normal and technical schools, the foundation of the present educational system in Spain, and the institution of the guardias civiles, a kind of police after the model of the French gendarmerie or the Irish constabulary, and which has proved itself the most trustworthy body in Spain in defence of law and order under all changes of government. It would be a weariness to the reader to recount all the changes from liberalism to absolutism which followed during the reign of Isabella II. No administration succeeded in impressing on the bulk of the nation the fact that it was honest and capable; none won respect abroad. Perhaps that of O'Donnell (1858-63), during which occurred the successful campaign in Morocco, was the least corrupt and inefficient; but the indignation of the country at the shame and corruption of both court and government broke forth at last, and a movement, headed by Admiral Topete and the fleet at Cadiz, in 1868 overthrew the Government, forced Isabella to fly, and declared the Bourbons incapable of ruling in Spain.
On the abdication of Isabella II. in favour of her son, and her retirement into France, a provisional government was formed with Serrano, Topete, and Prim as chief members, to hold the reins of power until Cortés should elect a new sovereign. The choice proved far more difficult than was expected. Topete and others favoured the claims of the Duc de Montpensier, the brother-in-law of the late queen, but the objection to any of the Bourbon family was at that time too strong; others desired to seize the opportunity of uniting Spain and Portugal under one head by electing a member of the Portuguese royal family; but this was rejected by the princes of Portugal. Two years were spent in these debates, but at last the choice of Prim prevailed, and Amadeo, the second son of Victor Emmanuel II. of Italy, was elected sovereign, 16th November, 1870. The murder of his chief supporter, Prim, before he reached Madrid, deprived him of the only support which might have consolidated his dynasty. Had it not been for the deeply-rooted dislike of all Spaniards to a foreign ruler, Amadeo would have proved by far the best sovereign that had sat upon the throne for many generations. He honestly respected the constitution. His court was pure and incorrupt. He was intelligently devoted to the best interests of Spain; but he found all his efforts at improvement and reform utterly thwarted by the intrigues of the nobility and of the upper employés of every kind, and after a trial of two years he resigned a post which he could no longer maintain with true dignity and self-respect, and retired to Portugal, February 11th, 1873. Thereupon a republic was proclaimed by Cortés, with Figueras, Castelar, and Pi y Margall as chief ministers. But the events of the last few years, the weakening of the central authority, the attention which the Carlist rising in the north had drawn to the ancient "fueros" or constitutional privileges of Spain, on the one side, and the incidents of the war with the Paris Commune in France, together with the influence of those of the communists who had found refuge in the industrial cities of the east and south, on the other, produced constant revolts in favour of a federal or cantonalist government of the separate provinces. On July 15th, 1873, Don Carlos (Carlos VII.) the grandson of the Don Carlos (Carlos V.) of the seven years' war, although both his uncles and his father had solemnly renounced their rights to the throne, re-entered the Basque Provinces, from which he had been quickly driven by General Moriones at Oroquieta in a former attempt, and raised the standard of legitimacy and divine right. On the other hand, one after the other, Alcoy, Malaga, Seville, Cadiz, and, a few months later, Cartagena and Valencia, revolted in a communistic or cantonalist conspiracy which threatened the dismemberment of Spain, and the destruction of her armaments. It was only after severe fighting, which strained the resources of the Government to the utmost, that these cities were subdued. Meanwhile Don Carlos had established himself firmly in the Basque Provinces, and his brother Alfonso headed considerable forces in Aragon and Catalonia. Fortunately Barcelona held aloof from the cantonalist and intransigente movement of Cartagena and Valencia.
These events, however, had shown the necessity of tightening the reins of discipline in the army. Salmeron, who was now at the head of the ministry, exerted himself to restore order, and endeavoured to work the republic in a conservative sense. A year or two after, at the instigation of Castelar, the penalty of death for mutiny was again enforced. After Moriones and Serrano in the north had both failed in their attempts to raise the seige of Bilbao, Concha at last succeeded, May 2, 1874; and Martinez Campos, who had crushed the insurrection in Valencia, was making way against the Carlists in Aragon and Catalonia. Between these generals, with Pavia and others, a conspiracy was formed to restore the Bourbon monarchy under Alfonso XII., son of Isabella. Serrano offered only a doubtful resistance, and Castelar, opposed by the intransigente party, found himself almost alone in upholding a conservative republic. The death of Concha, before Estella, in Navarre, June 27, 1874, delayed for some months the proclamation of Alphonso, but at length it took place, on December 30, 1874, and the republic fell without a struggle. Alphonso XII. landed at Barcelona in the first days of 1875, and entered Madrid on January 14th. In spite of some checks, caused by the incapacity of his generals, his power was quickly augmented. Many who, through hatred of the republic and of the cantonalist excesses, had joined the Carlist ranks, abandoned the cause when monarchy was restored. Don Carlos had proved to be as incapable as his grandfather had been, and much less reputable in his private life. By the end of August, Martinez Campos had taken Urgel, in Catalonia, and by the close of the year he was free to assist Quesada in the Basque Provinces. The united armies were successful, and on February 28, 1876, Don Carlos entered France, leaving his followers and the Basque Provinces entirely at the mercy of the conquerors. The consequence to them has been the partial loss of their fueros, the incorporation of the Basque conscripts with the rest of the army, and the annexation of the provinces for the first time to the crown of Spain.
With Alphonso XII. entered Spain, as his chief adviser, Cánovas del Castillo. Whether nominally prime minister, or out of office, he has really held the reins of power—with the exception of the nine months' ministry of Martinez Campos in 1879—from 1875 to February, 1881. On the whole his exertions have been beneficial to Spain. By an arrangement dated January 1, 1877, and by lowering the rate of interest, he saved the public credit, which was on the verge of utter bankruptcy. Insensibly he has detached himself from the progressive liberal movement, and his rule has become more and more conservative. The decree for toleration of religion, passed in the first months of the republic of 1868, has been greatly modified, and interpreted in a sense more and more unfavourable to religious freedom: But he has not succeeded in breaking down the many abuses of the administration, or in putting an end to the corruption of the upper employés, or in insuring freedom and purity of parliamentary election; and until this is effected the future of Spain must still be doubtful.
It would be tedious and little instructive to our readers to detail the various constitutions under which Spain has been governed since 1812. We will give a sketch, as far as we are able, of the last only. By a comparison of this with the constitution of Cadiz, it will be seen that, in spite of all reactions, Spain has really progressed in the way of freedom and good government.
The constitution of the Spanish monarchy, June 30, 1876, declares Alphonso XII. de Bourbon to be the legitimate King of Spain. His person is inviolable, but his ministers are responsible, and all his orders must be countersigned by a minister. The legislative power resides in the Cortés with the king. The Cortés is composed of two legislative bodies, equal in power—the Senate and the Congress of Deputies.
The Senate is composed (1) of senators by their own right, who are—sons of the kings, grandees of Spain with 3000l. yearly income, the Captain-General of the Forces, the Admiral-in-Chief, the Patriarch of the Indies, the Archbishops, the Presidents of the Council of State, of the Supreme Tribunal, of the National Accounts, of the Council of War, and of Marine, after two years' service; (2) of life senators, named by the crown; (3) of senators elected by the corporations of the State, or the richest citizens—half of these must be renewed every five years. All senators must be thirty-five years of age, and the number of classes (1) and (2) together must not exceed that of the elected senators, which is fixed at 180.
The Congress of Deputies is returned by the electoral Juntas, one deputy being elected for every 50,000 souls. Deputies are elected by universal suffrage, and for a period of five years. The Congress meets every year at the summons of the king, who has power to suspend or close the session; but in the latter case, a new Congress must meet within three months. The president and vice-presidents of the Senate are nominated by the king, those of the Congress are elected from its own body. The initiation of the laws belongs to the king, and to both legislative bodies; but the budget, and all financial matters, must be first presented every year to the Congress of Deputies. No one can be compelled to pay any tax not voted by Congress, or by the legally appointed corporations. The sittings are public, and the person of deputies is inviolable. Ministers may be impeached by the deputies, but are judged by the Senate.
Justice is administered in the king's name, and judges and magistrates are immovable.
The provinces are administered (1) by a governor, who, with his immediate subordinates, is nominated by the Government; (2) by a Provincial Deputation, elected by the householders of the province. All members must be natives of, or residents in, the province; their number varies according to the population. (3) Five members elected from the Provincial Deputation form a Provincial Commission to conduct business when the deputation is not sitting. These authorities and bodies answer nearly to the prefects and general councils of the French departments. They are of much greater political importance in those provinces which have preserved some of their ancient rights than in others.
Below the provincial are the municipal authorities, the Alcaldes (mayors), Ayuntamientos (municipal councils), and the Juntas Municipales. The internal administration of every parish is entrusted to an Ayuntamiento or municipal council, elected by the residents, and composed of the Alcalde or mayor, the Tenientes or assistants, the Regidores or councillors. The Junta Municipal is composed of all the councillors of the Ayuntamiento, and an assembly of three times their number, and by them the municipal accounts are to be audited and revised. The number of the Ayuntamiento varies according to the population; one Alcalde, one Teniente, six Regidores, for 1000; and one Alcalde, ten Tenientes, thirty-three Regidores, for 100,000. The real independence and free action of these bodies varies much in different provinces and in different circumstances. The smaller bodies are quite under the thumb of the central government; the larger ones in the great towns and in the more independent provinces are much less easily influenced.
The Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman is declared to be the religion of the State, and the nation is bound to maintain its worship and its ministers. "But no one shall be molested on Spanish ground for his religious opinions, nor for the exercise of his respective worship, except it be against Christian morals. Nevertheless, no other ceremonies or public manifestations shall be permitted than those of the religion of the State." These last two articles are evidently equivocal, and subject to great diversity of interpretation and of application.
All foreigners are free to settle in Spanish territory, and to exercise therein their respective trades and professions, with the exception of those which require special titles. The expression of opinion, the press, the right of public meeting, of association, and of petition, except from armed bodies, are respectively free. No Spaniard or foreigner can be arrested or detained illegally. He must either be set at liberty or be brought before a judge within twenty-four hours of his arrest. No Spaniard can be arrested without a judge's warrant, and the case must then be heard within seventy-two hours after his arrest; otherwise he must be set at liberty on his own petition or on that of any other Spaniard. Domicile is inviolable. Such are the principal articles of the present Spanish Constitution. In spite of the excess of some republican governments and the reaction of others, real progress has been made, excepting only in the equivocal law on religion, and that on marriages between Catholics and Protestants.
For military purposes, Spain is mapped out into five "capitanias generales," conferring the rank of field-marshal on the possessors of that office. The number of marshals, generals, and superior officers of the special corps in active service is over 500. The number of the army on a peace footing is fixed at 90,000, the infantry numbering 60,000, the cavalry 16,000, artillery 10,000, and engineers 4000. Universal conscription is nominally obligatory, but with the power of purchasing a substitute for a fixed sum of 80l. The time of service is eight years, four of which are spent in the active army and four in the reserve. In the colonies the time is four years only, the whole of which must be spent in active service. Besides the regular army in Spain are the corps and garrisons in the Philippine Islands, in Porto Rico, and in Cuba, where the mortality is so great that the troops need constant renewal. In addition to the above must be reckoned the militia of the Canary Islands, the "guardias civiles," a kind of constabulary like that of Ireland or the gendarmerie of France. These are about 15,000 men, and are some of the best and most trustworthy troops in Spain; the carabineros or custom-house officers, who guard the frontiers, form another corps of about 12,000. Towards the close of the late Carlist and Cuban wars the actual army was far above these numbers, and it is probable that 150,000 men were under arms on the side of the Government in the Basque Provinces alone. The Spanish soldier is one of the best in Europe, if properly commanded. He is sober, and has great powers of endurance; is an excellent marcher, and a trustworthy sentinel; persistent both in attack and defence, he still retains the steadiness of the old Spanish "tercios," which were once the terror and admiration of Europe. The Basques under Zumalacarrégui in the first Carlist war, and the Catalans under Martinez Campos in the last, earned high praise from all foreign officers who saw them. But too often these fine qualities of the private have been rendered of no avail, owing to the utter want of skill and competency in the officers and commanders, and still more by reckless corruption and mismanagement in all things relating to the commissariat and supplies. Another element of deterioration has been the use of the soldiery as mere tools of political intrigue in the frequent revolts and pronunciamientos of ambitious generals. The scientific corps, however, the artillery and engineers, have always stood aloof from sedition. It was an attempt to corrupt the former and to assimilate it in this respect to the rest of the army, which led to the abdication of King Amadeo. The generals who have achieved the greatest reputation in the Spanish army are Quesada and Martinez Campos. Moriones, who distinguished himself in the Basque Provinces during the last Carlist war, has lately died. Blanco and Jovellar acquired distinction in Cuba, and Loma as a good brigadier in the Carlist war. Serrano, Pavia, and others are better known in the field of politics than in that of military action.
For naval purposes the coast of Spain is divided into three departments—Ferrol, Cadiz, and Cartagena, at each of which ports is a naval arsenal. The jurisdiction of the marine extends as far as the tide and seventy feet beyond. The three departments, are divided into tercios navales, partidos maritimos, and districts. The Spanish navy consists of 121 ships, five of which are armoured vessels of the first class, and eleven unarmoured; eighteen belong to the second class, and fifty-six to the third, some of which are monitors and armoured gunboats. There are also thirty-one smaller vessels, and a few ships employed for training and for harbour services. The whole fleet mounts 525 guns, and is over 20,000 horse-power. The sailors number 14,000, with 504 officers of all ranks, and the marine infantry 7000, with 374 officers. The old fame of Spanish ship-building, except for small vessels, has almost entirely passed away. In the great war at the beginning of the century, the finest vessels of our navy were prizes taken from Spain. Spanish navigators, too, have long lost their old renown, though the Basques are still esteemed as mariners. The ironclad frigates and monitors of modern Spain have been almost all constructed in foreign dockyards. The armoured gunboats, however, built in Spain are a good and useful model.
The merchant marine consists of 226 ocean-going steamers and 1578 ocean sailing-vessels measuring altogether 460,000 tons. Smaller vessels make up a total of 3000 merchant-ships, less than one-fifth of the number of those of Great Britain.
For the administration of justice the country is divided into Audiencias Territoriales, Provincias, and Partidos Judiciales. The Audiencias, or courts of appeal, are fifteen, with 373 judges or procureurs. There are also 500 judges of first instance, and there is also a justice of peace or alcalde in each town or municipality. All pleadings are still conducted in writing in Spain; there is no verbal examination or cross-examination in public. Suits both civil and criminal are thus dragged out to an inordinate length. Judges are still suspected of being open to bribery, and confidence in the just administration of the law is as a consequence severely shaken. It is not uncommon for witnesses to be summoned to testify to facts which happened many years before, and it not unfrequently happens that either the principal witnesses or the criminal himself is dead before the case is decided. As a conspicuous instance, we may remind our readers that General Prim was assassinated in open day in Madrid in 1870, and the case has not yet been adjudged. The discipline of the prisons is in general extremely lax, and many crimes, especially forgeries, are there concocted with impunity. There is, however, a great difference in the treatment of the prisoners in different prisons. Up to 1840 the office of Alcaide, or governor of a prison, was sold by the Government to the highest bidder, and the purchasers made the most they could out of the wretched prisoners by starving them or by accepting bribes for illicit indulgences, and for furnishing what they were bound to provide, so that it was commonly said "that the bagnios of Algiers were less terrible than the prisons of Spain." Perhaps the worst of them all, up to the year 1833, was the old prison of the city of Madrid, one dark dungeon of which was termed "El Infierno"—Hell. Almost as bad was the Prison de Corté and the famous Saladero. There was no classification, no cleanliness, and in some of the cells neither light nor ventilation. In some of the country prisons the cells were like the dens of a menagerie, and the starving prisoners thrust their hands through the bars to beg food of passers-by. At last has arisen an ardent band of philanthropists, of whom Senors Lastres and Vilalva are at the head, and the first stone of a new prison in Madrid, arranged on modern principles, was laid by the king in February, 1877.
Hospitals, lunatic asylums, and asylums for the sick and aged poor, and other charitable establishments are of very varied descriptions in Spain. Some of them, like the famous establishments of Cadiz, Seville, Madrid, Cartagena, Valencia, and Cordova, are admirably managed, and yield in practical benefit to none of other lands. The first lunatic asylum ever founded was that at Valencia by Padre Jofre Gilanext, in 1409; three others, at Saragossa, Toledo, and Seville were founded in the fifteenth century. That of Barcelona is said to be now the best public lunatic asylum in Spain. Many others are nearly as good, while one or two of the private asylums near Madrid are excellent; but in some provinces these establishments, both public and private, are still in a very wretched state.
Since 1848 there have been a little over 4000 miles of railway laid down in Spain. The principal lines are the two which run from the extreme ends of the French Pyrenees to the capital, connecting Spain with the great European communications. Next in importance are those from the Mediterranean ports Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena, to Madrid; Malaga and Granada are connected with the metropolis by the line from Cadiz. A rather circuitous route by Badajoz, Ciudad Real, and Toledo is the only line at present open to Lisbon, but a more direct one is in course of construction. The communications with the extreme north-west are not yet completed, but the branch of the Great Northern Company from Santander, which brings the products of the Asturian coal-fields to Madrid, is of great importance. Other valuable lines are those of the valley of the Ebro, from Miranda del Ebro by Saragossa to Barcelona. Should any of the schemes projected for a direct route from Paris to Madrid, by any of the central passes of the Pyrenees, through Saragossa, be carried into effect, the line from the latter place to Madrid will be one of considerable traffic. The coast-line from Barcelona to Valencia is of great value to one of the richest wine and fruit districts of Spain. Shorter lines, which may have a considerable influence on the welfare of the country, are those which connect the great mineral fields with the chief lines of transport or with the nearest port. It has been remarked that hitherto, with some exceptions, Spanish railways have had less influence in developing local traffic than those of any other European country. The Great Northern lines, too, have suffered seriously from interruptions caused by civil war, by floods, and other accidents since 1868.
The total length of the telegraph lines is nearly 10,000 miles. The number of public offices is 324, of private, 12; the telegrams despatched amounted in 1877 to 2,023,579, of which about half were private despatches for the interior. The expenses of working were 165,076l., and the receipts 156,950l., leaving a deficit of 8126l.
The number of post-offices in 1877 was 2530, of letters 78,446,000; postal cards, 1,040,000; newspapers, 38,479,000; books and samples, 5,767,000. To Great Britain were despatched, in 1879: Letters and postal cards, 1,083,000; books, &c., 317,900; total, 1,400,900. From Great Britain: Letters and postal cards, 931,100; books, &c., 646,100; total, 1,577,200. The receipts from the post-office in 1877 were 361,704l., while the expenditure was 297,412l., leaving a surplus of 64,292l.
The most prominent circumstance in the financial condition of Spain is the startling increase of the public debt since the revolution of 1868. The capital of the debt was then 212,443,600l., the interest of which was 5,580,000l. The funds, three per cents, were then at 33. In 1880 the capital of the debt amounted to 515,000,000l. Since 1870, by abuse of credit, the interest of the debt had been paid from the capital; then one-third of the interest was paid in paper, with a promise to pay the remaining two-thirds in coin; this engagement was soon broken, but the paper was punctually paid until 1874, when the interest of the debt was erased from the budget. In face of the evident bankruptcy of the country, an arrangement was made in 1876 between the Government and the principal foreign fund-holders, by which, from January 1, 1877, to June 30, 1881, inclusive, the interest to be paid on the three per cents was reduced to one per cent., and that on the six per cents to two per cent. From June 30, 1881, to June 30, 1882, one and a quarter per cent. will be paid, and arrangements as to future payments are to be made before the last-mentioned date, and a return to a full interest of three and six per cent. is to follow at fixed periods. The success of the scheme is shown by the fact that in 1876 the three per cents, still nominally paying three per cent. interest, were at 11½; in January, 1881, paying only one per cent. interest, they were quoted at 22; and the six per cents, paying only two per cent. interest, were at 42.
From the above statement we may gather some idea of what the civil wars of the republic, the cantonal, Carlist, and Cuban insurrections, joined to the expensive experiments of well-intentioned but inexperienced financiers, in remitting taxes while the public burdens were increasing, have cost the nation. A calm observer, Mr. Phipps, in his official report to the British Government, calculates that from 1868 to 1876 the addition to the debt from these causes amounted to at least 260,000,000l., considerably more than the total debt of Spain in 1868.
Notwithstanding the plausible balance-sheets annually submitted to Congress, the revenue and expenditure of Spain are still far from being in a satisfactory condition. The writer above quoted states that "enormous deficits in the budgets (however nominally balanced) have been the invariable rule in Spain during a long course of years, under every sort of régime and under all circumstances." In the last budget, 1879-80, the revenue is stated at 32,494,552l., and the expenditure at 33,129,484l. Supposing these figures to be correct, the deficit, 634,932l., would be far less than for many years past.
The principal sources of Spanish revenue are, in round numbers:—
|Stamps and Government Monopolies||9,000,000|
Of these the items most foreign to an Englishman's notion of taxation are the produce of the seven great tobacco factories, Seville, Madrid, Santander, Gijon, Corunna, Valencia, and Alicante, of which the net revenue is over 2,500,000l., the lotteries, which bring in 5000,000l. net, the consumo tax, a kind of octroi, and the territorial tax, which together furnish the largest contribution to the revenue. The national property comprises the Almaden quicksilver-mines, valued at over 250,000l. per annum, the Linares mines, leased at 20,000l., and other sources about 30,000l. annually.
The heaviest item in the expenditure is the interest on the national debt, over 11,500,000l.; the ministry of war and the navy exceeds 6,000,000l., while pensions absorb 1,750,000l., public works over 3,000,000l., finance over 5,000,000l., administration of justice more than 2,000,000l.; the ministry of the interior, Cortés, the civil list, &c., make up the remainder.
The total imports and exports of Spain were:—
But of this increased prosperity far more than her share has fallen to France, owing chiefly to its being put in the same category with Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Austria, as most favoured nations, who import their goods under the customs tariff of July 17, 1877, while England and the United States continue-under the old tariff, as favoured nations only. This disproportion will probably be still more marked, owing to the immense importation of Spanish wines into France required to make up for losses by the phylloxera disease; while the exportation of sherry to England has been gradually lessening for some years, and now we take only some 4 per cent, of the quantity, and 12 per cent in value, of the wine exported from Spain. One of our chief imports into Spain, coal, is likely also to diminish, owing to the development of the native coal-fields in the Asturias and in Andalusia. Our other chief exports from Spain in fruits and minerals largely increase. The present wine tariff of England, by which she virtually refuses to purchase the bulk of Spanish wines in their natural state, while importing them largely when mixed with inferior French white wines, and treated as clarets, &c., is felt by Spaniards to be so unfair that, until this system is modified there is little hope of obtaining a better tariff for English manufactures; while the making Gibraltar an immense depôt for a contraband trade is a wrong that rankles in the mind of all southern Spaniards. The decline of the English import trade into Spain would be much more marked but for the immense amount of English capital employed in the larger mining and industrial enterprises.
The battle between protection and free trade is not yet fought out in Spain. The manufacturing districts of Catalonia and the east coast clamour loudly for protection, while the mining and agricultural and wine-growing interests demand free trade. It is impossible to say on which side the balance may turn. A conservative Government would probably favour the former, while a liberal ministry might venture upon the latter system.
Heavy as the public debt of Spain undoubtedly is, and serious as are the charges imposed upon her by the still unsettled political condition of the country and of its principal colony—Cuba, she might more than pay the interest of her debts at the present rate of interest, and balance the expenditure, but for the administrative corruption and utter want of political morality, the fruit of long years of financial abuses, and which has become almost a fixed habit amongst all classes of the inhabitants. The Government seems to be a mark for fraud to every class, from millionaire bankers and the largest landed proprietors down to the ill-paid employé who ekes out his scanty salary by accepting petty bribes, and the labourer or fisherman on the frontier who never misses the occasion of smuggling. It is easy to prove the truth of these assertions. In 1877, in an official report, Mr. Phipps writes: "A few English, French, and Spanish bankers advance money to Spain, with safe security, on conditions as disastrous to the treasury as they are discreditable to themselves." The territorial tax, which forms one-fourth of the whole internal revenue is notoriously levied on only 54 per cent, of the whole area of the country. In some provinces not two-thirds of the whole is returned at all, and much land that is productive is returned as uncultivated. From the extent of the contraband trade and the corruption of the custom-house officers, the amount levied on imports and exports can hardly be above two-thirds of their proper value. In fact, what Spain needs above everything at present is an honest and impartial administration. The causes of her poverty lie not so much in bad laws or a faulty constitution, but in a corrupt and negligent administration. The system of empleomania, whereby nearly every ill-paid employé is almost forced to pillage, the preference of this ill-paid idleness and of professional poverty to honest toil in trade or agriculture—these are the true foes to the prosperity of Spain. For party and political purposes, taxes are relaxed for those who should bear their equal share of the burden, only to fall with crushing weight on the honest workers, unconnected with, or who refuse to bribe the administration.
THE fame of the Spanish universities has greatly fallen from what it was in the early Middle Ages, when Salamanca ranked with Bologna, Paris, and Oxford, as one of the four great universities in Europe; when its halls were thronged with thousands of eager though needy scholars, and it was the centre whence Semitic learning and civilization spread to the rest of Europe. Even in a later day, in the sixteenth century, under the patronage of Cardinal Ximenes, the university of Alcala de Henares (Complutum) flashed into sudden fame as one of the great offshoots of the Renaissance, with its 7800 students, and its noble production of the first great Polyglot Bible since primitive times. In the eighteenth century, however, this learning had all but disappeared from Spain, and the education given in its universities was all but worthless. Little was effected towards any true revival or improvement until 1845, though something had been attempted before this in secondary education by the successive reforms of 1771, 1807, and especially of 1824 and 1836.
The universities of Spain are now ten: Madrid, with 6672 students; Barcelona with 2459; Valencia, 2118; Seville, 1382; Granada, 1225; Valladolid, 880; Santiago de Compostella, 779; Saragossa, 771; Salamanca, 372; and Oviedo with 216: making a total of 16,874 university students. The number of regular professors is 415, with 240 supernumeraries and assistants, making a total of 655; that is, one professor to every 26 students. The salary of the professors varies from 120l. to 260l. per annum, except in Madrid, where it is from 160l. to 300l. The budget of the whole universities is a little over 1,000,000l., and the expenditure slightly in excess, leaving a deficit in 1879 of 4600l.. The average cost of each student to the university is a little over 6l..
Though the above institutions are all classed as universities by the State, yet the course of instruction is by no means the same in all. At Madrid alone the whole programme of university education is followed out. This comprises the faculties of civil, canon, and administrative law, of philosophy and literature, of science, of medicine, and of pharmacy. Since 1868 theology is no longer studied in the universities, but in the seminaries, of which there is one in each diocese, under the direction of the bishop. The total number of pupils studying in these institutions is 8562. At Valladolid are two theological colleges for English, Scotch, and Irish students, established, one at the close of the sixteenth, the other by the Jesuits at the close of the eighteenth century.
Law is studied in all the Spanish universities, and medicine in all but one—Oviedo; Madrid, Barcelona, Granada, and Compostella have faculties of pharmacy, under which head a certain amount of natural science is taught; of the exact sciences there are chairs only at Madrid, Barcelona, and Salamanca; philosophy and literature are studied in Madrid, Barcelona, Granada, Salamanca, Seville, and Saragossa. In Oviedo, Santiago, Valencia, Valladolid, only the first year's or preparatory course of law is read, this consists of Latin, general literature, and universal history.
Besides these State universities, there are several institutions supported by the provincial deputations; for instance, there is a faculty of medicine in Seville supported by the province, another in Salamanca at the joint expense of the province and of the municipality. In addition to these there are technical schools for the study of special branches of industry or of administration, such as those of roads, canals, and harbours, of mines, and of forests, in Madrid and Villa Viciosa. A school of industrial engineering, and of the application of chemistry and mechanics, is working at Barcelona. There are technical schools of commerce at Madrid and at Barcelona. Schools or colleges of veterinary science are to be found in Madrid, Saragossa, Cordova, and Leon. Naval schools are established in Santa Cruz (Teneriffe), in Palma (Majorca), in Masnou (Barcelona), in San Sebastian, supported by the funds of the provinces; there is also one at Gijon, in the Asturias, founded by Jovellanos; two other private foundations also exist at Lequeito and Santurce in Biscay. In Madrid there is a special school of architecture, and also one of painting, sculpture, and engraving. Excellent schools of the fine arts exist in Barcelona, Cadiz, Corunna, Granada, Malaga, Oviedo, Seville, Valencia, Valladolid, Saragossa, and at Palma in the Balearic Isles; this last is remarkable for the number of its pupils and its generally flourishing condition.
In each of the forty-nine provinces of Spain are institutions of superior or secondary education. With the exception of the institutes of Cardinal Cisneros and of San Isidro at Madrid, which depend on the Government, and which hold the first and third rank as to the number of their pupils, these institutions are supported by the funds of the provinces or municipalities, but the professors are nominated by the Government; besides those in the capital of each province, there are also 11 others in various large towns in Spain. There are also 356 colleges of secondary education affiliated to the institutes, 58 of which are under religious corporations, making a total of 417 establishments of secondary education, with 2730 professors who have all taken degrees in science or literature.
The institutes give instruction to 14,872 pupils, and the colleges to almost the same number, 14,290; home or private education absorbs 4476; making a total in 1880 of 33,638; more than three times the number in 1848, and, including the episcopal seminaries, giving one pupil to every 398 inhabitants. All these pupils are admitted to the official examinations, and take their degrees equally on passing them. It is found that 13 per cent of the candidates are rejected at the examinations, 43.8 per cent. simply pass, and 43.1 gain honours of various kinds; while 9 per cent. take the degree of Bachelor from the colleges, and 37.2 proceed to take it from the universities.
The salary of the masters is from 120l. to 180l. (except in Madrid where it is from 160l. to 220l.), with a right to a portion of the fees for matriculation and degrees. The supernumerary masters receive 60l. in Madrid and 40l. in the provinces; auxiliary masters are unpaid. Pensions of 20l. are sometimes given to poor but distinguished pupils. The cost of all the institutes is 118,935l., the income, 44,818l., leaving a deficit of 74,117l. to be supplied either by the State, the provinces, or the municipalities.
The course of instruction is two-fold, general and special. The general comprises: Spanish and Latin grammar, two courses; rhetoric and poetry, geography, history of Spain, universal history, psychology, logic and ethics, arithmetic and algebra, geometry and trigonometry, physics and the elements of chemistry, natural history, physiology and hygiene, and elementary agriculture. The special courses are those of agriculture, the fine arts, manufactures and commerce.
Of public schools of primary instruction there are about 23,000 of all grades and classes, 1308 are infant schools and 1400 are for male and 100 for female adults.
The great drawback in the higher education of Spain is the disproportionate number of students in law, medicine, or pharmacy, in comparison with the few who cultivate the special branches of agriculture, industrial or commercial science. Hence the former professions are overstocked, with results productive of far-reaching evils to the country and to the administration. Notwithstanding its far inferior population the number of students in Spain who take their degrees in law and medicine is almost treble that of France and of Germany, while the total of degrees conferred in all the faculties of Spain is equal to that of France, which has double the population. Nothing more plainly shows the character of the people, and the mischief of "empleomania" than such a fact in a country whose natural riches in agriculture and mining are so great and so little developed, where there is so large a field for industrial enterprises of many kinds, and where the fruits of all these are at present almost wholly reaped by foreigners.
The primary education of Spain, though nominally everywhere alike, is really so very varied as to defy any average description. A few of her infant schools are equal to the best of those of other countries. Where the provincial deputations or the municipalities take an interest in education the primary schools are very fair, but in other parts the education is little more than nominal, and the schoolmaster's appointment is well-nigh a sinecure both in pay and labour; and probably at the present moment, notwithstanding the great improvements of late years, two-thirds of the people can still neither read nor write.
From the time of the Œcumenical Council of Nicea, A.D. 325, with the brief exception of the reigns of the Arian Visigoth kings, Spain has been the champion of orthodoxy in religion. From early times too the demarcation between Church and State has been less marked, or rather the influence of the former over the latter has been more constant and more powerful, than in perhaps any other European kingdom. The great councils of Toledo were scarcely more ecclesiastical than civil assemblies. The recognition of the sovereign, the order of succession, the validity of the laws, were either settled or sanctioned therein. Later, in the great struggle with the Moors, through the antagonism of exclusive beliefs, the war assumed the character of a religious crusade. The semi-monastic Spanish military orders, the preaching of the monks, the sanction and the bulls of the Popes—auxiliaries which the kings of Spain were forced to summon to their aid—gave a complexion to the conquest and to the national character quite different to what might have been the case had the contest been fought out by the sovereign, the lay warriors, and the civil power alone. Thus the triumph of the Christian over the Moor became in some sort also the triumph of the Roman over the national Spanish Church. The Mozarabic liturgy gave way to that of Rome. The peculiar institution of the inquisition, following on that of the Santa Hermandad in civil matters, developed in Spain a degree of power to which it never attained in other lands. The certainty and the secrecy of its proceedings, the mingled pomp and horror of its "autos de fe," the whispers and the shudder with which men told of the tortures of its hidden processes, deeply impressed and captivated the imagination of a people singularly greedy of, and susceptible to, strong and vivid emotions. The chivalrous respect for women, heightened by the reserve and half-seclusion which the Spanish knights had learned from the Moors, was transformed in the sphere of religion into an almost ardent passion of devotion to the Blessed Virgin. Centuries before the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed by Pius IX. the cry of the Spanish beggar heard at every door throughout her vast dominions was, "Ave Maria purisima, sin pecádo concebida." Spain had been the champion of Christendom against the Jews and against the Moors; she had without remorse violated every compact she had sworn with the latter, and she became equally the champion of Roman Catholicism against the Reformation. Though Philip II. failed in his great armed struggle with the northern powers, and wasted and destroyed therein all the real resources of Spain, yet Spanish theologians were among the most eloquent and the most learned in the Council of Trent; and it was the Jesuits of Spain who headed the reaction of the seventeenth century, and who won back all but the Teutonic and Scandinavian races to the allegiance of Rome. This glory of Catholicism is never absent from the heart of a Spaniard. His whole literature is steeped in it; it inspires Spain's greatest painters. It is this deep but unconscious feeling that Protestanism is un-Spanish which is the real stronghold of Catholicism in Spain, and which, in spite of spoliation and political subjection, still gives the clerical party there a greater power than they possess in other countries. Yet the few Spaniards who embraced the reformed doctrines in the sixteenth century were not inferior to those of other lands in earnestness, in learning, in eloquence, or in high position, both in Church and State. There was just a moment when the court of Charles V. hovered on the verge of protest against Rome. When, as before related, the liberties of Spain fell beneath the iron rule of the Austrian sovereigns, it was the Church, by the hand of one of its greatest ornaments, Cardinal Ximenes, which became the willing instrument of despotism. In return for the servility of the court, and the presence and the sanction of the sovereign at the "autos," the inquisition lent its aid to the monarchy, and its assistance was called in to suppress the trade in horses, so senselessly forbidden, on the northern frontier. In the seventeenth century, however, the Spanish court fell under the influence of the French encyclopædists. The Jesuits were banished in 1767. We need not detail again the various vicissitudes of the abolition and re-establishment of the inquisition, of the suppression of tithes, of the sale of Church property, the destruction of the monasteries, and the exile of the monks, the effects of which have been sufficiently indicated above.
Since the Concordat of 1851, Spain is ruled ecclesiastically by nine archbishops; those of Toledo (the primate of all Spain), Burgos, Saragossa, Tarragona, Valencia, Granada, Seville, Valladolid, and Compostella, under whom are forty-six bishops, with their chapters, and about 35,000 clergy. The mode of episcopal appointment is this: the king presents three names to the Pope, of which his Holiness selects one, who is forthwith nominated to the vacant see. Since 1868, theological education is entirely under the hands of the bishops, who have a seminary in each diocese. The clergy are paid by the State; but the stipends of the country priests are said to be frequently in arrear. In some parts of Spain, as in the manufacturing towns of Barcelona, religion has to a great extent lost its hold upon the people; in other parts, as in the Basque Provinces, the majority are still devout. Since 1871 a reaction from extremes of scepticism and advanced socialistic views is manifest in many of the most popular writers. A small but increasing body of Protestants has been established since 1868; but the vicissitudes of revolution and reaction, and the present ambiguous state of the law have acted unfavourably on the movement. The pastors have honourably distinguished themselves by their zeal for the education of the classes utterly neglected by the dominant Church. On the whole, the clerical party in Spain, considered as a political body, seems gradually sinking into a like condition to that of France. It is powerful enough to thwart and check the policy of its opponents, but impotent to carry out its own measures. The extreme Ultramontane party, for whom the Comte de Chambord is too liberal and Pope Leo XIII. too comprehensive, has lately adopted the banner of the Carlists. Whatever the future of Spain may be, it is not probable that the Church will ever attain again the political influence and the exclusive control of education which it possessed in the past, in spite of the undoubted talents and virtues of many of its upholders.
THOUGH one of the most interesting countries of Europe with regard to architecture, Spain can lay claim to no style peculiar to itself, or that originated wholly within the Peninsula. It contains, however, noble specimens of art and architecture of very varied epochs and character, from the work of the unknown sculptors who carved the so-called "toros" of Guisando and erected the huge dolmens and other megalithic monuments so thickly strewed over its soil, to the architects and artists of the present day. Almost all the races which have trodden the land have left monuments upon it—the Carthaginians, perhaps, the fewest. Scarcely anywhere else does the solid, practical character of Roman architecture appear more fully than in the amphitheatres, aqueducts, and especially in the bridges of Spain. The amphitheatres, temples, and walls of Murviedro (Saguntum), Tarragona, Toledo, Coria, Plasencia; the aqueducts of Merida, Seville, and Segovia; the bridges of Tuy over the Minho, of Zamora over the Douro, Salamanca over the Tormes, of Alcantara, Garrovillas de Alconetar, and Puente del Arzobispo over the Tagus, of Merida and Medellin over the Guadiana, of Seville, Cordova, and Ubeda over the Guadalquiver, and of Lerida over the Segre, are noble relics of Roman work. Of the period when Roman art was gradually modified under Christian influences, and the basilica was transformed into the Christian church, very few remains exist. To the Vandal and Gothic conquerors belong part of the walls of Toledo, and a few chapels and small churches in the north and north-west may belong in part to this date (417-717); but the most peculiar artistic remains of this period are the jewellers' and goldsmiths' work, preserved in the metal crowns and treasure of Guarrazar (624-672), of a style which, though probably derived from the East through Byzantium, continued to influence Spanish goldsmiths' work down to the eleventh century.
The architecture and art of the race that succeeded to the Visigoths is of much more notable character. The civil and religious architecture of the Spanish Arabs is well worthy of most careful study, and is a grand example of the artistic talent of a race which, though debarred by its religious faith from the reproduction of human, or even of animal form, and delighting neither in the scenes of the theatre or the circus, has yet left masterpieces of architectural beauty in lands so wide apart as Spain, Egypt, Persia, and Hindostan. The architecture of the Arabs in Spain may be roughly divided into three periods: The first, from the eighth to the tenth century, tells most clearly of its origin as an imitation or modification of the Byzantine style; its masterpiece is the Mosque of Cordova. The second period, from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries, shows the architects seeking their real style—it is a period of transition; its finest erection is the Giralda of Seville. The third period is when the Moorish style acquired its fullest development in the glorious Alhambra, from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries. Contemporary with the last period is the Mudejar style, the modification which Arabic art underwent in the hands of the Christian conquerors. To this belong the Alcazar of Seville, 1353; the Mudejar gates of Toledo and Saragossa, and the Chapel of St. James in Alcala de Henares. In their domestic architecture the Arabs alone have almost solved the problem how to unite ventilation and ornament by means of currents of air of different temperatures. The pendulous stucco fretwork by which they conceal the angles of their apartments serves not only for ornament but to equalize the temperature and to admit of concealed openings whereby air can penetrate without draught or chill. The sense of true harmony of colour seems to be an intuitional gift of Oriental races, and is practically understood by them as it never has been by any other. The Mosaics of Greece and Rome, and those of mediæval Italy, in their storied designs, appeal more to the intellect; but those of Arabic art rest and charm the eye by the purity and harmonious blending of tone as do none other.
In spite of some apparent exceptions, and those of the earliest date, as the Mosque of Cordova (788), and the cloisters of Tayloon at Cairo (879), Arabic architecture, like Grecian, depended for its effect more on the exquisite symmetry and exact proportion of all details to a consummate whole, than to impressions of awe derived from vast size or immense solidity. It is thus that the massive Roman arch became moulded into the light horse-shoe shape, peculiar to the Spanish Arabs from the eighth to the tenth centuries. The originality of this architecture is not, however, so great as appears at first sight. The influence of Byzantine architecture and of that of the Christian churches with which the Arabs had become acquainted during their conquests, and of constant accessions from Oriental art, can be clearly traced therein. But in Spain there is perhaps a juster proportion, a greater variety and richness of ornamentation and colour than is to be found elsewhere. The grandest of Moorish buildings in Spain is undoubtedly one of the earliest, the great Mosque of Cordova, with its forest of 1200 columns, its fifty-seven naves, nineteen gates, and upwards of 4000 lamps, recalling the impression produced by the Egyptian hall of Karnac at Thebes,—an impression so vivid that even the iconoclast emperor, Charles V., whose own palace mars the beauty of the Alhambra, rebuked the Archbishop of Cordova for destroying what he never could replace, when he cut away some of the columns to make room for a Christian chapel. Not less beautiful in their graceful proportions than the Campanile of Italy are the minarets and towers of Arabian art in Spain, as the Giralda of Seville and others; even the quaintness of the leaning tower of Pisa finds its counterpart in the leaning tower of Saragossa. The Moorish gates of Toledo, of Seville, and the Alcazar of Segovia show how castellated strength may be wedded to artistic elegance; but the most perfect union at once of fortress and of palace is to be found in the noble group of buildings known as the Alhambra, on the hill of Granada. Though trembling on the verge of debasement when the severer forms of Arabian art were beginning to admit the representation of animal shapes, whose rude sculpture forms a contrast to the exquisite correctness of the alphabetic and geometrical designs which ornament the walls, these buildings may yet be regarded as marking the culmination of Moorish art. The fertility of decorative design, the exquisite use made of Arabic lettering, and the simple yet subtle forms of geometrical interlacing—apparently most fantastic, yet really ever subordinated to a just proportion with the whole—these are a theme of wondering admiration to every student. A whole grammar of ornament might be illustrated by examples taken from these buildings alone. The architecture of the houses of the Moorish aristocracy which still remain in Seville, Granada, Toledo, and Saragossa is wonderfully adapted both to the necessities of the climate and to domestic ornament. In the more northern examples the open galleries, in the more southern the flat roof, of the apartments surrounding the inner quadrangle make a delightful resort in the cool of the day; while the court or patio itself, with its fountains and shade, its flowers and creepers and odoriferous shrubs, its mingled play of light and colour, through which the delicate grace of ornament is seen uninjured by the dust and contact with the outside traffic, appears to the northern tourist almost like one of the fairy homes of which his ancestors dreamed, and which have been described to him in many a legend, as a thing too lovely to be gazed upon by mortal eyes unless unsealed.
The influence and the impress of Arabian art was not confined in Spain to mosques or to buildings consecrated to the use of Mohammedans alone. Some of the most beautiful specimens of this architecture were erected for Christians or for Jews. Arabic inscriptions used as ornaments are still to be seen on the altar of the Cathedral of Gerona, in the Shrine of San Isidore at Leon; Arabic architecture is seen in the palace of the archbishops of Toledo, in a chapel in Alcala de Henares, and in more than one synagogue of the Jews. Christian bishops used as episcopal seals rings on which were engraved the praises of Allah. Long after the conquest of the great cities of the centre and of the south, Moorish and Mudejar architects were retained in the pay of Christian monarchs to keep in repair the cathedrals and palaces, the beauty of whose architecture the Christians could appreciate but could not imitate, much less surpass. It is this fact, and the mingling of style and ideas consequent thereon, which gives its sole peculiar characteristic to Spanish art.
Meanwhile, contemporaneously with the flourishing period of Arabian art in the south, a Christian architecture, strikingly in contrast from its poverty of style and of invention, was slowly being reconstructed in the north. Of the eighth century we have the crypt of the Church of Santa Cruz, at Cangas in the Asturias, and some remains in parts of the churches of Oviedo. To the tenth century belong parts of the Church of San Pablo at Barcelona, and other Catalan churches, with here and there a chapel in the Western Pyrenees. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries the more important churches of Northern Spain were almost reproductions of those of Southern France; the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostella is almost a copy of the Church of St. Sernin at Toulouse; but the Romanesque (semi-Byzantine) style lingered somewhat longer in Spain than in the neighbouring country, and especially in North-eastern Spain. In the twelfth century edifices of real beauty are beginning to be built; such are the cloisters of Tarragona and the cathedrals of Lerida and of Tudela. The cathedrals of Avila and Siguenza are of more native Spanish character; while those of Toledo, Burgos, and Leon show the influence of French artists in their general plan, but with an added ornamentation derived from the richer and more florid fancy of the south. Of these perhaps Leon is the noblest and Burgos the richest example in Spain. Segovia, Salamanca, and Seville, of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, are the latest of the great Gothic churches of Spain, before the rise of the Renaissance.
Nowhere had the classical revival in architecture more influence than in Spain. The almost exclusive type of church which, both in Spain and in her vast colonies, is pointed out as the Spanish church, is that either of the Renaissance or of the styles which have sprung from it. This soon became fashionable, but its semi-pagan additions frequently harmonize but ill with the deeper religious feeling of the preceding styles. Still it has many fine examples; the works of Berruguete and Herrera are well worthy of study. The Escorial, the work of the latter, is redeemed from ugliness or meanness by the noble proportions of its central chapel and pantheon. But to this semi-classical style succeeded, in the eighteenth century, the Churrigueresque, the most debased of all styles, wherein plaster took the place of sculpture, sham that of reality, and masses of gilding and an incongruous medley of meaningless ornament concealed the blunders in proportion and poverty of idea. The adoption of this style by the Jesuits procured its prevalence in many districts of Spain and of her colonies; occasionally the size of the buildings constructed gives a certain grandeur and hides the debasement of the methods.
The domestic, palatial, and castellated architecture of Spain has little peculiar beyond what has been already indicated. The royal palace at Madrid, however, is one of the most successful architectural efforts of the eighteenth century. The sculptured coats of arms on mean dwellings are perhaps the most notable distinction of Spanish houses. Traces of the influence of Moorish traditions may not unfrequently be observed. In the north, the cottages and farms of the Basques, with overhanging roofs and wooden galleries, recall in some degree those of Switzerland; in the south the iron bars or rails (rejas) before the lower windows, and the lattices (celosias) in the upper stories tell of insecurity and of habits of almost Oriental seclusion of women.
Finer even than the architecture and the exterior of the buildings is the church furniture in Spain. It is unsurpassed for beauty and interest. The carved and sculptured wood-work in some of the cathedrals is finer than even that of the Netherlands and of Germany. The storied screens and choir stalls at Toledo; the retablos of Gerona and Salamanca, of Avila and Seville; the choir fittings of Santiago, Zamora, and of Burgos; the lecterns and pulpits both of brass and wood; and the rails and gates and screens of noblest metal-work are often of simply grand proportion; nay, even the polychrome wooden statues in the churches will often be found to be of rarest beauty. The monuments erected to the memory of the dead are equal to anything which affection and piety have raised elsewhere, from that of Archbishop Maurice at Burgos, in the thirteenth century—of the tombs of the constable and of those of Juan II. and Isabel of Portugal, in the Cartuja de Miraflores, of the fifteenth century; and that of Prince Juan, the only son of Ferdinand and Isabella, at Avila, erected in 1497—down to the noble mausoleum of inlaid metal-work by Zuloaga, lately placed in the Church of the Atocha to the memory of Prim. In these and many more, Spain can show a sequence able to vie with that of any other land. Hardly less beautiful are the minor accessories of Catholic worship; the gold and silver smiths' work of the chandeliers, the jewelled work of crosses, custodias or shrines, and sacred vessels is often worthy of admiration. In all such works of art, before the pillage of the French in the war of liberation, and the destruction of the convents, Spain was probably one of the richest of Christian lands. If we seem to insist too much on ecclesiastical art in Spain, it is because, as we shall see still more clearly in the case of painting, art has here concentrated its choicest effort on religious subjects, and in them has won its greatest triumphs. Except, perhaps, in arms and in porcelain, in portrait-painting and in furniture, all the masterpieces of Spanish art are in some sense ecclesiastical. Take away religion from her art, how poor would be the residue, for even Arabian and Moslem art in Spain were essentially religious.
Though Spain cannot rival some other countries, Italy for example, in the number of her great painters; though she has founded no great technical school; yet is she worthy of greatest admiration; in one or two of her artists she has attained the very highest rank. As a religious painter, especially in expressing in form and colour the heights of mystic ecstasy, Murillo stands unrivalled. As a portrait-painter of courtly grace and distinction, Velazquez has few equals. It is not in landscape, or as interpreters of the ever-varying beauty of external nature, that Spanish painters excel, but in the delineation of the human form, and especially in the rendering of those religious emotions which lead through asceticism to ecstasy. Not the glorification of merely sensuous beauty, but the triumphs of the spirit over the flesh are the conquests which they prefer to delineate.
Spanish painters may be divided among three great provinces: the Valencian, Andalusian, and Castilian schools. Of these the Andalusian, and especially the school of Seville, has produced by far the greatest artists.
The earliest specimens of Spanish painting are of the decorative kind, and are employed in subordination to architecture, to add colour to form, and to heighten and make more evident the details of sculpture in churches or convents. Much of this phase of art, in which they stand very high, they probably learned from the Moors. From these labours in churches and convents art in Spain received a religious imprint and direction which it has never lost, and from which it is only now turning in the present generation. Goya and Fortuny are perhaps the only considerable painters of Spain in whose works religious subjects do not preponderate. Spanish art reflects in a peculiar degree the characteristic of Spanish theology. The mystic grace, the transport of love which seems almost too human and tender when fixed on the Divine, which moves us in the writings of St. Teresa, St. Juan de la Cruz, Xavier, and others, touches us no less in the pictures of Murillo. Stern and sombre, as these are lovely, are the paintings which remind us that we are in the land of the inquisition. Figures of martyrs serene in tortures, whose horrors are laid bare as by no other artists, figures of saints of primitive, mediæval, or of later times, who have carried asceticism to excess, portraits of men who were as severe to themselves as they were pitiless to others; such are the subjects which are faithfully rendered by the pencils of Ribalta, Ribera, Zurbaran, and many others. Later on, when the old constitutional liberties of Spain had almost utterly fallen, and when the worship of the king had begun almost to rival that of the Blessed Virgin, Velazquez and others give us portraits of the royal family of Spain. The fun and wit which really existed in Spanish life, and which her novelists have depicted with such relish in innumerable novels, is but poorly represented in Spanish art by any of her great masters. Murillo's beggar-boys are almost the only pictures which answer to the "picaresque" side of Spanish literature till the advent of Goya and of Fortuny.
The expressions of the plastic arts of Spain are neither so idealized as the Italian, nor so intellectual as the German, nor so sensuous as the Flemish, nor so realistic as those of the Dutch school; but they are far more powerful in colouring and truer and deeper in feeling than are those of the French school. The Spaniard painted the types and characters of his native land, but he delighted to throw around them the magic lights that never were on sea or land; through the intense darkness of his asceticism ever peers a ray of heavenly light; but the type of the figure is ever Spanish; never, in the best days of art, was inspiration sought from a reproduction of the forms of pagan classical ism, or from a mere eclecticism of beauty. Though the drawing is correct, we feel that it has not been learned from a mere study of ancient statuary or from anatomical preparations, but from the living type and figure. Here and there we find painters like Juande Joannes (Vicente Macip) and Domenico Theotocopuli (El Greco), who might have lived on Italian soil; but generally the tone of Spanish painters is local and unmistakable. Through all his styles—the frio (cold), calido (warm), and the vaporoso (mystic)—Murillo remained faithful to Spanish, nay, to Andalusian models; none can mistake his saints and virgins, his boys and beggars, as belonging to any other race. He does not tell the wondrous story of the Incarnation with so grand an appeal to the intellect as do the Italian painters. The "woman blessed throughout all generations" does not look out to us from his canvas from the serene heights of perfect woman-hood which has found its crown in the mystery of the Motherhood of the Son of God, but in younger and more girlish forms he paints for us the maiden rapt in adoring ecstasy as she experiences the wonders of love divine, bathed in the golden light of a rapture which none but the very purest can ever feel, and which the very angels are represented as reverencing.
Space forbids our giving even an approximate catalogue of Spanish painters; we can merely single out for mention the two or three of highest rank in their respective provinces. In Valencia we have Ribalta (1551-1628), Juan de Joames (Vicente Macip) (1523-79), and the great but gloomy Ribera (1588-1609). To this school also belong the artists of Catalonia and of the Balearic Isles. In Castile are Navarette (El Mudo) (1526-79), Morales (1509-86), Theotocopuli (El Greco) (died 1578), and the younger Herrera (died 1686). But the greatest painters are from Andalusia and from Seville. The well-known names of Herrera the Elder (1576-1656), Zurbaran (1598-1662), Murillo (1618-82), Velazquez (1623-60), suffice to show its pre-eminence. The eighteenth century, in art as well as in literature, was a time of utter decadence; Goya (1746-1820), the caricaturist, is the only artist we need mention; but, like its literature, Spanish art is now at length rising from its long sleep. Fortuny (1838-74), has made himself a European reputation; though, through his early death, the pictures he has left give promise only of what his future might have been. Rosales (1840-73), though less known by foreigners, is of equal, if not of greater merit; like Fortuny, he died in his early prime. Madrazo, Jimenez, Fradilla, and others, though not of more than national reputation, yet prove that art is not extinct in Spain.
In what have been called the industrial arts Spain was formerly very rich, and, but for the wretched economical policy and administration of the Government since the seventeenth century, would probably have held her own against other countries. The gold and silver ornaments still worn by the peasantry in a few districts perpetuate designs and methods of workmanship originally derived from the Moors, and much of the church work is still of great excellence. No less beautiful is the iron-work, in which a grand effect is often produced by simply noble proportions in the gates, rejas, and screens of her cathedrals and churches; and in another sphere, in the manufacture of arms, and of inlaying steel or iron with arabesque patterns of gold and silver, an art which has been lately revived with great success in Biscay and the Basque Provinces. In porcelain and pottery the majolica ware, made at Valencia, was renowned throughout Europe; and the Moorish glazed and lustred ware, the manufacture of which remained a secret till the present century, is greatly sought after by amateurs. The wine-jars (tinajas and alpujarras), the porous pottery (bucaros), the azulejos or decorated tiles, continue traditions originally derived through the Arabs from the East, but which had almost expired when the manufacture was faintly revived under royal patronage in the times of Charles III., to start again on a stronger life with the aid of English capital in our own times. Spanish glass is sometimes curious, and much of the stained and painted windows in the cathedrals is excellent, especially that of Toledo and of Leon; but this art was undoubtedly learned from foreign workmen, and only became naturalized in Spain. Of carvings in wood and marble and ivory we have already sufficiently spoken. In textile fabrics and embroidery, especially in lace, Spain was formerly very rich. The mantillas of the ladies, the dresses of the sacred images, the copes of the clergy, gave full opportunity for the production of this fabric; but the chief effort is now directed to the manufacture of the best foreign laces, all of which are most successfully imitated by hand-workers in Valencia and Murcia, where they can be produced at a lower cost than is possible in colder and more northern climes. Everything in Spain, even the common use of colour and of flowers by the Andalusian peasants, shows a natural feeling for art; and its production is hindered more by indolence, and by the mischievous economical conditions of almost all Spanish industry, than by any want of talent in the native workman or artisan.
Though, perhaps, there is no country in Europe in which music is more appreciated or practised than in Spain, it is singular that she has produced no really great master. She has many composers of "zarzuelas," a species of lighter opera; her traditional dance and ballad tunes are some of the most inspiriting possible; and her guitar playing is renowned, but more for the romantic sentiment of the words and the occasion on which it is used than for the music itself. Well-nigh the only name for which even Spaniards claim equality with the great European masters in serious music is that of Don Manuel Doyague, of Salamanca (1755-1842). His Miserere, Te Deum, and various Masses are said to equal those of any master of his time.
It is not necessary to repeat here what has been said above on the Spanish authors who wrote during the silver age of Latin literature, or to trace again the origin of the Spanish language. It is evident that all we can do is to give a very brief sketch of Spanish literature. This literature is, perhaps, the richest in Europe in ballads and romances, and these, which make one of its chief glories, are among its earliest monuments. While the "Chanson de Roland" and other "Chansons de Gestes" were being written in Northern France in the form of continuous epic poems, Spain was celebrating her hero—the Cid—in a series of ballads. These, if united, would tell almost the whole story of his life; but each could be sung or recited alone as a separate and complete poem. This form of verse continued for many ages to be the favourite literature of the common people, and attained a development in Spain beyond that which it did in any other land. For spontaneity, for movement, for grace of expression, for sudden turns from martial ardour to the most pathetic tenderness, the Spanish ballad is unrivalled. It embraces and handles with almost equal success the most varied subjects: war and chivalry and love, patriotism, wit, amusement, and religion, have all been treated of in these romances, and the collections of each kind would fill many volumes.
The first prose works in the Spanish language seem to have been a translation of the Bible, under Alphonse X., and of two codes of law, the "Fuero Juzgo" and "Las Siete Partidas," in the middle of the thirteenth century. It seems to have been almost by accident that Alfonzo wrote in the dialect of Leon and Castile in preference to that of Galicia and Portugal. Had he chosen the latter, probably Portuguese would have become the language of the whole Peninsula. Under his reign, too, may have been commenced the first history written in Spanish, "La Gran Conquista de Ultramar," telling the story of the Crusades, with many romantic episodes. The next production that calls for remark is the epic of Alexander the Great, by J. L. Segura, of the latter part of the same century. This poem gives the name "Alexandrine" to all European verse written in the same metre. In the early part of the fourteenth century we have a collection of tales, with morals attached, called "El Conde Lucanor," by Don Juan Manuel, nephew of Alphonse X. (1282-1347); and Alfonso XI. continues the list of royal authors with a "Libro de la Monteria,", or treatise on hunting. The arch-priest of Hita, Juan Ruiz (1330-43), about the same time took up the strain of love and war in a romance of mingled prose and verse, entitled "Guerras Civiles de Granada." In the latter half of the fifteenth century we meet with a remarkable production, the tragi-comedy of Celestina, which, in its two-fold character of novel and of drama, has been the parent of a double offspring, both of the comedy and of the picaresque novel of Spain. The Spanish rogue, at least in fiction, has been said to be the only amusing rogue in Europe. The chief representations of him in literature are in the novel of "Lazarillo de Tormes" (1554), by Hurtado de Mendoza; "Guzman de Alfarache" (1599), by Mateo Aleman; and "La Picara Justina" (1605), by the Dominican monk, Andreas Perez. The whole series of these works culminated in a masterpiece, "Gil Blas," written, not by a Spaniard, but by the Frenchman Lesage, in 1668; perhaps the most graphic description of the manners of another nation ever written by a foreigner.
The serious drama in Spain arose, probably, like that of other European nations, from the mysteries and moralities of the Middle Ages, such as are still continued to be performed occasionally at Elche and in other districts. In the "Autos" of Calderon and others it bore clear marks of this origin to a later date than any other contemporary drama. The first plays of any consequence we hear of are those of Lope de Rueda (1544-67), who, both as actor and as author, was greatly admired by Cervantes. From him the Spanish drama, like the almost contemporary Elizabethan drama in England, sprang at once to its full height. Cervantes, in his tragedies "Los Baños de Argel," and in "El trato de Argel" in which he described incidents in his own captivity, and in the "Numancia," telling the story of the siege by the Romans, imitated and surpassed his friend. In lighter pieces, comedies and entremeses, he was less successful. Almost coeval with Cervantes is Lope de Vega (1562-1635), perhaps the most prolific dramatic writer of any value that ever lived. His pieces are numbered at from 1500 to 2000, and the best of these are equal, if not superior, to those of Calderon in delineation of character and in plot, and are inferior only in poetical merit. We can only mention Tirso de Molina (1588-1648), Montahran (1602-38), and Ruiz de Alarcon (died 1639) as dramatists of merit, whose best pieces, especially those of the latter, approach very nearly to those of Lope and of Calderon. Calderon de la Barca (1600-81), with the German, Göthe, is the only dramatist of modern Europe who has been seriously put forward as a rival, or even superior, to Shakspere. This we think to be a mistake; in rich poetical imagery, in gorgeousness of fancy, in harmony of verse, in stately dignity, in depth of religions feeling, in knowledge of stage effect—in all these things he may be compared to our English master; but he is very far inferior to him in width of sympathy, in wit and rollicking fun, or in thoughtful humour; his comedy will not bear comparison with that of Shakspere; but he falls most short in his delineation of individual character. In comparison with Shakspere's, his figures are but well-dressed puppets compared to living men and women; not one of them lingers in the memory like a person whom we have known. We remember Calderon's verses, we revel in his splendid poetry, but we utterly forget who it is that utters these dazzling strains. Calderon's dramas and comedies are reckoned at 120, and his Autos, religious or sacramental pieces, generally performed by religious or civil corporations in the open air, are numbered at about seventy. In these plays abstract qualities take the place of living personages, and it is perhaps the greatest proof of Calderon's genius that he has by his brilliant poetry and serene religious feeling made some of even these acceptable to a modern reader.
But while the drama and comedy and the picaresque novel had been thus developing themselves, a whole literature of quite a different kind had sprung up into favour, flourished, and died away. This consisted of the prose books of chivalry, and of the pastoral romances both in prose and verse. They are remembered now chiefly through mention of them in the pages of the immortal work, the "Don Quixote," of Cervantes, which crushed them for ever. The most celebrated of them was the "Amadis de Gaul," written probably at the end of the fourteenth century. The imitations of it were innumerable, each more wild, extravagant, more insipid, and in worse taste than the last. Of the pastoral romances the only one we need to note is the "Diana Enamorada," of Montemayor (1520-61), and perhaps the most successful after this is the "Galatea," of Cervantes himself, who could never entirely shake off the influence of the writings he delighted to satirize, and of which he was the literary executioner. The one Spanish book which has become really European, in a degree which has been attained by no other purely secular work, is the "Don Quixote" of this author (1547-1616). Into this extraordinary production, under the guise of the adventures of his hero, the last of the knights-errant, with his squire, Sancho Panza—a story full of mirth, incident, and humour—Cervantes has put all the wisdom which, by his observation on mankind and literature, he had collected during a singularly varied life as writer, soldier, seaman, Algerine slave, poet, and man of business. Though hardly belonging to the school of the classical Renaissance, yet we see in Cervantes a specimen of the marked and distinguishing excellence of the men at that time—the width of their sympathies; so that each more eminent man seemed to contain in himself an epitome of the experience of mankind. It is, perhaps, to this many-sidedness of his experience, and of his culture, that is owing the genial character, the pathetic humour, and the total absence of bitterness in this masterly satire. Thus Cervantes, while laughing down and extinguishing for ever the absurdities of the chivalrous and pastoral romances, yet retains his sympathy for all that was really noble, though exaggerated, in them. His "Don Quixote," though moving irrepressible laughter, will for ever remain one of the choicest representations of a brave, pure-minded, honourable gentleman, and tears of pity for him are not far distant from our smiles at his quaint insanities. Since the days of Cervantes one kind only of the chivalrous romances has really survived in literature, and that is the historical romance, of which the "Guerras Civiles de Granada" of the arch-priest Hita, mentioned above, is so good an example. Another satirist, less known than Cervantes, to whom his life bears some resemblance, Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645), is even a more versatile writer. In prose and verse his writings are very numerous, but his style, learned and obscure, often laboured in the extreme, though pregnant with thought and wit, contrasts unfavourably with the clearness of Cervantes; he holds now in Spanish literature a place nearly analogous to that of Swift among British writers.
But we must hurry on. With the downfall of Granada, the discovery of America, the consolidation of the kingdoms of the Peninsula into one nation, real historical study began in Spain. Thus we have in quick succession many works of considerable merit, such as the "Annals of Aragon," by Zurita (1512-80); the "Comunidades of Castille," by Mejia (1549); the great "History of Spain," by the Jesuit Mariana (1536-1632); Herrera's "General History of the Indies" (1549-1625); the "Commentaries on Peru," by the Inca, Garcilasso de la Vega (1540-1616); the monographs of Hurtado de Mendoza on the "Wars of Granada" (1610); the "Expedition of the Catalans," by Moncada (1623); the "Wars of Catalonia," by Melo (1645); and, in literary form superior to all these, the "Conquest of Mexico," by Solis (1685).
Of poetry, apart from the stage and from the romances, there is not much of real value to engage our attention. The grandest verses of early Spain are undoubtedly the "Coplas" of Manrique (1476), which have been often translated into English, and which form one of the finest elegies extant in any language. After Garcilassa de la Vega (1503-36), Spanish poets fell into an unworthy imitation of the Italian; and subsequently Gongora (1561-1627) set the example of a still more debased and stilted style, full of affected conceits and mistaken classicalism. The only tolerable epic poem which Spain has yet produced is the "Araucana" of Ercilla, which tells the story of the wars with Indians of that name in Chili, and in which the author had personally taken part.
From the close of the seventeenth and through the greater part of the eighteenth century, literature partook of the progressive decadence of all things in Spain. It withered and declined under the double censure and oppression of the king and of the inquisition. The theatre, which had striven hard in Spain to become the ally, or even the handmaid, of the Church, was contemptuously thrust aside by the latter, and within a century of Calderon's death, not even an Infanta could procure permission from the inquisition for a comedy in time of carnaval. No history of any value could be written under such conditions; the only outlet for literary skill lay in religious and mystic writings, which are of singular beauty. The classical and grammatical movement of the Renaissance which had begun so well under the patronage of Juan de Cisneros, Cardinal Ximenes, the great minister of Charles V., and the chief monument of which is the Complutensian Polyglot Bible of 1514-17, and its greatest scholar, Antonio de Nebrija, soon died away, and the Spanish universities, which for a while had been the admiration, became, in the eighteenth century, the laughing-stock of Europe. Of the earlier period we may mention among the religious writers Luis de Granada (1505-68), Santa Teresa (1515-82), the Jesuit, Ribadeneyra (1527-1611), Juan de la Cruz (1542-91); but even this literature degenerated into casuistry and mere technical scholasticism. Spanish religious poetry is, however, far more copious and of greater excellence than is generally supposed. It has been studied and collected in our own day by the opposite schools of the Spanish Protestants, and by the champion of orthodoxy, Menendez Pelayo.
There is little to notice in Spanish literature from this time until the rise of the doctrinaire and economical writers of the reign of Carlos III., who for the most part closely followed the contemporary school of French publicists and encyclopædists. Among these are Padre Benito Feyjoo, who was the first to protest against the absence of science and true learning in Spain; the Padre Isla (1703-81), decidedly one of the wittiest of Spanish writers and satirists; Jovellanos (1744-1811), the best statesman and political writer of his time, and in the purer walks of literature the two Moratins (1737-1828). One or two philological works, far in advance of their age, made now their appearance, such as the tracts of Padre Sarmiento (1692-1770) on the Spanish language; the works of the Jesuits Larramendi (1728-45) on the Basque, and of Hervas (1735-1805) on general philology. To this period also belongs the magnificent collection entitled, "La España Sagrada," commenced by Florez (1754-1801), and, after many interruptions, completed only in 1880.
Towards the close of the eighteenth century, however, a reaction set in against the French and so-called classical school, and the attention of Spanish writers was recalled to the masterpieces of their own earlier literature. The movement was accelerated by the course of political events, and the successes of the war of independence against the French. One of the earliest defenders of the romantic against the classical school was Bohl de Faber, a Hamburg merchant settled in Cadiz. He published in 1820-3, in his native town, selections from works of the early poets and dramatists of Spain; and his daughter, Cecilia, under the name of Fernan Caballero, has attained the highest rank among the lady novelists of Spain. The admission of Bohl de Faber into the ranks of the Spanish Academy, under Martinez de la Rosa, marks the definite triumph of the national school. At first it seemed as if the movement would produce simply a change of French for English and German models. Fiction became a stiff imitation of Sir Walter Scott. In poetry the influence of Byron reigned supreme. Espronceda (1810-42) has equalled his master in his cynical odes. "The Beggar," "The Executioner," "The last day of the Condemned," and "The Pirate," might almost have been penned by Byron; and "El Mundo Diablo" will long live in Spanish literature. Zorilla, born in 1817, still living, has been more successful in his dramas than Espronceda, especially in "Don Juan Tenorio," but his poems are inferior in force, though rich in colouring and in the melody of his verse. Gustavo Becquer (1836-70) is another poet who fed his genius with the legends of the past, but his models were Edgar Poe and Hoffmann; some of his weird fantastic tales and poems are excellent examples of their kind. Of an opposite character are the realistic novels of Fernan Caballero above mentioned (1797-1877). These are exquisite rose-tinted photographs of Spanish life and character taken by one who sees everything Spanish with a favourable eye. Her writings are distinguished by a delicate aristocratic grace and tenderness which she throws over all subjects which she handles, whether of high or lowly life. As an artist her plots are inferior to those of many worse novelists; her descriptions of scenery are beautiful and exact; as a delineator of individual character she fails, but as a painter of type and class she is unrivalled. Her sketches abound in humour and in gentle melancholy; a deep and true religious feeling pervades every line, but she fails in strength and passion. Thus she can be classed only in the second rank of female novelists, and does not approach the genius of Georges Sand or of George Elliot. Trueba, in the north, essays to imitate her, but he often sinks into puerility, nor are his studies marked by the conscientious regard for fact which distinguishes those of the lady writer. Pereda, who delineates the peasants of Santander, is a less prolific writer but of higher literary merit. Of living novelists we should place in the first rank Juan Valera with his powerful novels, "Pepita Jimenez," "El Doctor Faustino," and "Doña Luz." Next to him is, perhaps, Perez Galdos, who, in the series entitled "Episodios Nacionales," rivals the national romances of Erckmann-Chatrian in French. Pedro Alarcon has a greater fund of wit and humour, and his "Sombrero de tres picos" is a most mirth-provoking tale. Fernandez y Gonzalez, in the number, if not in the quality of his works, may almost compete with the elder Alexandre Dumas, whose semi-historical style he repeats. Feliz Pizcueta, a Valencian writer, has also written many novels, whose scenes are laid in his native province. Among dramatists now living, or lately dead, we may mention Hartzenbusch (1806-80), whose "Amantes de Teruel" is one of the most successful tragedies of the romantic school; Breton de los Herreros (1800-70); Gertrudis de Avellaneda, the first Spanish female dramatist, born in Cuba in 1816; Gutierrez, who, born in 1813, sought refuge, like Zorilla, in Spanish America; Lopez de Ayala; and lastly, J. Estebanez, whose best work is entitled "Un Drama Nuevo," and who reaches a high level of dramatic art. Of more extravagant style, inferior to these, and already marking a decadence, is José Echegaray, a man of most versatile and opposite talents, and one of the first mathematicians of Spain, the best of whose plays is "Locura o Santidad." Of lyric poets we may mention Campoamor, an original but languid and graceful writer of minor verse, and Selgas, whose grace is seasoned with wit and satire, but whose prose is much superior to his verse. But by far the greatest of living Spanish poets, though like Tennyson he has failed comparatively on the stage, is Gaspar Nuñez de Arce. His "Gritos del Combate," and "La Ultima Lamentacion de Lord Byron," contain some noble verses. He writes in the spirit of purest patriotism, with a stern morality, and with severe and chastened art.
But more important than in the movement of fiction and poetry has been the influence of the romantic school in history. The attention of Spaniards has been at length turned to the study of their original records, and especially to that of the early Arabic writers. The first to attempt this, but with insufficient means, was J. A. Condé (1757-1820) in his "Historia de la Dominacion de los Arabes en España." This has since been superseded by the exacter learning of Don Pascual Gayangos, in the "Mohammedan Dynasties of Spain," by many foreign writers, and by the labours of Fernandez y Gonzalez in "Los Mudejares de Castilla" (1866) and others. The labours of Don Modeste and Don Vicente Lafuente, the one in ecclesiastical, the other in civil history, must be mentioned with approval, and the works of Amador de los Rios, on the literature of Spain and on the history of the Jews in Spain, do honour to his country. Among other historians, we may mention F. Castro and Sales y Ferrer, whose works are the popular manuals in education. Fernandez Guerra in the ancient, and Coello in the modern, Geography of Spain, are authors of the highest class; nor must we omit the Englishman Bowles, who wrote on the Natural History of Spain in 1775. In Geology another English name, Macpherson, attains the highest rank, together with the surveyors employed on the "Comision de la Mapa Geologica" of Spain. On the history of property in Spain and Europe, are two remarkable essays by Cárdenas and de Azcárate. In theology, on the Roman Catholic side, are the writings of Balmés (1810-48); of Doñoso Cortes (1809-53), of the present Bishop of Cordova, Ceferino Gonzalez; and, still publishing, the remarkable production of Menendez Pelayo, "Historia de los Heterodoxos in España;" while in the Protestant theology, Usoz, assisted by B. Wiffen in England and Boehmer in Germany, has rescued from oblivion the works of the Spanish reformers. In philology the Jesuit, Padre Fita y Colomé, worthily continues the traditions of Larramendi and of Hervas. Fernandez Guerra, and F. Tubino, and the Barcelona school pursue archæological studies with success. The influence of outside European thought is every day more evident in Spain. Ardent disciples of the school of Comte, of Darwin, and of Schopenhauer, are to be found among her publicists. In political economy Figuerola, G. Rodriguez, Colmeiro, Azcárate, and others, follow keenly the teaching of the English liberal school. Face to face in parliamentary eloquence and in politics stand Cánovas del Castello and Emilio Castelar; the latter distinguished by a florid oratory which is unsurpassed in Europe, but whose style is far more effective when spoken than when read; the former, with greater learning and a more cultivated taste, would undoubtedly be known as a writer but for his devotion to political life. The periodical and daily press of Spain, though not to compare with that of England, or of the United States, is almost on a par with that of most continental countries; the scientific and literary reviews and magazines are yearly increasing both in numbers and in value.
This sketch, however brief, would be incomplete without a glance at what may be called the provincial literature of Spain. The publishers of Barcelona, especially in illustrated works, vie with those of Madrid. It is not in the Castilian tongue alone that the awakening is apparent. In Catalonia and in Valencia the study of the native idiom and of their ancient authors has been taken up with zeal, and with happiest results in history and philology. Victor Balaguer, the Catalan poet and dramatist is equal to all contemporary Spanish poets save Nuñez de Arce. The dramas of Pablo Soler (Serafi Petarra) are received with an enthusiasm unknown to audiences in Madrid. Mila y Fontanals, Bofarull, and Sanpére y Miquel are investigating with success the language, history, and archæology of their country. A like, though necessarily a less important, movement is taking place in Andalusia, in the Basque Provinces, in the Asturias, and in Galicia; everywhere what is worth preserving in these dialects is being sought out, edited, and given to the press. The archives of Simancas are at length thrown open to the world, and guides and catalogues are being industriously prepared. Sevillian scholars are also studying the archives of the Indies, and the treasures of Hebrew and Arabian lore.
Thus, if Spain can at present boast no writer whom we can place undoubtedly and unreservedly in the very first rank, she shows an intellectual movement which, though confined at present to a comparatively small portion of her inhabitants, may, if it spread and continue, place her again in her proud position of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as one of the first of European nations, not perhaps in arms and power, but in literature, if not in science.
A FEW words in conclusion. Spain is far from being a worn-out country. On the contrary, both in the character and capacities of its varied populations, in the mineral riches of its soil, in its agricultural wealth, in industrial resources, and in the artistic taste of its workmen, it is capable of vast development.
Two things hinder this, and will probably hinder it for some time. These are the political separation of Spain and Portugal, so ill-adapted to the geographical conformation of the Peninsula. The great rivers of Spain run westward, but the benefit of these fluvial highways is entirely lost to the country through the intercalation of Portugal into the western sea-board, thus making useless to Spain her natural system of river transport, and cutting her off from her best and most direct Atlantic ports. It is Lisbon, and not Madrid, which should be the capital of the whole Peninsula. Scarcely less an evil to Spain is the possession of Gibraltar by the English, which, besides the expense of watching the fortress, and the loss to Spain of the advantage of the possession of the great port of call for the whole maritime traffic of the East, is a school of smuggling and contraband, and a focus of corruption for the whole of South-western Spain. Were the whole Atlantic and Mediterranean sea-board in sole possession of one nation, the expenses of the custom-house would be greatly lessened, while the smuggling on the Portuguese and British frontiers would wholly disappear. In no point was the effect of the narrow and jealous policy of Philip II. more disastrous, than in his failure even to attempt to attach the Portuguese to his rule when the kingdoms were temporarily united under his crown.
The second evil, and one of still graver proportions, is that of the exceedingly corrupt administration of the central government, and of almost every branch of public employment. It is difficult to exaggerate this mischief. It is not bad external political government, it is not a faulty constitution, but it is an administration in which corruption has become a tradition and the rule, that is the real evil in Spain. It is this which baffles every ministry that tries to do real good. Only a ministry, or succession of ministries, composed of men of thorough honesty, of iron will, and of competence in financial administration, supported by strong majorities, can hope to deal with this gigantic growth. Even then it must be a work of time. With an honest administration, and prudent and sagacious development of her resources, Spain would soon regain financial soundness and recover her place among the nations.
The contest between the opposite commercial systems of protection and free trade is not yet concluded, nor is likely to be, in Spain. As long as England, which has the greatest interest of any foreign power in the establishment of the latter system, maintains a tariff which unduly favours the wines of France in comparison with those of Spain free trade is not likely to be popular. From the varied character of her products, Spain is of all European countries naturally the most self-sufficing. Her north-western provinces furnish her with cattle in abundance; no finer wheat is grown than that on the central plateau, and it could easily be produced in quantity more than sufficient for her wants; wine, oil, and fruits she possesses in superfluity; even sugar is not wanting in the south; cotton, indeed, she has not; but wool of excellent quality is the produce of her numerous flocks, and it needs only the establishment of efficient manufactories for Spanish cloth and woollen stuffs to regain their ancient renown. All the most useful minerals abound, and are of the finest quality, especially the iron, and the development of the working of the Asturian and Andalusian coal-fields renders Spain yearly more and more independent of England in this respect. True it is that foreign capital is, and will for some time be necessary to assist in extracting this hidden wealth; but if the ordinary Spaniard of the educated classes, instead of seeking a bare, and too often a base, subsistence in petty government employment or in ill-paid professions—instead of seeking the barren honour of a university degree—would apply himself to scientific, industrial, or agricultural enterprise, he might soon obtain his legitimate share of the profits which now go mainly into the hands of foreign speculators and shareholders.
Spaniards are commonly said to be cruel and bloodthirsty, with little regard for the sufferings of others or respect for human life; and undoubtedly there is some truth in this charge, but it does not apply to the whole Peninsula. Many of Spain's best writers deplore it, and inveigh strongly against it and against the bull-fights, which, in their present form, are not more than a century old. As a national sport, the modern bull-ring, with its professional torreadors and its hideous horse-slaughtering, differs from the pastime in which Charles V. and his nobles used to take part as much as a prizefight from a tournament. The appeals of Fernan Caballero to the clergy, the efforts of Tubino, Lastre, and others to arouse the public against this wanton cruelty have hitherto been of no avail. We can only hope in the future. On the other hand, it is unjust to shut our eyes to the noble charities of Spain. She was the first to care for lunatics. Many of her hospitals and asylums for the aged were conducted with a tenderness and consideration unknown in other lands. Even a beggar is treated with respect, and is relieved without contumely. The treatment of her prisoners and the condition of her prisons, which was long so foul a blot, is now being efficiently removed; she is at least making an earnest effort to attain the level of European civilization in this respect.
Intellectually, in science, and especially in literature, Spain is advancing rapidly. The historical treasures long buried in the archives of Simancas, and those of the Indies at Seville, are now thrown open to the world, and are eagerly consulted by native historians. Her literary and scientific men, though comparatively few in number, are full of zeal and intelligence. There needs only a larger and more appreciative audience to encourage them in their labours in order to bring the literature of Spain to a level with that of any European country of equal population.
PROVINCES OF SPAIN AND THEIR POPULATION IN 1877.
|In area of surface Spain ranks the||5th||of European States.|
|In number of population||7th||"|
|In density of population to the square mile||14th||"|
|In extent of colonies||5th||"|
|Rates of women to men, 1044 to 1000.|
|The infantile mortality is said to be 24½ per cent. in first year.|
|Expectation of life at 2 years old is said to be 49 years; the average 41.|
PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF SPANISH HISTORY.
|Visigoth kings rule from||414 to 711|
|Entry of Moors, battle of Guadelete, death of last Visigothic king||31 July, 711|
|Reconquest begun by Pelayo at Covadonga in the Asturias||719|
|Toledo captured by Alphonso VI.||1085|
|Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa||1212|
|Final union of Leon and Castile||1230|
|Alphonso X. (Law Codes: The Fuero Real and Las Siete Partidas)||1252|
|Union of Aragon with Castile under Ferdinand and Isabella||1474|
|Inquisition established (first Auto de Fé, 1488)||1484|
|Conquest of Granada||1492|
|Discovery of America||1492|
|Expulsion of Moors from Castile, 1501; from Granada||1502|
|Conquest of Naples and Sicily||1504|
|Austrian Dynasty:—Philip I. and Joanna||1504|
|Charles I. (Emperor of Germany, Charles V.)||1516|
|War of Comunidades of Castile, Battle of Villalar||1521|
|Battle of Pavia, Francis I. prisoner||1525|
|Capture of Tunis||1535|
|Abdication of Charles I.||1556|
| Philip II.:—Greatest extension of Spanish monarchy, comprising|
Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia,
Milan, Roussillon, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg,
Franche-Comté, Tunis, Oran, the Canaries, Fernando
Po, St. Helena, The Americas, Philippine Isles, &c.
|Insurrection of Low Countries||1566|
|First rebellion and expulsion of Moriscos||1568|
|Battle of Lepanto||1571|
|League of Provinces and independence of Holland,||25 Jan., 1579|
|Conquest of Portugal (1580-1640)||1580|
|Defeat of Armada||1588|
|Death of Philip II.||1598|
|Final expulsion of Moriscos||1609|
|Insurrection of Catalonia||1640|
|Loss of Portugal||1640|
|Battle of Rocroy||1643|
|Peace of the Pyrenees and marriage of Louis XIV.||1659|
|Death of Charles II., last of Austrian dynasty||29 Oct., 1700|
|Bourbon Dynasty:—War of Succession between Archduke Charles and Philip V., 1701-13|
|Loss of Gibraltar||1704|
|Treaty of Utrecht||1713|
|Salic Law voted in Cortes||1713|
|Abolition of Constitution of Catalonia||1716|
|Expulsion of Jesuits||1767|
|Siege of Gibraltar||1782|
|Godoy, Prince of Peace||1795|
|Battle of Trafalgar||1805|
|Abdication of Charles IV.||1808|
|Ferdinand VII., Renunciation at Bayonne||1808|
|Joseph Bonaparte, King (1808-14)|
|Uprising of Spain||2 May, 1808|
|Peninsular War, 1808-14|
|Expulsion of French||1814|
|Cortés of Cadiz, suppression of Inquisition, of Feudal Rights, and establishment of Constitution||1812|
|Return of Ferdinand VII., Inquisition re-established, and Constitution abolished||1814|
|Insurrection of Riego, new Constitution (1820-23)||1820|
|Invasion of French, violation of Constitution||1823|
|Loss of American colonies.|
|Absolutism till death of Ferdinand VII. (1823-33).|
|Birth of Isabella II., abolition of Salic Law, expulsion of Don Carlos||1830|
|Death of Ferdinand VII.||1833|
|Regency of Christina, the queen-mother, 1833; expelled 1840||1833|
|First Carlist War, 1833-39.|
|Majority of Isabella II.||1844|
|War with Morocco||1860|
|Insurrection and expulsion of Isabella||1868|
|Provisional Government, 1868-70||1868|
|Amadeo I., November, 1870, to February, 1873||1870|
|Republic, Cantonalist insurrections||1873|
|Second Carlist War, 1873-76.|
|Alphonso XII.||Dec., 1874|
|Don Carlos entered France, February, 1876||1876|
|Abolition of Basque Fueros||1876|
|Downfall of Cánovas del Castillo||1881|
LIST OF BOOKS CHIEFLY MADE USE OF IN THE FOREGOING PAGES.
La Nouvelle Géographie Universelle, par Elisée Reclus, series 5 and 6. Hachette, Paris, 1876.
Spanien und die Balearen. Willkomm, Berlin, 1879.
The Balearic Isles, by T. Bidwell. London.
Boletin de la Sociedad Geográfica de Madrid, various years.
Introduccion à la Historia Natural y à la Geográfica Fisica de España, por Don Guillermo Bowles. Madrid, 1775.
Espagne, Algerie, et Tunisie, par P. de Tchikatchef. Paris, 1880.
Libro de Agricultura, por Abu Zaccaria. Spanish translation Seville, 1878.
Reports of the Meteorological Society of Madrid, various years.
Revista Contemporanea, tomo xxx. 4. December, 1880.
Grammaire des Langues Romaines, par F. Diez, 2nd German edition. French translation, Paris.
Études sur les Idiomes Pyrénéenes, par A. Luchaire. Paris, 1879.
Various articles in Spanish Literary and Provincial Journals.
Dunham's History of Spain and Portugal, 5 vols. Lardner's Cabinet Encyclopaedia.
Resúmen de Historia de España, por F. de Castro, 12th edition. Madrid, 1878.
Compendio Razonado de História General, por Sales y Ferré, last edition, 4 vols. Madrid, 1880.
History of Civilization, by Buckle, 3 vols. London.
Investigaciones sobre la História de España, por Dozy, Spanish translation, 2 vols. Seville, 1877.
Los Mudejares de Castillo, por Fernandez Gonzalez. Madrid, 1866.
Vida de la Princesa Eboli, by G. Muro, with introductory letter by Cánovas del Castillo. Madrid, 1877.
Text of various Fueros, and of the Constitutions since 1812.
Espagne Contemporaine, par F. Garrido. Bruxelles, 1865.
Die Kirchengeschichte von Spanien, von P. B. Gams, 5 vols. Berlin, 1879.
Historia de los Heterodoxos Españoles, por M. Menendez Pelayo, tomos i. and ii. (Tomo iii. not yet published.) Madrid, 1880.
History of Property, &c.:—
Estudios filosóficos y politicos, por G. de Azcárate. Madrid, 1877.
La Constitucion Inglesa y la politica del Continente, por G. de Azcárate. Madrid, 1878.
Ensayo sobre la Propiedad Territorial en España, per Cardénas, 2 vols. Madrid, 1875.
Street's Gothic Architecture in Spain. Murray, 1865.
The Industrial Arts of Spain, by Juan F. Riaño. London 1879.
Discurso de Recepcion, by Juan F. Riaño. Madrid, 1880.
Numerous articles in Spanish Periodicals.
Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature, 4 vols. London, 1845.
Sismondi's Literature of the South of Europe. Bohn, London, 1846.
Hubbard's Littérature Contemporaine en Espagne. Paris, 1876.
Ford's last edition, and O'Shea's Guide to Spain, with numerous Spanish general and local guides, and particular descriptions of towns, provinces, &c.
Tourist Books in Spanish, German, French, and English. The only ones needing mention, as going out of the common round are—
Untrodden Spain, by J. H. Rose. Bentley, 1875.
Among the Spanish People, by J. H. Rose. Bentley, 1877.
Government and Consular reports too numerous to specify; but we must except Phipps' masterly Report on Spanish Finance to the close of 1876.
Alhambra, 113, 198.
Alphonso XII., 160.
Amadeo I., 138, 168.
Andorra, republic of, 100.
Architecture, Roman, 194;
Art, Visigothic, 195;
BALEARIC ISLES, 141.
Bardeñas Reales, 13, 97.
Basque language, 71, 77, 78.
Bidassoa, 12, 56.
Bulls and bull-fighting, 121, 234.
CABALLERO, Fernan, 223.
Camel breeds in Spain, 34, 65.
Cañada, La, pass of, 5, 135.
Canals, 13, 16, 18, 133.
Cánovas del Castillo, 161, 228.
Carlists, 155, 159.
Castelar, 158, 159, 228.
Cerro de San Felipe, 6, 133.
Cervantes, 215, 217.
Charles I., 13, 150.
Charles III., 13, 152.
Chuetas of Balearic Isles, 90, 143.
Church, councils of, 75, 187;
furniture and art, 205.
Clergy, 82, 191.
Coal-mines, 65, 94, 101, 122, 234.
Colleges, British, 141, 183.
Comunidades of Aragon, 40, 99.
Congress of deputies, 162.
Constitutions of Spain, 153, 162.
Cortés, 146, 162.
Cordova, mosque of, 124, 196, 198.
DEBT, public, 174.
Despeña-Perros, pass of, 3, 125.
Despoblados and Destierros, 7, 111, 130.
Douro, 15, 139.
EBRO, 12, 97, 99.
Escorial, 36, 132, 203.
Esparto grass, 43, 107, 111.
Exports and imports, 177.
Ferdinand VII., 153.
Fiords or Friths in Galicia, 3, 31, 92.
Fisheries, 56, 93, 118.
Flora, greatly exotic, 41, 42;
herbaceous aromatic, 45;
Fueros, 146, 147, 150, 158, 161.
GATA, Cabo de, 2, 9, 109.
Gibraltar, 9, 119.
Guadalaviar and irrigation, 24, 104.
Guadalquiver and affluents, 20, 109.
Guadarrama, range of, 6, 129, 135.
Guadiana and affluents, 19.
Guardias civiles, 156.
Guisando, Toros de, 71, 134, 194.
HISTORICAL school in Spain, 220, 226.
Hurdes, 90, 138.
Imports and exports, 177.
Inquisition, 149, 188.
Irrigation of Llobregat, 26;
Henares, 18, 19, 193;
in Valencia and Murcia, 24, 25, 104, 106, 107.
Isabella II., 154.
JEWS of Balearic Isles, 77, 143.
Justice, administration of, 169.
KELT and Keltiberi, 70, 76.
Lakes, 19, 26, 105, 108.
Laya, Basque tool, 40.
Lead-mines, 64, 125.
Lemosin dialects, 77.
Locusts, 48, 53.
Lunatic asylums, 171, 235.
MAJOLICA ware, 105, 144, 211.
Manufactures, cotton, 81, 82, 102.
Maragatos, 105, 144, 211.
Marismas of Guadalquiver, 22, 121.
Merino sheep, 54.
Mesta, 47, 83, 84, 156.
Mineral springs, 28.
Minho, 11, 93.
Mining districts, 64, 94, 95, 102, 107, 110, 111, 122, 125, 140.
Monkeys at Gibraltar, 52, 120.
Mudejar art, 201.
Municipal administration, 164.
Murillo, 120, 206, 207, 209.
Nevada, Sierra, 8, 109, 115.
OLIVES, 33, 47, 59, 101, 109, 116.
Orange cultivation, 39, 43, 46, 105, 109.
PAINTING, schools of, 206, 209.
Palms, 33, 44, 106.
Passiegos of Bilbao, 90.
Philip II., 132, 232.
Population, census of, 80, 82;
diverse of Spain, 69, 85;
occupations of, 81.
Post and letters, 172.
Pottery and porcelain, 105, 144, 211.
Prisons, 170, 234.
Professors, salary of, 182.
Property, distribution of, 83, 153;
Church, sale of, 83, 154, 191.
Provinces, administration of, 164.
Provincial literature, 228.
Rainfall, 10, 28, 31.
Republic of Andora, 100.
Rice cultivation, 42, 44, 105.
Rivers, comparative table of, 28.
Romans in Spain, 17, 41, 76, 93, 102, 108, 194.
SALINAS, 22, 26, 29, 108, 109, 118.
Salt-mine, 63, 100.
Schools and schoolmasters, 184.
Sea-board of Spain, 2.
Seguro, sierra and rivers, 8, 24, 107.
Sugar, 42, 44, 115.
TAGUS and its affluents, 17.
Tobacco factories, 121, 176.
Toleration, early religious, 147, 165, 188.
VISIGOTHS, 74, 187, 195.
WATER, names connected with, 27.
Wines of Galicia, 38, 93;
Riojas, 33, 96;
Navarre and Aragon, 33;
Catalonia, 33, 102;
La Mancha, 127;
Andalusia sherries, 118, 119, 124.
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED,
ST. JOHN'S SQUARE.