The Project Gutenberg EBook of Stories from Aulus Gellius, by Aulus Gellius This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Stories from Aulus Gellius Being Selections And Adaptations From The Noctes Atticae Author: Aulus Gellius Editor: G. H. Nall Release Date: June 21, 2008 [EBook #25861] Language: Latin Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK STORIES FROM AULUS GELLIUS *** Produced by Louise Hope, Anna Tuinman, Ted Garvin and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
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ā ē ī ō ū (vowels with macron or “long” mark)
ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ (vowels with breve or “short” mark)
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The spelling “deminutive” (demin.) is used consistently. A few terms were inconsistently italicized, including “e.g.”, “i.e.” and “only” (in vocabulary notes such as “sing. only”). Rather than try to second-guess the author, they have been left as printed. All brackets [ ] are in the original.
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It is hoped that this series of short stories from A. Gellius may serve as a pleasant change to young boys after a course of Cornelius Nepos, Eutropius, etc. The language of the original has been simplified in parts, and some rare or late words and constructions cut out. The Notes have been made, with few exceptions, as short as possible; a few more lengthy digressions, such as those upon the ablative absolute and the gerundial constructions, will need no apology, if they succeed in leading boys to think out for themselves the difficulties which these constructions present. Some simple Exercises have been added at the request of the Publishers, and for these an English-Latin Vocabulary has been compiled. In this Vocabulary the words are arranged in alphabetical order, since the Exercises are intended principally for viva voce drill in form, and the Editor’s experience does not confirm the vi theory of some Editors, that a boy’s knowledge of a language is increased in proportion to the time that he spends in hunting for words that he does not know; he considers that the “paragraph” vocabulary makes the lazy boy take refuge in guessing, whilst it wastes the time of the industrious boy.
The Editor acknowledges his obligations to the Latin Grammars of Dr. Kennedy and Mr. Roby, and to Dr. Smith’s Dictionaries of Biography and Antiquities, and to similar works which lie at every schoolmaster’s elbow.vii
Life of Aulus Gellius,
Text of the “Stories from Aulus Gellius,”
Notes on the Text,
Table showing the order of the “Stories” compared with the Books of the “Noctes Atticae,”
Index to Notes,
Index to Proper Names.
Nothing is known about the life of A. Gellius beyond what can be gathered from occasional hints in his own writings; it has even been disputed whether his name was Agellius or A. Gellius. Probably he was a Roman by birth, of good family and connections. He seems to have spent his early years at Rome, studying under the celebrated teachers, Sulpicius Apollinaris, T. Castricius, and Antonius Julianus (cf. xxxiv. 1): to have continued his studies at Athens, where he lived on terms of familiarity with Herodes Atticus, Calvisius Taurus, Peregrinus Proteus, and other famous philosophers of that day: and after the lapse of many years to have returned to Rome, and devoted the remaining years of his life to literary pursuits and the society of a large circle of friends. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but from the names of his teachers and friends it is certain that he lived during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, 117-180 A.D.x
The only work of A. Gellius that has reached us, possibly the only one that he wrote, is the “Noctes Atticae,” so called because it was begun during the long nights of winter in a country house in Attica (longinquis per hiemen noctibus in agro terrae Atticae). It consists of numerous extracts from Greek and Roman writers on subjects connected with history, philosophy, philology, and antiquities, illustrated by abundant criticisms and discussions. These extracts are thrown together without any attempt at order or arrangement, and divided into twenty books. He had been accustomed whilst reading, he says, to make notes upon anything which struck him as worth remembering. These notes he embodied with little change in his work, in the same haphazard order in which they had been made (usi autem sumus ordine rerum fortuito quem antea in excerpendo feceramus).
Naturally the various parts of such a ‘Miscellany’ vary greatly in quality. Some portions of it are highly valuable and interesting. For instance, many quotations are preserved from ancient authors whose works have perished, some of which throw light upon questions of constitutional and antiquarian interest, which would otherwise have remained obscure; many literary and historical anecdotes are given which are valuable in themselves; and some important grammatical usages and theories are noted. But the xi author’s appetite was omnivorous. He is as eager to tell the story of a marvellous African serpent, 120 feet in length, whose destruction required the utmost efforts of a whole Roman army, with their ballistae and catapultae (magna totius exercitus conflictione, ballistis atque catapultis diu oppugnatum. —N. A. vii. 3), or to discuss some absurd etymology, such as that of avarus from avidus aeris, as to preserve some really valuable detail of senatorial procedure, or record the use and origin of obscure constitutional phrases. His own criticisms, moreover, are as a rule worthless, and his translations are feeble; but in spite of all these defects his work is exceedingly interesting, and we could ill afford to lose it.
His Latin style shows the defects of his age, an age in which the Romans had ceased to feel the full meaning of the words which they used, and endeavoured to gain emphasis by employing obscure phrases and unnatural turns of expression. But these peculiarities are even more noticeable in the writings of his contemporaries.
Vergil, who spent much labour in polishing his verses, used to compare himself to a bear, which licks its cubs into shape.
Dicebat P. Vergilius, ut amici eius familiaresque ferunt, se parere versus more ursino. “Namque ut illa bestia” inquit, “fetum edit informem lambendoque postea conformat et fingit, sic ingenii quoque mei partus primum rudes et inperfecti sunt, sed 5 tractando corrigendoque reddo iis oris et vultus liniamenta.”
The poet Menander, meeting his successful rival Philemon, asked him if he did not feel ashamed to defeat him.
Menander a Philemone, nequaquam pari scriptore, in certaminibus comoediarum ambitu gratiâque saepenumero vincebatur. Ei forte obviam factus est Menander, et “Quaeso” inquit, “Philemo, bonâ veniâ dic mihi, cum me vincis, nonne erubescis?” 52
The palm has been made the emblem of victory, because its wood does not yield, when heavy weights are placed upon it.
Rem hercle mirandam Aristoteles et Plutarchus dicunt. “Si super palmae arboris lignum” inquiunt “magna pondera imponis, non deorsum palma cedit nec intra flectitur, sed adversus pondus resurgit et sursum recurvatur; propterea in certaminibus palma 5 signum victoriae facta est, quoniam urgentibus opprimentibusque non cedit.”
Socrates, when asked why he endured his quarrelsome wife, replied that to bear her temper was good discipline.
Xanthippe, Socratis philosophi uxor, admodum morosa et litigiosa fuisse fertur, irisque muliebribus per diem perque noctem scatebat. Quam rem in maritum Socraten Alcibiades demiratus, “Cur mulierem” inquit “tam acerbam domo non exigis?” 5 “Quoniam,” respondit Socrates, “cum illam domi talem perpetior, insuesco et exerceor, ut ceterorum quoque foris petulantiam et iniuriam facilius feram.”
Socrates used to train himself to bear fatigue by standing motionless for twenty-four hours at a time. His health was always perfect.
Inter labores voluntarios corporis firmandi causâ id quoque accepimus Socraten facere insuevisse: 3 stabat per diem perque noctem a lucis ortu ad solem alterum orientem immobilis, iisdem in vestigiis, et ore atque oculis eundem in locum directis, cogitans, 5 tamquam quodam secessu mentis atque animi facto a corpore.
Temperantiâ quoque tantâ fuisse traditus est, ut omnem fere vitam valitudine integrâ vixerit. In eâ etiam pestilentiâ, quae in belli Peloponnensiaci 10 principiis Atheniensium civitatem depopulata est, dicitur vigorem corporis retinuisse.
How Alexander obtained his famous charger Bucephalas, how it saved his life in battle, and how the King showed his gratitude.
Equus Alexandri regis nomine Bucephalas fuit. Emptum Chares scripsit talentis tredecim et regi Philippo donatum; hoc autem aeris nostri summa est sestertia trecenta duodecim. De hoc equo haec memoriâ digna accepimus. Ubi ornatus erat armatusque 5 ad proelium, haud umquam inscendi sese ab alio, nisi ab rege passus est. Bello Indico cum insidens in eo Alexander facinora faceret fortia, in hostium cuneum, non satis sibi providens, inmisit. Coniectis undique in Alexandrum telis, vulneribus altis in cervice atque 10 in latere equus perfossus est. Moribundus tamen ac prope iam exanguis e mediis hostibus regem citato cursu retulit atque, ubi eum extra tela extulerat, ilico concidit et, domini iam superstitis securus, animam 4 expiravit. Tum rex Alexander, partâ eius belli 15 victoriâ, oppidum in iisdem locis condidit idque ob equi honores Bucephalon appellavit.
Alcibiades, when a boy, refused to learn to play the pipes, because they distorted the player’s mouth.
Alcibiades Atheniensis apud avunculum Periclen educatus est, qui artibus ac disciplinis liberalibus puerum docendum curavit. Inter alios magistros tibicinem arcessi iussit, ut eum canere tibiis doceret, quod honestissimum tum videbatur. Traditas sibi 5 tibias Alcibiades ad os adhibuit inflavitque; sed ubi oris deformitatem vidit, abiecit infregitque. Cum ea res percrebuisset, omnium tum Atheniensium consensu disciplina tibiis canendi desita est.
Fabricius refused rich presents, which the Samnites offered him, saying that, while he retained command over his senses, he had all that he needed.
Legati a Samnitibus ad C. Fabricium, imperatorem populi Romani, venerunt et, memoratis multis magnisque rebus, quae bene post redditam pacem Samnitibus fecisset, dono grandem pecuniam obtulerunt. “Quae facimus” Samnites inquiunt, “quod multa ad 5 splendorem domus atque victus defieri videmus.” Tum Fabricius manus ab auribus ad oculos et infra 5 deinceps ad nares et ad os et ad gulam deduxit, et legatis ita respondit: “Dum his omnibus membris, quae attigi, imperare possum, numquam quicquam 10 mihi deerit; quamobrem hanc pecuniam, quâ nihil mihi est usus, a vobis, qui eâ uti scitis, non accipio.”
Antiochus, proud of his army, asked Hannibal if they were ‘enough for the Romans.’ ‘Quite enough,’ replied Hannibal, ‘however greedy the Romans are.’
Antiochus ostendebat Hannibali in campo copias ingentis, quas bellum populo Romano facturus comparaverat, convertebatque exercitum insignibus argenteis et aureis micantem; inducebat etiam currus cum falcibus et elephantos cum turribus equitatumque 5 frenis, ephippiis, monilibus, phaleris fulgentem. Atque ibi rex Hannibalem aspicit et “Putasne” inquit “satis esse Romanis haec omnia?” Tum Poenus, eludens ignaviam militum eius tam pretiose armatorum, “Satis, plane satis esse credo Romanis haec omnia, etiamsi 10 avarissimi sunt.”
Milo, when enfeebled by age, tried to tear a tree open, but the wood closed on his hands and he perished miserably.
Milo Crotoniensis, athleta inlustris, exitum habuit e vita miserandum et mirandum. Cum iam natu grandis artem athleticam desisset iterque faceret forte 6 solus in locis Italiae silvestribus, quercum vidit proxime viam rimis in parte mediâ hiantem. 5 Tum experiri 5 etiam tunc volens, an ullae sibi vires adessent, inmissis in cavernas arboris digitis, diducere et rescindere quercum conatus est. Ac mediam quidem partem discidit divellitque; quercus autem in duas diducta partis, cum ille manus laxasset, rediit in 10 naturam, manibusque eius retentis inclusisque dilacerandum hominem feris praebuit.
The young Papirius, pressed by his mother to reveal the secret proceedings of the Senate, told her that they had debated whether it was better for one husband to have two wives, or one wife two husbands.
Mos antea senatoribus Romae fuit, in curiam cum praetextatis filiis introire. Forte res maior quaepiam consultata et in diem posterum prolata est, placuitque ut eam rem ne quis enuntiaret, priusquam decreta esset. Sed mater Papirii pueri, qui cum patre 5 suo in curiâ fuerat, percontata est filium, quidnam in senatu patres egissent. Puer respondit tacendum esse neque id dici licere. Mulier autem fit audiendi cupidior, ac tandem puer matre urgente lepidi mendacii consilium capit. Actum in senatu dixit, utrum 10 videretur utilius exque republicâ esse, unusne ut duas uxores haberet, an ut una duobus nupta esset.7
The consternation of the Roman Matrons, the bewilderment of the Senators, the confession of Papirius, and the reward for his discretion.
Ubi illa hoc audivit, domo trepidans egreditur, ad ceteras matronas se adfert. Pervenit ad senatum postridie matrum familias caterva. Lacrimantes atque obsecrantes orant, ut una potius duobus nupta fieret quam ut duae uni. Senatores in curiam ingredientes 5 mirabantur, quae illa mulierum insania et quid sibi postulatio istaec vellet. Puer Papirius in medium curiae progressus, quid mater audire institisset, quid ipse matri dixisset, denarrat. Senatus fidem atque ingenium pueri laudat et consultum facit, uti posthac 10 pueri cum patribus in curiam ne introeant, praeter illum unum Papirium, cui postea cognomen honoris gratiâ datum “Praetextatus.”
The extraordinary influence that Sertorius exercised over the minds of his soldiers, and the means by which he maintained this influence.
Sertorius, vir acer egregiusque dux, et utendi et regendi exercitus peritus fuit. Is in temporibus difficillimis et mentiebatur ad milites, si mendacium prodesset, et litteras compositas pro veris legebat, et somnium simulabat, et falsas religiones conferebat, si 5 quid istae res eum apud militum animos adiuvabant. Haec hominum barbarorum credulitas Sertorio in 8 magnis rebus magno usui fuit. Memoria prodita est, neminem umquam ex his nationibus, quae cum Sertorio faciebant, cum multis proeliis superatus esset, 10 ab eo descivisse, quamquam id genus hominum esset mobilissimum.
Sertorius pretended that divine revelations were made to him through a white doe. This doe once ran away, but was soon found again. The use which Sertorius made of this incident.
Huic Sertorio cerva alba eximiae pulchritudinis et celeritatis a Lusitano quodam dono data est. Hanc persuasit omnibus, oblatam sibi divinitus et instinctam Dianae numine, conloqui secum et monere et docere, quae utilia factu essent, ac, si quid durius videbatur, 5 quod imperandum militibus foret, a cervâ sese monitum praedicabat. Id cum dixerat, universi, tamquam si deo, libentes ei parebant. Ea cerva quodam die, cum incursio hostium esset nuntiata, tumultu consternata in fugam se proripuit atque in palude proximâ delituit, 10 et postea requisita periisse credita est. Neque multis diebus post inventam esse cervam Sertorio nuntiatur. Tum eum qui nuntiaverat iussit tacere ac, ne cui palam diceret, interminatus est praecepitque, ut eam postero die repente in eum locum, in quo ipse cum amicis 15 essetinmitteret. Admissis deinde amicis postridie, cervam ait, quae periisset, visam esse in quiete ad se reverti et, ut prius consuerat, quod opus esset 9 facto praedicere; tum servo quod imperaverat significat, cerva emissa in cubiculum Sertorii introrupit, 20 clamor factus et orta admiratio est.
A Sibyl offered to sell King Tarquin nine books for a large sum. On his scornful refusal she burnt three, and offered the remaining six for the same sum, but he again refused. She burnt three more and offered the remaining three for the same sum: these the King bought and deposited in the ‘Sacristy.’
In antiquis annalibus haec memoria de libris Sibyllinis prodita est: Anus hospita atque incognita ad Tarquinium Superbum regem adiit, novem libros ferens, quos divina oracula esse dicebat; eos velle vendere. Tarquinius pretium percontatus est. Mulier 5 nimium atque inmensum poposcit: rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum coram cum igni apponit, tris libros ex novem deurit et, ecquid reliquos sex eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed enim Tarquinius id multo magis risit, 10 dixitque anum iam procul dubio delirare. Mulier ibidem statim tris alios libros exussit atque id ipsum denuo placide rogat, ut tris reliquos eodem illo pretio emat. ore iam serio atque attentiore animo fit, eam constantiam confidentiamque non 15 contemnendam intellegit, libros tris reliquos mercatur nihilo minore pretio, quam quod erat petitum pro omnibus. Sed ea mulier tunc a Tarquinio digressa postea nusquam loci visa est. Libri tres, in sacrarium 10 conditi, “Sibyllini” appellati; ad eos quasi ad oraculum 20 quindecimviri adeunt, cum di immortales publice consulendi sunt.
Scipio was accused of having received bribes from Antiochus. Scorning to answer such a charge, he reminded the people that this was the anniversary of his great victory at Zama, and called upon them to follow him to the Capitol and there return thanks to the gods.
M. Naevius tribunus plebis accusavit Scipionem ad populum, dixitque eum accepisse a rege Antiocho pecuniam, ut condicionibus mollibus pax cum eo populi Romani nomine fieret, et quaedam item alia indigna tali viro addidit. Tum Scipio pauca 5 praefatus, quae dignitas vitae suae atque gloria postulabat, “Memoriâ” inquit, “Quirites, repeto, diem esse hodiernum, quo Hannibalem Poenum, imperio vestro inimicissimum, magno proelio in terrâ Africâ vici, pacemque et victoriam vobis peperi praeclaram. Non 10 igitur simus adversum deos ingrati et, censeo, relinquamus nebulonem hunc, eamus hinc protinus Iovi optimo maximo gratulatum.” Id cum dixisset, avertit et ire ad Capitolium coepit. Tum contio universa, quae ad sententiam de Scipione ferendam convenerat, 15 relicto tribuno Scipionem in Capitolium comitata, atque inde ad aedes eius cum laetitiâ et gratulatione sollemni prosecuta est.11
Scipio on another occasion was accused of embezzling the money paid by Antiochus as a war indemnity: he answered the charge by tearing his accounts in pieces before the eyes of the Senators.
Item aliud est factum eius praeclarum. Petilii quidam tribuni plebis a M., ut aiunt, Catone, inimico Scipionis, comparati in eum atque inmissi, desiderabant in senatu, ut pecuniae Antiochinae praedaeque in eo bello captae rationem redderet: fuerat enim 5 L. Scipioni Asiatico, fratri suo, imperatori in eâ provinciâ legatus. Ibi Scipio exurgit et, prolato e sinu togae libro, rationes in eo scriptas esse dixit omnis pecuniae omnisque praedae; allatum, ut palam recitaretur et ad aerarium deferretur. “Sed enim id iam non 10 faciam” inquit, “nec me ipse afficiam contumeliâ,” eumque librum statim coram discidit suis manibus, aegre passus, quod, cui salus imperii ac reipublicae accepta referri deberet, ab eo ratio praedae posceretur.
Scipio believed that he was a special favourite of the gods: before entering on any important work he used to spend hours of quiet meditation in the temple on the Capitol. A story is given showing his power of foreseeing the future.
Id etiam dicere haut piget, quod ii, qui de vitâ et rebus Africani scripserunt, litteris mandaverunt. Solitus est noctis extremo ante primam lucem in Capitolium ventitare ac iubere aperiri cellam Iovis, 12 atque ibi solus diu demorariquasi consultans de 5 republicâ cum Iove. Aeditumi eius templi saepe admirati, quod in eum solum id temporis in Capitolium ingredientem canes, semper in alios saevientes, neque latrarent neque incurrerent. Has volgi de Scipione opiniones confirmare atque approbare 10 videbantur dicta factaque eius pleraque admiranda. Ex quibus est unum huiuscemodi. Assidebat oppugnabatque oppidum in Hispaniâ situm, moenibus defensoribusque validum et munitum, re etiam cibariâ copiosum, nullaque eius potiundi spes erat. Quodam 15 die ius in castris sedens dicebat, atque ex eo loco id oppidum procul visebatur. Tum quispiam e militibus, qui in iure apud eum stabant, interrogavit ex more, in quem diem locumque vadimonium promitti iuberet: et Scipio manum ad ipsam oppidi, quod obsidebatur, 20 arcem protendens, perendie sese sistere illo in loco iussit. Atque ita factum: die tertio, in quem vadari iusserat, oppidum captum est eodemque eo die in arce eius oppidi ius dixit.
How a man, when trying a friend who was guilty, succeeded in reconciling the claims of duty and of friendship, by himself voting for condemnation, but persuading his fellow iudices to vote for acquittal.
Super amici capite iudex cum duobus aliis fui. Ita lex fuit, uti eum hominem condemnari necesse esset. Aut amico igitur caput perdendum aut adhibenda fraus legi fuit. Multa cum animo meo ad casum tam 13 ancipitem medendum consultavi; tandem hoc, quod 5 feci, visum est optimum. Ipse tacitus ad condemnandum sententiam tuli, iis qui simul iudicabant, ut absolverent, persuasi. Sic mihi et iudicis et amici officium in re tantâ salvum fuit.
Favorinus rebuked a young man, who affected the use of archaic language, by telling him to hold his tongue altogether if he did not wish to be understood: if he admired the purity of the good old times he should imitate their ways, not their words.
Favorinus philosophus adulescenti, veterum verborum cupidissimo et plerasque voces nimis priscas et ignotas in cotidianis sermonibus expromenti, “Curius” inquit “et Fabricius et Coruncanius, antiquissimi viri, et his antiquiores Horatii illi trigemini plane ac 5 dilucide cum suis locuti sunt, neque Auruncorum aut Sicanorum aut Pelasgorum, qui primi coluisse Italiam dicuntur, sed aetatis suae verbis usi sunt; tu autem, proinde quasi cum matre Euandri nunc loquare, sermone abhinc multis annis iam desito uteris, quod 10 neminem vis scire atque intellegere quae dicas. Nonne, homo inepte, ut quod vis abunde consequaris, taces? Sed antiquitatem tibi placere ais, quod honesta et bona et sobria et modesta sit. Vive ergo moribus praeteritis, loquere verbis praesentibus: atque id, 15 quod a C. Caesare scriptum est, habe semper in memoriâ atque in pectore, ut tamquam scopulum sic fugias insolens verbum.”14
In one of the struggles between the Romans and the Gauls in 361 B.C. a gigantic Gaul challenged the Romans to send out a champion to meet him: all held back except the young T. Manlius.
Titus Manlius summo loco natus fuit. Ei cognomen factum est Torquatus. Causa cognomenti fuisse dicitur torquis, quam ex hoste, quem occiderat, detractam induit. Quis hostis fuerit et qualis pugna ita accepimus. 5
Galli contra Romanos pugnabant, cum interim Gallus quidam nudus praeter scutum et gladios duos, torque atque armillis decoratus, qui et viribus et magnitudine et adulescentiâ et virtute ceteros praestabat, processit et manu significare coepit utrisque, ut 10 quiescerent. Extemplo silentio facto voce maximâ conclamat, si quis secum depugnare vellet, uti prodiret. Nemo audebat propter magnitudinem atque inmanem faciem. Deinde Gallus inridere coepit atque linguam exertare. Doluit Titus Manlius, tantum flagitium 15 civitati adcidere, e tanto exercitu neminem prodire. Processit ipse scuto pedestri et gladio Hispanico cinctus et contra Gallum constitit.
In the struggle which followed Manlius disconcerted the Gaul by suddenly with his shield dashing him back from his posture of defence; he then came to close quarters with the Gaul, and slew him. He 15 put on his own neck the necklace which the Gaul had worn; hence he was named Torquatus. This same Manlius executed his son for disobeying orders and slaying an enemy who had challenged him.
Metu magno ea congressio in ipso ponte, utroque exercitu inspectante, facta est. Constitit Gallus suâ disciplinâ scuto proiecto cunctabundus; Manlius, animo magis quam arte confisus, scuto scutum percussit atque statum Galli conturbavit. Dum se Gallus iterum eodem 5 pacto constituere studet, Manlius iterum scuto scutum percutit atque de loco hominem iterum deiecit; eo pacto ei sub Gallicum gladium successit atque Hispanico pectus hausit; deinde continuo umerum dextrum incidit neque recessit usquam, donec subvertit. Ubi eum 10 evertit, caput praecidit, torquem detraxit eamque sanguinulentam sibi in collum inponit. Quo ex facto ipse posterique eius Torquati sunt cognominati.
Ab hoc Tito Manlio imperia et aspera et immitia Manlia dicta sunt, quoniam postea, cum bello adversum 15 Latinos esset consul, filium suum securi percussit, qui speculatum ab eo missus, pugnâ interdictâ, hostem, a quo provocatus fuerat, occiderat.
On another occasion the young Valerius accepted the challenge of a gigantic Gaul. During the fight a raven aided the Roman by attacking his enemy with its talons; thus helped Valerius slew the Gaul, and received the name of Corvinus.
Copiae Gallorum ingentes agrum Pomptinum 16 insederant instruebanturque acies a consulibus. Dux interea Gallorum, vastâ proceritate armisque auro praefulgentibus, manu telum vibrans incedebat perque contemptum et superbiam circumspicit despicitque 5 omnia, et venire iubet et congredi, si quis pugnare secum ex omni Romano exercitu auderet. Tum Valerius adulescens, tribunus iam militaris, ceteris inter metum pudoremque ambiguis, impetrat a consulibus, ut in Gallum pugnare sese permitterent, et 10 progreditur intrepidus obviam. Et congrediuntur et consistunt et conserebantur iam manus. Atque ibi vis quaedam divina fit: corvus repente advolat et super galeam tribuni insistit atque inde in adversarii os atque oculos pugnare incipit, eius manum unguibus 15 laniabat atque, ubi satis saevierat, revolabat in galeam tribuni. Sic tribunus, spectante utroque exercitu, et suâ virtute nixus et operâ, alitis adiutus, ducem hostium ferocissimum vicit interfecitque, atque ob hanc causam cognomen habuit Corvinum. 20
Statuam Corvino isti divus Augustus in foro suo statuendam curavit. In eius statuae capite corvi simulacrum est, rei pugnaeque, quam diximus, monimentum.
Aesop in his fables gives good advice in a pleasant way, and hence men attend to him. An instance of this is his fable of the lark, which has been put into verse by Ennius.
Aesopus ille e Phrygia fabularum scriptor haud 17 inmerito sapiens existimatus est; quae enim utilia monitu suasuque erant, non severe praecepit, ut philosophis mos est, sed hilares iucundosque apologos commentus, in mentes hominum cum audiendi quâdam 5 inlecebrâ induit. Velut haec eius fabula de parvae avis nidulo lepide praemonet spem fiduciamque rerum, quas efficere quis possit, haut umquam in alio, sed in semetipso habendam. Hunc Aesopi apologum Q. Ennius in satiris versibus quadratis composuit, quorum 10 duo postremi hi sunt:
Hóc erit tibi árgumentum sémper in promptú situm,
Né quid expectés amicos, quód tute agere póssies.
A certain lark found the corn, in which it had built, ripe for cutting before its young were fledged. It therefore ordered them to report anything unusual which might happen in its absence. The first day they announced that the master had been to the field and had sent to ask his friends to help him to reap the corn. On hearing this the mother said that there was no immediate need for them to leave the field.
Avis est parva, nomen est cassita. Habitat in segetibus, id ferme temporis ut appetat messis pullis iam iam plumantibus. Ea cassita in sementes forte congesserat tempestiviores; propterea frumentis flavescentibus pulli etiam tunc inplumes erant. Dum igitur 5 ipsa iret cibum pullis quaesitum, monet eos, ut, si quid ibi rei novae fieret dicereturve, animadverterent 18 idque sibi, ubi rediisset, nuntiarent. Dominus postea segetum illarum filium adulescentem vocat et 10 “Videsne” inquit “haec maturuisse et manus iam postulare? idcirco cras, ubi primum dilucescit, fac amicos eas et roges, ut veniant operamque mutuam dent et in hac messi nos adiuvent.” Haec ubi ille dixit, et discessit. Atque ubi redit cassita, pulli tremibundi orare matrem, ut iam statim properet inque alium 15 locum sese asportet: “Nam dominus” inquiunt “misit, qui amicos roget, uti luce oriente veniant et metant.” Mater iubet eos otioso animo esse: “Si enim dominus” inquit “messim ad amicos reiicit, cras seges non metetur, neque necesse est hodie uti vos auferam.” 20
Next day the young ones reported that the master, finding his friends had not come, had sent to ask the aid of his relations. The mother still tells them to be in no fear, and next day again goes out to seek food. This time the young ones report that the master, finding his relations lingered, had determined to cut the corn himself. On hearing this the mother announces that they must go at once.
Die postero mater in pabulum volat. Dominus, quos rogaverat, opperitur. Sol fervit, et fit nihil; it dies, et amici nulli eunt. Tum ille rursum ad filium “Amici isti” inquit “cessatores sunt. Quin potius imus et cognatos adfinesque nostros oramus, ut adsint cras ad 5 metendum?” Itidem hoc pulli pavefacti matri nuntiant. Mater hortatur, ut tum quoque sine metu ac sine curâ sint; cognatos adfinesque nullos ferme tam faciles 19 esse ait, ut ad laborem capessendum nihil cunctentur et statim dicto oboediant: “Vos modo” inquit 10 “advertite, si modo quid denuo dicetur.” Aliâ luce ortâ avis in pastum profecta est. Cognati et adfines operam, quam dare rogati sunt, neglexerunt. Ad postremum igitur dominus filio “Valeant” inquit “amici cum propinquis. Afferes primâ luce falces 15 duas; unam egomet mihi et tu tibi capies alteram et frumentum nosmetipsi manibus nostris cras metemus.” Id ubi ex pullis dixisse dominum mater audivit, “Tempus” inquit “est cedendi et abeundi; fiet nunc dubio procul quod futurum dixit. In ipso enim iam 20 vertitur cuia res est, non in alio, unde petitur.” Atque ita cassita e nido migravit, seges a domino demessa est.
A friend of King Pyrrus came to the Roman general Fabricius and offered to poison the King for a bribe. Fabricius reported the matter to the Senate, who warned Pyrrus to be on his guard. Pyrrus showed his gratitude by sending back all the Roman prisoners.
Cum Pyrrus rex in terrâ Italiâ esset et unam atque alteram pugnas prospere pugnasset et pleraque Italia ad regem descivisset, tum Ambraciensis quispiam Timochares, regis Pyrri amicus, ad C. Fabricium consulem furtim venit ac praemium petivit et, si de 5 praemio conveniret, promisit se regem venenis necaturum; idque facile esse factu dixit, quoniam filius suus pocula in convivio regi ministraret. Eam rem 20 Fabricius ad senatum scripsit. Senatus ad regem legatos misit mandavitque, ut de Timochare nihil 10 proderent, sed monerent, uti rex cautius ageret atque a proximorum insidiis salutem tutaretur. Quamobrem Pyrrus populo Romano laudes atque gratias scripsisse dicitur captivosque omnes, quos tum habuit, vestivisse et reddidisse. 15
At the games in the Circus a lion of gigantic size was seen to fawn upon one of the condemned slaves exposed in the arena.
In circo maximo venationis pugna populo dabatur. Multae ibi ferae, sed praeter alia omnia leo corpore vasto terrificoque fremitu et sonoro animos oculosque omnium in sese converterat. Introductus erat inter compluris ceteros ad pugnam bestiarum datos servus 5 viri consularis; ei servo Androclus nomen fuit. Hunc ille leo ubi vidit procul, repente quasi admirans stetit ac deinde sensim atque placide, tamquam familiaris, ad hominem accedit. Tum caudam more adulantium canum blande movet cruraque et manus hominis, 10 prope iam exanimati metu, linguâ leniter demulcet. Homo Androclus inter illa tam atrocis ferae blandimenta amissum animum recuperat, paulatim oculos ad contuendum leonem refert. Tum quasi mutuâ 15 recognitione factâ laetos et gratulantes videres hominem et leonem.21
When questioned by the Emperor the slave explained that he had fled from his master into the African desert, that he had by accident taken refuge in this lion’s cave, and, when the lion had returned to its home lame, he had extracted a thorn from its foot.
Haec tam mira res maximos populi clamores excitat et Caesar Androclum vocat quaeritque causam, cur illi uni atrocissimus leo pepercisset. Ibi Androclus rem mirificam atque admirandam narrat. “Cum provinciam” inquit “Africam proconsulari imperio meus 5 dominus obtineret, ego ibi iniquis eius et cotidianis verberibus ad fugam sum coactus et, quo mihi a domino, terrae illius praeside, tutiores latebrae forent, in locos desertos et remotos concessi ac, si defuisset cibus, consilium fuit mortem aliquo pacto quaerere. 10 Tum die medio sole flagrante specum quemdam nanctus remotum latebrosumque, in eum me recondo. Neque multo post ad eundem specum venit hic leo, debili uno et cruento pede, gemitus edens et murmura ob dolorem cruciatumque vulneris. Atque illic 15 primo quidem conspectu advenientis leonis territus et pavefactus sum; sed postquam introgressus leo videt me procul delitescentem, mitis et mansuetus accessit et sublatum pedem ostendere mihi et porrigere quasi opis petendae gratiâ visus est. Ibi ego stirpem ingentem, 20 vestigio pedis eius haerentem, revelli conceptamque saniem volnere intimo expressi et sine magnâ iam formidine 22 siccavi penitus atque detersi cruorem. Illâ tunc meâ operâ levatus, pede in manibus meis posito, recubuit et quievit 25
For three years he and the lion had lived together. At last he had grown weary of the savage life, but as soon as he had returned to the haunts of men he had been captured, condemned, and sent to Rome to be exposed to the wild beasts in the circus. Androclus was pardoned and the lion was given to him.
“Ex eo die triennium totum ego et leo in eodem specu eodemque et victu viximus. Nam, quas venabatur feras, membra opimiora ad specum mihi ferebat, quae ego, ignis copiam non habens, meridiano sole torrens edebam. Sed ubi me vitae illius ferinae iam 5 pertaesum est, leone in venatum profecto, reliqui specum et, viam ferme tridui permensus, a militibus visus adprehensusque sum et ad dominum ex Africâ Romam deductus. Is me statim rei capitalis damnandum dandumque ad bestias curavit. Intellego autem” 10 inquit “hunc quoque leonem me tunc separato captum, gratiam mihi nunc beneficii et medicinae referre.”
Haec dixit Androclus; quae cum scripta essent circumlataque populo et declarata, cunctis petentibus 15 dimissus Androclus et poenâ solutus et leone suffragiis populi donatus. Postea Androclus et leo, loro tenui revinctus, urbe totâ circum tabernas ibat: donatus 23 est aere Androclus, floribus sparsus est leo, omnesque ubique obvii exclamant, “Hic est leo hospes hominis, 20 hic est homo medicus leonis.”
Polus, having to act the part of Electra soon after his only son had died, appeared on the stage holding the urn which contained the remains of his son, and over this he wept the tears of real grief.
Histrio in terrâ Graeciâ fuit famâ celebri, cui nomen erat Polus. Is unice amatum filium morte amisit, sed ubi cum satis visus est luxisse, rediit ad quaestum artis.
Eo tempore Athenis Electram Sophoclis acturus, 5 gestare urnam quasi cum Oresti ossibus debebat. Ita compositum fabulae argumentum est ut, veluti fratris reliquias ferens, Electra comploret interitum eius existimatum. Igitur Polus, lugubri habitu Electrae indutus, ossa atque urnam e sepulcro tulit filii et, 10 quasi Oresti amplexus, opplevit omnia non simulacris sed luctu atque lamentis veris. Itaque cum agi fabula videretur, dolor actus est.
A Greek orator—some say Demosthenes, others Demades—at first opposed a request of the Milesians for aid, but took a bribe to withdraw his opposition. When the matter was again discussed he announced that he was suffering from an inflamed throat, and so could not speak. He afterwards openly boasted that he had been paid to hold his tongue.
Legati Mileto auxilii petendi causâ venerunt 24 Athenas. Tum qui pro sese verba facerent advocaverunt; hi, uti erat mandatum, verba pro Milesiis ad populum fecerunt, sed Demosthenes Milesiorum postulatis acriter respondit; neque Milesios auxilio 5 dignos neque ex republicâ id esse contendit. Res tandem in posterum diem prolata est. Tum legati ad Demosthenen venerunt oraveruntque, uti contra ne diceret. Is pecuniam petivit et quantam petiverat abstulit. Postridie, cum res agi denuo coepta esset, 10 Demosthenes, lanâ multâ collum circumvolutus, ad populum prodit et dixit se synanchen pati; eo contra Milesios loqui non quire. Tum e populo quidam exclamavit, non synanchen eum pati sed argyranchen.
Ipse etiam Demosthenes non id postea celavit, quin 15 gloriae quoque hoc sibi adsignavit. Nam cum interrogasset Aristodemum, actorem fabularum, quantum mercedis, uti ageret, accepisset, et Aristodemus talentum respondisset, “At ego plus” inquit “accepi, ut tacerem.” 20
Quod hic diximus de Demosthene, id nonnulli scriptores in Demaden contulerunt.
Cicero once borrowed money to buy a house, but afterwards denied that he had ever taken the money or had intended to purchase the property. He did buy the house, and, when reminded of what he had said, replied that a prudent man always concealed his intended purchases.
Cicero cum emere vellet in Palatio domum neque 25 pecuniam in praesens haberet, a P. Sulla, qui tum reus erat, mutua sestertium viciens tacita accepit. Ea res tamen, priusquam emeret, prodita est et in vulgus exivit, obiectumque ei est, quod pecuniam domus 5 emendae causâ a reo accepisset. Tum Cicero inopinatâ obprobratione permotus accepisse se negavit ac domum quoque se empturum negavit. Sed cum postea emisset et hoc mendacium in senatu ei ab amicis obiiceretur, risit satis atque inter ridendum: “ἀκοινονόητοι” 10 inquit “homines estis, cum ignoratis prudentis et cauti patrisfamilias esse, quod emere velit, empturum sese negare propter competitores emptionis.”
“Property in Rome,” said a friend, “would be worth far more if the risk from fire were not so great.” “Archelaus,” replied Julianus, “preserved his defensive outworks from fire by covering them with alum.”
Declamaverat Antonius Iulianus rhetor quam felicissime, eumque nos familiares eius circumfusi undique prosequebamur domum, cum subeuntes montem Cispium conspicimus insulam quandam multis, arduisque tabulatis editam, igni occupatam et propinqua iam 5 omnia flagrare vasto incendio. Tum quispiam ibi ex comitibus Iuliani, “Magni” inquit “reditus urbanorum praediorum, sed pericula sunt longe maxima. Si quid autem posset remedii fore, ut ne tam adsidue domus Romae arderent, venum hercle dedissem res rusticas 10 26 et urbicas emissem.” Atque illi Iulianus “Si annalem” inquit “undevicensimum Q. Claudi legisses, docuisset te profecto Archelaus, regis Mitridati praefectus, quo remedio ignem defenderes. In eo enim libro scriptum inveni, cum obpugnaret L. Sulla in terrâ Atticâ Piraeum 15 et contra Archelaus regis Mitridati praefectus ex eo oppido propugnaret, turrim ligneam defendendi gratiâ structam, cum ex omni latere circumplexa igni foret, ardere non quisse, quod alumine ab Archelao oblita fuisset.” 20
Arion, having gained much money in Italy and Sicily, took ship to return to Corinth, but was robbed and made to leap overboard by the sailors.
Vetus et nobilis cantor Arion fuit. Is oppido Methymnaeus, terrâ Lesbius fuit. Eum Arionem rex Corinthi Periander amicum habuit artis gratiâ. Is inde a rege proficiscitur, ut terras praeclaras Siciliam atque Italiam viseret. Ubi eo venit aures omnium 5 mentesque in utriusque terrae urbibus delectavit, et postea grandem pecuniam adeptus Corinthum instituit redire. Navem igitur et navitas, ut notiores amicioresque sibi, Corinthios delegit. Sed ei Corinthii, homine accepto navique in altum provectâ, praedae 10 pecuniaeque cupidi, consilium de necando Arione ceperunt. Tum ille pecuniam ceteraque sua eis dedit 27 vitam modo sibi ut parcerent oravit. Navitae per vim suis manibus eum non necaverunt, sed imperaverunt, ut iam statim coram desiliret praeceps in mare. Homo 15 ibi territus, spe omni vitae perditâ, id unum postea oravit, ut, priusquam mortem obpeteret, induere permitterent sua sibi omnia et fides capere et canere carmen. Quod oraverat impetrat, atque ibi mox de more cinctus, amictus, ornatus stansque in summâ 20 puppi, carmen, quod “orthium” dicitur, voce sublatissimâ cantavit. Ad postrema cantus cum fidibus ornatuque omni, sicut stabat canebatque, iecit sese procul in profundum.
A dolphin carried him safely to Taenarum; thence he travelled to Corinth, and told his adventure to the King. The sailors on their arrival were confronted by Arion and convicted of their crime.
Navitae, hautquaquam dubitantes, quin periisset, cursum, quem facere coeperant, tenuerunt. Sed novum et mirum et pium facinus contigit. Delphinus repente inter undas adnavit, fluitantique sese homini subdidit, et dorso super fluctus edito vectavit 5 incolumique eum corpore et ornatu Taenarum in terram Laconicam devexit. Tum Arion prorsus ex eo loco Corinthum petivit talemque Periandro regi, qualis delphino vectus fuerat, inopinanti sese optulit, eique rem, sicuti acciderat, narravit. Rex istaec parum 10 28 credidit, Arionem, quasi falleret, custodiri iussit, navitas inquisitos, ablegato Arione, dissimulanter interrogavit, ecquid audissent in his locis, unde venissent, de Arione? Dixerunt hominem, cum inde irent, in terrâ Italiâ fuisse et illic bene agere. Tum inter 15 haec eorum verba Arion cum fidibus et indumentis, cum quibus se in salum deiecerat, extitit, navitaeque stupefacti convictique ire infitias non quiverunt. Hanc fabulam dicunt Lesbii et Corinthii, atque fabulae argumentum est quod simulacra duo aenea ad Taenarum 20 visuntur, delphinus vehens et homo insidens.
A Thracian having heard that trees required cutting and pruning, proceeded to chop the tops off his vines and olives, and thus in his ignorance destroyed all his property.
Homo Thracus ex ultimâ barbariâ ruris colendi insolens, cum in terras cultiores migrasset, fundum mercatus est oleo atque vino consitum. Qui nihil admodum de vite aut arbore colendâ sciret, videt forte vicinum rubos alte atque late obortas excidentem, 5 fraxinos ad summum prope verticem deputantem, suboles vitium e radicibus super terram fusas revellentem, stolones in pomis aut in oleis proceros amputantem; acceditque prope et cur tantam ligni atque frondium caedem faceret, percontatus est. Et vicinus 10 ita respondit: “Ut ager” inquit “mundus purusque fiat, eius arbor atque vitis fecundior.” Discedit ille a 29 vicino gratias agens et laetus, tamquam adeptus rei rusticae disciplinam. Tum falcem ac securim capit; atque ibi homo miser imperitus vites suas sibi omnis et oleas detruncat, comasque arborum laetissimas uberrimosque vitium palmites decidit, et virgulta simul omnia, pomis gignendis felicia, cum sentibus et rubis purgandi agri gratiâ convellit.
Mitridates by the use of antidotes made himself proof against poisons: hence when he wished to kill himself he had to use his sword. He could speak perfectly the languages of the twenty-two nations over which he ruled.
Mitridates ille Ponti rex medicinae rei et remediorum sollers erat, quorum adsiduo usu a clandestinis epularum insidiis cavebat; quin et ultro ostentandi gratiâ venenum rapidum et velox saepenumero hausit, atque id tamen sine noxâ fuit. Quamobrem postea, cum 5 proelio victus in ultima regni refugisset et mori decrevisset, venena festinandae necis causâ frustra expertus, suo se ipse gladio transegit.
Quintus Ennius tria corda sese habere dicebat, quod loqui Graece et Osce et Latine sciret. Mitridates autem 10 duarum et viginti gentium, quas sub dicione habuit, linguas percalluit, earumque omnium gentium viris haut umquam per interpretem conlocutus est, sed linguâ et oratione cuiusque, non minus scite quam si gentis eius esset, locutus est. 1530
Euathlus agreed to pay Protagoras a certain sum of money on the day when he won his first case. He never undertook one, so at last Protagoras brought an action against him to recover the money. “You are in this dilemma,” said the philosopher: “if you lose this action, the court will award me the money; if you win it, you will have won your first case, and will owe me the fee according to our agreement.” “Nay,” replied the pupil, “if I win the action, I shall owe you nothing according to the sentence of the court; if I lose, I shall owe you nothing according to our agreement.”
Euathlus, adulescens dives, eloquentiae discendae causarumque orandi cupidus fuit. Is in disciplinam Protagorae sese dedit daturumque promisit mercedem grandem pecuniam, quantam Protagoras petiverat, dimidiumque eius dedit iam tunc pepigitque, ut 5 reliquum dimidium daret, quo primo die causam apud iudices orasset et vicisset. Postea cum diu auditor Protagorae fuisset, causas tamen non reciperet, tempusque iam longum transcurreret et facere id videretur, ne relicum mercedis daret, capit consilium Protagoras, 10 ut tum existimabat, astutum: petere institit ex pacto mercedem, litem cum Euathlo contestatur.
Cum ad iudices venissent, tum Protagoras sic exorsus est: “Disce,” inquit “stultissime adulescens, utroque id modo fore, uti reddas quod peto, sive 15 contra te pronuntiatum erit sive pro te. Nam, si contra te lis data erit, merces mihi ex sententiâ debebitur, quia ego vicero; sin vero secundum te iudicatum erit, merces mihi ex pacto debebitur, quia tu viceris.” 2031
Ad ea respondit Euathlus: “Disce igitur tu quoque, magister sapientissime, utroque modo fore, uti non reddam quod petis, sive contra me pronuntiatum fuerit sive pro me. Nam, si iudices pro causâ meâ senserint, nihil tibi ex sententiâ debebitur, quia ego 25vicero; sin contra me pronuntiaverint, nihil tibi ex pacto debebo, quia non vicero.”
Tum iudices hoc inexplicabile esse rati, causam in diem longissimam distulerunt. Sic ab adulescente discipulo magister doctissimus suo ipse argumento 30confutatus est.
Hannibal after the battle of Cannae sent ten captives to Rome to propose an exchange of prisoners, but bound the ten by an oath to return, if the Senate did not accept his offer. The Senate rejected it, and eight out of the ten returned, but two, yielding to the entreaties of their friends, and alleging that they had by a trick freed themselves from the obligation of the oath, remained behind. These two were treated with such scorn that they found life unbearable and committed suicide.
Post proelium Cannense Hannibal ex captivis nostris electos decem Romam misit, mandavitque eis pactusque est, ut, si populo Romano videretur, permutatio fieret captivorum et pro his, quos alteri plures acciperent, darent argenti pondo libram et 5 selibram. Hoc, priusquam proficiscerentur, iusiurandum eos adegit, redituros esse in castra Poenica, si Romani captivos non permutarent.32
Veniunt Romam decem captivi. Mandatum Poeni imperatoris in senatu exponunt. Permutatio senatui 10 non placet. Parentes, cognati adfinesque captivorum amplexi eos postliminio in patriam redisse dicebant, statumque eorum integrum incolumemque esse, ac, ne ad hostes redire vellent, orabant. Tum octo ex his postliminium iustum non esse sibi responderunt, quoniam 15 iure iurando vincti forent, statimque, uti iurati erant, ad Hannibalem profecti sunt. Duo reliqui Romae manserunt solutosque se esse ac liberatos religione dicebant, quoniam, cum egressi castra hostium fuissent, commenticio consilio, tamquam ob 20 aliquam fortuitam causam, eodem regressi sunt, atque ita rursum iniurati abissent. Haec eorum fraudulenta calliditas tam esse turpis existimata est, ut contempti vulgo sint censoresque eos postea omnibus ignominiae notis adfecerint. 25
Multis autem in senatu placuit, ut datis custodibus ad Hannibalem deducerentur, sed ea sententia numero plurium, quibus id non videretur, superata. Usque adeo tamen invisi erant, ut taedio vitae necem sibi conscivissent. 30
1. P. Vergilius Maro, the greatest of Roman epic poets, was born 70 B.C. near Mantua, in the N. of Italy, and died 19 B.C. at Brundusium, in the S.E. of Italy. His chief works were the Būcŏlĭcă (βου-κολέω , I tend cattle), or Eclŏgae (‘Selections,’ from ἐκ-λέγω, I choose out), a series of short poems, chiefly pastoral; the Gĕorgĭcă (γῆ ἔργον), a poetical treatise on agriculture; and the Aenēïs, or story of Aenēas, a poem in twelve books, relating the adventures of Aeneas after the fall of Troy
2. se parere versus, ‘that he produced his verses like a bear,’ lit. ‘in a bear-like manner.’
părĕre, from părio. Distinguish three words, (1) păro, -avi, -atum, -are, ‘I prepare,’ (2) pāreo, -ui, -itum, -ēre, ‘I obey,’ gov. dat. case, (3) părio, pĕpĕri, partum, or parĭtum, , ‘I bring forth.’
3. lambendo, abl. of the gerund, ‘by licking it’; so tractando corrigendoque, ‘by polishing and correcting them.’
5. partus, nom. pl., best translated by the English sing., ‘the offspring of...’
6. reddo, compound of re and do. Rĕd is used for re in redămo, redarguo, reddo, redeo, redhibeo, redigo, redimo, redoleo, redundo. In composition the re is short except in ... rēligio (often spelt relligio), rēliquiae (often spelt relliquiae), and the perfects of rĕpello, rĕperio, and rĕfero, viz., rēpuli (or reppuli), rēperi (or repperi), and rētuli (or rettuli). Rēfert, the impersonal verb, ‘it concerns,’ is a compound of res-fert: rĕfero, 34 makes 3rd sing, rĕfert. Re or red in composition has two principal meanings, (1) ‘back’ or ‘backward,’ as redeo, ‘I go back,’ (2) ‘again,’ as reficio, ‘I make again, repair.’ It also frequently denotes (3) ‘duty’ or ‘obligation,’ so reddo here means ‘I give as is due,’ ‘render.’
1. Menander (342-291 B.C.), an Athenian comic poet, famous as the model of Roman dramatists, especially Terence.
Philemon, also an Athenian comic poet, the contemporary and rival of Menander.
2. in certaminibus comoediarum. In Athens dramas were represented at the great festivals in honour of Dionysus, at which “every citizen was present, as a matter of course, from daybreak to sunset” (Donaldson). Judges were appointed by lot to decide upon the merits of the rival plays. The successful poet was crowned with ivy, and his name was proclaimed before the audience.
ambitus, ‘bribery,’ from ambio; properly a ‘going round’ to canvass for votes, etc., especially by bribery. Ambitio, from the same verb, is used both in this sense and also as ‘a desire for power,’ etc., our ‘ambition.’
4. quaeso, used parenthetically like our ‘pray!’
bonâ veniâ, ‘apologizing for the question’; lit. ‘with your good leave...’ i.e. ‘pardon me, but...’
5. nonne introduces a question expecting the answer ‘Yes,’ e.g. nonne erubescis, ‘do you not blush?’ Num introduces a question expecting the answer ‘No,’ e.g. num erubescis, ‘you do not blush, do you?’ -ne is used when the answer is doubtful, e.g. erubescisne, ‘do you blush?’
erubesco. The termination -sco shows that the verb is inceptive or inchoative, i.e. denotes the beginning (inceptum) of an action or state. Such verbs are always of the 3rd conjugation, and form their perfects and supines (if they have supines, but in most inceptives the supine is wanting) from the simple verb or stem from which they spring, e.g. pallesco (from palleo), pallui, (no supine), pallescere, I begin to grow pale; vĕtĕrasco (from old form vĕter, classical vĕtus, -ĕris), -ravi, no sup., veterascĕre, ‘I grow old.’35
1. Aristoteles, the Greek philosopher, was born at Stagīra, in Macedonia, 384 B.C. He lived for twenty years at Athens, where he was a pupil of Plato; afterwards he returned to Macedonia, and became the tutor of Alexander. When Alexander succeeded to the throne, Aristotle again went to Athens and taught philosophy for 13 years in the Lyceum, a gymnasium sacred to Apollo Lyceus. He died in 322 B.C. at Chalcis in Euboea. Many of his writings upon logic, moral and political philosophy, natural history, etc., have reached us.
Plutarchus was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia about 50 A.D. He came to Rome at an early age, and spent many years there and in other parts of Italy. In his old age he returned to Chaeronea, where he died at an unknown date. His works were written in Greek: the most famous of them is the Parallel Lives of forty-six Greeks and Romans, arranged in pairs, a Greek and a Roman together (e.g. Alexander and Caesar, Demosthenes and Cicero), the life of each pair being followed by a short discussion of their comparative merits.
hercle is a nominative form; the similar exclamations mehercules, mehercule, mehercle, hercules, hercule, and hercle are all abbreviations for ‘me Hercules juvet!’ ‘may Hercules help me!’ Cf. the interjectional phrase, ‘medius fidius,’ for ‘me deus Fidius juvet ‘so help me the God of Faith!’
2. si super ..., the order is ‘si imponis magna pondera super lignum palmae arboris.’
3. non deorsum, the wood does not yield and bend inwards beneath the weight, but rises up against it and bends outwards.
6. urgentibus opprimentibusque, dat. after cedit, ‘it does not yield to....’
1. Socrates was born at Athens 469 B.C. His father was a statuary, and in early life Socrates followed the same profession, but he soon abandoned it and devoted himself entirely to philosophy. He did not follow the usual custom of giving public lectures or opening a school, but went about in the city talking to men wherever he met them, and endeavouring to awake in them a love of true knowledge. By his attacks upon 36 the popular theories and his free discussion of religious questions he roused a strong antagonism; at last he was impeached on the three charges of corrupting the Athenian youth, despising the gods of the State, and introducing new deities, and was executed by a draught of hemlock poison, 399 B.C. He left no written works, so that our knowledge of him is derived from the writings of his pupils and contemporaries, chiefly Plato and Xenophon.
3. iris ... scatebat, lit. ‘bubbled over with,’ ‘overflowed with ...’ Cf. Hor. Od. iii. 27, 26, ‘scatentem beluis pontum,’ ‘the ocean teeming with monsters’; and Aulus Gellius, N. A. l. 15, uses ‘scatere verbis.’
quam rem ... demiratus, ‘having expressed his astonishment at this fact to her husband Socrates.’
4. Alcibiades, 450-404 B.C., was a brilliant but unprincipled Athenian statesman, who became famous during the Peloponnesian war. He enjoyed the friendship of Socrates, was saved by Socrates at the battle of Potidaea, 432 B.C., and saved the life of Socrates at the battle of Delium, 424 B.C.
5. ăcerbum, ăcer-bus from ācer, as sŭper-bus from sŭper. Usually words retain the quantity of the word from which they are derived, but there are many exceptions, e.g. hŏmo and hūmanus, nōtus and cog-nĭtus, so rex, gen. rēgis, but rĕgo, dux, gen. dŭcis, but dūco.
7. insuesco. Cf. note on erubesco, ii. 5.
exerceor, in a middle sense, ‘I exercise myself.’ Cf. faciunt idem, cum exercentur, athletae (Cic. Tusc. ii. 23, 56), ‘athletes do the same when they exercise themselves.’ Many Latin passives have thus a ‘middle’ force; cf. vertor, I turn myself; lavor, I wash myself; and the deponents glorior, I boast myself; vescor, I feed myself, etc.
8. ut ... feram, ‘so that I bear more easily.’ Ut used in a consecutive sense, i.e. denoting the consequence or result.
1. corporis firmandi causâ, ‘(undergone) for the sake of strengthening his body’—the gerundive attraction. Cf. note xiii. 1.
3. ad solem alterum orientem, ‘till the next sunrise.’ Sol oriens is used for sunrise, i.e. the rising of the sun, as 37 ‘summus mons’ for ‘the top of the mountain,’ Caesar mortuus for ‘the death of Caesar,’ etc.
5. tanquam ... facto, lit. a certain withdrawal, as it were, of mind and feeling from the body having taken place, i.e. ‘mind and feeling having, as it were, left his body.’ He stood in seeming unconsciousness. Animus, when contrasted with mens, is the mind as the seat of the passions, etc.; mens the higher reasoning faculty, the intellect.
9. valitudine integra, the abl. absolute, ‘in unimpaired health.’
Ablative Absolute, ‘absolute’ (absolutus, fr. ab·solvo, ‘I release’) here means ‘released’ from government by any word in the principal sentence.
The construction is one of many varieties of the adverbial ablative; e.g. the abl. of time, the abl. of place where, the abl. of manner, etc.; but it differs from these ablatives—
(1) In being equivalent to a complete clause, e.g. Caesar hoc dixit, convocatis militibus is equivalent to cum milites convocati essent.
(2) Or, to express the same fact in another way, it consists of two words each in the ablative, one of which stands to the other in the relation of predicate to subject; the ‘subject’ being a substantive or pronoun, the ‘predicate’ a participle, adjective, substantive, or, more rarely, a pronoun.
Exceptions: But (a) sometimes the subject is not expressed, and a participle is used impersonally by itself in the abl. absol.—the participle here being equivalent to a clause containing an impersonal verb, e.g. mihi, errato, nulla venia, ‘there is no pardon for me, if I blunder’ (errato = si erratum erit a me).
(b) Sometimes a whole clause is substituted for the abl. of the ‘subject’: e.g. excepto quod non simul esses, cetera laetus, ‘happy in all respects, except the fact that you were not with me’ (lit. ‘the fact that you were not with me being excepted’).
Examples: (1) Subst. and participle, Tullio regnante vixerunt, ‘they lived whilst Tullius was king.’ (2) Subst. and adj., Hannibale vivo Romani semper Poenos timuerunt, ‘the Romans always feared the Carthaginians whilst Hannibal lived.’ (3) Subst. and subst., Nil desperandum Teucro duce, ‘there is no cause for despair whilst Teucer is our leader.’ (4) Subst. and pron., quid hoc populo obtineri potest, ‘what can be maintained with such a people as this?’ (5) Pron. 38 and participle, eis occisis ceteri domum redierunt, ‘when those men had been slain the rest returned home.’ (6) Pron. and adj., me invito id fecit, ‘he did it contrary to my wishes.’ (7) Pron. and subst., eo rege tuti erant, ‘they were safe whilst he was king.’
Note.—(1) The abl. absolute sometimes expresses merely time (e.g. inita aestate, ‘at the beginning of summer’), but more often attendant circumstances, or cause.
(2) The abl. absol. cannot be used when the ‘subject’ of the clause is the same as the subject or object of the principal clause. This rule is sometimes, but rarely, violated.
(3) In Greek the genitive is the absolute case: in most modern languages the nom. is thus used: but the acc. is sometimes used absolutely in German, and in Old English the accusative (representing the dative of Anglo-Saxon) was used absolutely. Milton uses both nom. and acc.: cf. “Us dispossessed,” Par. L., vii. 140; “I extinct,” id. ix. 994.
10. pestilentia, the famous plague of Athens, which raged during the second and third years of the Peloponnesian war. This was a war between Athens with her allies and Sparta with her allies, which lasted for 28 years, from 431 to 404 B.C., and ended in the defeat of Athens and the loss of her maritime supremacy.
1. Alexander III. (356-323 B.C.), surnamed the Great, ascended the throne of Macedonia on the death of his father Philip, 336 B.C. In the 13 years of his reign he conquered the greater part of Eastern Europe and Asia Minor, and marched even into Northern India and Egypt. The incident here mentioned happened in his Indian campaign. In 327 he crossed the Indus, entered the , defeated and captured the Indian king Porus in a great battle on the banks of the Hydaspes, and founded there two towns—Bucephalon and Nicaea. He continued his progress as far as the banks of the Hyphasis, but here his wearied troops mutinied and refused to advance any further.
Būcĕphălās (βουκεφάλας, βοῦς κεφαλή), ‘ox-head,’ so called from the breadth of its forehead.
2. emptum, ‘Chares has stated that it was bought for 13 talents.’ talentis, abl. of price.39
Chares was an officer at Alexander’s court, who wrote a series of anecdotes about the life and exploits of the king.
3. hoc autem, the order is hoc est nostri aeris summa trecenta duodecim sestertia, ‘this is in (lit. of) our money the sum (of) 312 sestertia.’ Sestertium = 1,000 sestertii, about £8 at this time. Therefore 312 sestertia = £312 x 8 = £2,496. For sestertium cf. xxxiii. 2.
6. haud unquam, etc., ‘it never allowed itself to be mounted by any one except the king.’
8. faceret, subj. after cum.
Cum (= when), like other temporal conjunctions, takes as a rule the indic. mood; but the subj. is required when the time of the cum clause is regarded as depending on the time of the principal clause. This is usually the case in past time, hence the rule is that cum in past time requires the imperf. or plup. subj., unless (1) it is used in a frequentative sense, e.g. ‘as often as’ (but later writers, e.g. Livy, often use the subj. even in this sense), e.g. cum palam ejus anuli ad palmam converterat, a nullo videbatur (Cic. Off.), ‘as often as he turned the bezel of that ring to his palm, he was seen by no one,’ cf. xiv. 7, id cum dixerat, ‘as often as he had said that’; (2) it is simply equivalent to et tum, e.g. castra ibi posita, cum subito advenere Samnitium legiones (Livy), ‘the camp had been pitched there, when the Samnite legions suddenly arrived’; (3) the two clauses mark strictly contemporaneous events, tum being often added in the principal clause to mark this fact, e.g. vos tum paruistis cum paruit nemo (Cic. p. Lig. 7), ‘you were obedient at a time when no one (else) was obedient.’
9. non satis sibi providens, ‘without sufficient forethought.’
inmisit used absolutely, i.e. without an object; this, if expressed, would be ‘equum,’ ‘spurred it forward against.’
11. moribundus. The termination bundus, or cundus, denotes fulness, e.g. vagabundus, ‘wandering’; iracundus, ‘wrathful.’ Cf. L. Primer, p. 58, § 70 E.
12. e mediis hostibus, ‘from the midst of the enemy.’ In many phrases the adj. is used in Latin where in English we use a subst. with another subst. depending on it, and vice versa: e.g. summus mons, ‘the top of the mountain’; but animi dolor, ‘mental pain’; cf. v. 3, sol oriens.
14. domini iam superstitis securus, ‘relieved from anxiety 40 for its master, now safe.’ For the genitive domini after securus, cf. sēcūră fŭtūri, Ovid; sēcūrus pĕlăgi atque mei, Verg.
1. Alcibiades. Cf. iv. 4. note.
Pericles was a great Athenian statesman. He was born about 490 B.C. (the year of the battle of Marathon), and first took part in public affairs in 469, when Athens was beginning to develop rapidly after the Persian wars. From this time till his death in 429 he was the recognised leader of the democratic party. Under his guidance Athens became the most powerful state and the most beautiful city in Greece.
ăvuncŭlus (deminutive of ăvus, a grandfather) is an uncle on the mother’s side—a mother’s brother; pătruus (pā̆ter), an uncle on the father’s side—a father’s brother.
3. puerum docendum curavit, ‘had the boy educated.’ This use of the gerundive in a final sense, as ‘an oblique predicate’ with the direct object of certain transitive verbs, e.g. curo, do, suscipio, etc., is common in Latin writers, especially Caesar. Cf. pontem faciendum curavit, ‘he had a bridge made’; agros eis habitandos dedit, ‘he gave them lands to dwell in’; me dandum ad bestias curavit (xxx.), ‘he had me given to the wild beasts.’ Cf. Note xiii. 1. iv., on the Gerundive.
4. canere tibiis, ‘to play on the pipes.’ Both Greeks and Romans usually played on a double pipe, composed of two instruments not unlike flageolets, joined at the mouth-piece, and spreading out in the form of a V; hence the plural tibiae. Tibia means originally the shin bone, and then a musical instrument, pipes or flutes being at first made of bone.
1. C. Fabricius Luscīnus was one of the most popular heroes in Roman history. He was regarded as the type of the old-fashioned honest warrior, who was proof against the luxury and corruption of the rising generation. In his first consulship, 282 B.C., he defeated the Lucanians, Bruttians, and Samnites; in 280-278 B.C. he served with distinction against Pyrrus (cf. xxvii.).
The Samnites were a powerful people living to the east of 41 Rome. The Romans first came into contact with them in 343 B.C.; for 50 years there was war between the two nations; at last the Samnites were conquered, but they still maintained their love of freedom, and once more proved formidable opponents to Rome in the Social War, 90 B.C.
2. memoratis ... rebus, abl. absolute, ‘after mentioning the many great services which he had rendered (rebus quae bene fecisset) to the Samnites after the restoration of peace....’
3. post redditam pacem. Pax reddita, ‘the restoration of peace.’ Cf. sol oriens, ‘the rising of the sun,’ v. 3. note.
4. dono, as a gift, the predicative dative, or dative of purpose used as a complement. Cf. Hor. exitio est avidum mare nautis, ‘the greedy sea is [as] a destruction to sailors.’
11. quâ, abl. after usus, ‘for which I have no use.’
1. Hannibal, the famous general of the Carthaginians in the second Punic war, was born in 247 B.C. In 218 he began his march from Spain into Italy, crossed the Alps, and defeated the Romans in N. Italy on the Ticinus and the Trebia; then followed the great victories at Lake Trasimenus, 217, and Cannae, 216. In 203 Hannibal was compelled to return to Africa to oppose Scipio, who had defeated the Carthaginian troops and their ally Syphax. A decisive battle was fought at Zama, October 19th, 202, in which Scipio gained a great victory over Hannibal. In the following year peace was made. Hannibal now set to work to prepare Carthage for a fresh struggle, but his political enemies denounced his designs to the Romans, and he was compelled in 193 B.C. to take refuge at the court of Antiochus the Great, King of Syria, who was on the eve of war with Rome. On the defeat of Antiochus the surrender of Hannibal was made one of the conditions of peace; but he fled to Prusias, King of Bithynia, 188 B.C. The Romans still pursued him, and sent messengers to Prusias demanding his surrender. Fearing that Prusias would be unable to resist this demand, and not knowing whither to flee to escape the vengeance of his enemies, he took poison, 183 B.C.
2. ingentis. The acc. pl. of -i nouns of the 3rd decl. varies in the mss. between -īs, -eis, and ēs. All three forms seem to have been used till the Augustan age, after which period the 42 form in -es prevailed. A nom. pl. also in -is and -eis is found sometimes in the mss. of Plautus and Lucretius and in old inscriptions.
populo Romano, dat. of the ‘Remoter Object’ after facturus, the ‘nearer object’ being bellum.
4. currus cum falcibus. The wheels of these chariots were armed with projecting scythes or hooks, which kept the enemy at a distance, or cut them down, as the charioteers drove at full speed through their ranks. These war chariots were in use among the Assyrians, Persians, Medes, and Syrians in Asia, and in Europe among the Gauls and Britons. Some have supposed that these are the ‘chariots of iron’ referred to in the books of Joshua and Judges; but Xenophon (Cyrop., vi. i. 30) says that ‘scythe chariots’ were not introduced into Asia Minor till the time of Cyrus.
5. elephantos cum turribus, small turrets placed on the backs of the elephants, and carrying a few soldiers.
6. frenis. The bits were sometimes made of silver and gold, and the bridles decorated with jewels, etc.
ephippiis. The saddles in use among Eastern nations, the Greeks and the Romans, consisted sometimes of a mere skin or cloth, sometimes of a wooden frame, upon which padded cloth, etc., was stretched; from either side cloths hung down, often dyed with bright colours, and decorated with fringes, etc.
monilibus, necklets used as ornaments for horses, as well as for men and women.
phaleris, bosses of metal attached as ornaments to the harness of horses and the armour of men. They were sometimes hung as pendants to the horse’s saddle, and jangled loudly as it charged forward against the enemy. For these military ornaments cf. the well-known passage in Verg., Aen. vii. 276—
Omnibus extemplo Teucris jubet ordine duci
Instratos ostro alipedes pictisque tapetis;
Aurea pectoribus demissa monilia pendent;
Tecti auro, fulvum mandunt sub dentibus aurum.
7. putasne. Cf. ii. 5. note.
8. Poenus (Poenĭcus or Pūnĭcus), properly Phoenician, but applied by Roman writers especially to the inhabitants of Carthage, which was founded about 850 B.C. by Phoenician colonists, who came probably from Tyre.43
1. Milo was the most famous wrestler in Greece; he was six times victor in wrestling at the Olympic games and seven times at the Pythian games. Many stories are told about his great strength: he is said to have carried a heifer four years old on his shoulders through the stadium (or race course, a distance of about 40 yards), to have then killed it with a blow of his fist, and eaten the whole of it the same day. He was a pupil of the great philosopher Pythagoras, at Crotona. One day the pillar on which the roof of the school rested suddenly gave way, but Milo supported the whole weight of the building, and gave the philosopher and his disciples time to escape.
Crotona was a Greek city on the S.E. coast of Italy, founded 740 B.C. by the Achaeans. It became the most important city in S. Italy, owing to its trade with the E. Mediterranean. It attained its greatest power in 510 by the defeat of its neighbour and rival Sybaris: on this occasion Milo commanded the army of Crotona.
Crotoniensis. Note the use of the adj. where we employ a subst. and prep., ‘Milo of Crotona’; so pugna Cannensis (xl. 1.), ‘the Battle of Cannae,’ etc.
3. artem athleticam desisset, ‘had given up athletics.’ The acc. after desino is rare, and chiefly poetical; but Cicero (Fam. vii. 1. 4) uses artem desinere.
5. rimis in parte mediâ hiantem, lit. ‘gaping open with cracks in the middle.’
6. an ullae ... adessent. Adessent is the subj. after the dependent interrogative word an; the construction is called the Indirect or Dependent Question, Interrogatio Obliqua. Thus ‘who are you?’ is ‘quis es?’ but ‘I ask you who you are’ is ‘interrogo quis sis.’
ullae. Quisquam (pronoun) and ullus (adjective) are used for ‘any’ in comparative and negative sentences, in questions expecting the answer No, and in hypothetical sentences.
11. rediit in naturam, ‘returned to its natural (i.e. former) position.’
12. feris, dat. after praebuit, ‘gave the man to the beasts to tear to pieces.’ For this use of the gerundive cf. xiii. 1. note.44
1. Romae, ‘at Rome,’ the locative case. This case, which had almost died out in classical Latin, originally ended in -i for the singular and -s for the plural. In some forms it still survived, viz., (1) in such words as militiae (earlier militiai), belli, ‘in the field,’ ‘at the war’; domi, at home; humi, ‘on the ground’; vesperi (or -e), ‘in the evening’; ruri, ‘in the country’; luci, ‘in the light’; and the adverbs ubi, ‘in which place’; ibi, ‘in that place,’ etc.; (2) in the names of towns—Romae (earlier Romai), ‘at Rome’; Tarenti, ‘at Tarentum’; Carthagini (or Carthagine), ‘at Carthage,’ etc.; (3) in such phrases as animi angor, ‘I am vexed in mind’; maturus aevi, ‘advanced in age,’ etc.
Curiam. The word Curia is connected with Cŭres, the chief town of the Sabines, and Quĭrītes (or Cŭrītes), the inhabitants of Cŭres. It originally denoted one of the 30 divisions into which the Romans and Sabines were divided when they united in one community. The word was then applied to the building used for the religious service of a Curia, and afterwards especially to the building in which the Senate met.
2. praetextatis, i.e. wearing the toga praetexta, a white toga with a broad purple border, worn under the Republic by the higher magistrates, by persons engaged in paying vows, and by free-born children. It is said to have been adopted from the Etruscans, and made the royal robe by Tullus Hostilius; and to have been worn with the bulla by boys after the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, whose son at the age of fourteen slew an enemy with his own hand in the Sabine war, and was allowed as a reward to wear the royal robe.
maior, more important than usual.
4. placuitque ut eam rem ne quis.... ‘It was resolved that no one should mention the matter until a decision had been arrived at’ (lit. until it had been decreed).
ut ... ne quis, or ne quis, ‘that no one,’ is always used in a final sentence instead of ut nemo; so ne quid, ne ullus, and ne unquam, instead of ut nihil, ut nullus, ut nunquam. The indefinite pronoun quis is, as a rule, used for ‘any’ or ‘some’ in relative sentences, and after si, nisi, num, ne, and cum; but aliquis is sometimes found after si, more rarely after ne.
5. decreta esset. The subj. is required, because this is a 45 dependent sentence forming part of the Oratio Obliqua after placuit.
7. egissent, subj. after the dependent interrogative quidnam. Cf. x. 6. note. For the same reason videretur, line 11, is in subj.
9. lepidi mendacii consilium capit, ‘bethought himself of an amusing falsehood.’
10. utrum ... unusne ... an.... The -ne is ‘pleonastic,’ i.e. more than is required, for the sentence would be complete without it—utrum videretur utilius ut unus ... an (videretur utilius) ut una.... This idiom is chiefly ante-classical (found often in Plautus), but Cicero uses it, ‘est etiam illa distinctio, utrum illudne non videatur aegre ferendum ... an ...’ (Cic. Tusc. iv. 27, 59). Translate ‘He said the Senate had discussed whether it seemed more useful and advantageous to the State that one man should have two wives, or that one woman should be married to two men.’
3. matrum familias, gen. plur. of mater familias. When familia is compounded with pater, mater, filius, and filia, the old gen. sing. familias is usually found, but familiae also is frequently used by Cicero and other writers, by Livy always. In Sallust and later writers even patres familiarum is found.
4. una potius ... duae. The order is ut una (uxor) nupta fieret duobus viris potius quam ut duae (uxores nuptae fierent) uni (viro).
6. esset, vellet, subj. after the dept. interrogatives quae and quid; so institisset and dixisset. Cf. x. 6. note.
quid sibi postulatio istaec vellet, ‘what that demand of theirs meant.’ Quid sibi res vult, ‘what does the thing mean?’ lit. ‘what does it wish for itself?’ ‘what is its object or drift?’ so quid tibi vis, ‘what do you mean, or want?’ and, more rarely, quid mihi volo, ‘what do I mean, or want?’
1. Sertorius was a Roman general, who first distinguished himself in Gaul. On the outbreak of civil war in 88 B.C. between Marius and Sulla he joined the former. At first the Sullan party were victorious, but when their leader went to the East 46 to fight against Mitridates they were defeated, and from 87-82 the Marian party were supreme. In 83 (or, according to another writer, 82) Sertorius was sent to Spain as governor in the Marian interest. Finding himself unable to hold his ground against the Sullan generals, he crossed to Africa, and gained various successes there. The Lusitani, who inhabited the western part of the Spanish peninsula, then invited him to become their leader against the Romans. He returned with a small force of 2,600 men, one third of whom were Libyans, and then by his extraordinary influence over the natives, and his great powers of organisation, succeeded in forming an army which for years set at defiance every effort made by the generals of the Sullan party, which was now in the ascendant. In 76 Pompeius was sent to Spain with a large army to reinforce the Sullan generals, but for five years more Sertorius held his ground. At last, in 72 B.C., he was assassinated by Perperna and other of his own Roman officers, who were jealous of his power.
et utendi et regendi exercitus, the gerundial attraction. When an object is expressed after a gerund, the construction called the gerundial, or gerundival attraction is preferred. In this construction the object is attracted (if it differs) into the case of the gerund, and the gerund, taking adjectival inflections (and then called the gerundive), is made to agree adjectivally with the object in number and gender.
a. The Acc., praemisit milites ad Gallos insequendos, ‘he sent the soldiers forward to pursue the Gauls.’
b. The Gen., causâ urbis delendae, ‘for the sake of destroying the city.’
c. The Dat., bello gerendo me praefecistis, ‘you placed me in command of the management of the war.’
d. The Abl., in vestigiis persequendis operam consumpsi, ‘I spent labour in following their tracks.’
The Gerundival Attraction is of course only used with transitive verbs which govern a direct object in the acc. case. The words fungor, fruor, utor, vescor, potior are exceptions; they are used both in this construction and in the constructions explained in ii. and iii. below, because they were originally transitive, and governed an acc.
The gerunds and gerundives are the substantival and adjectival forms respectively of a participle in -ndus. Under the 47 gerund are included the substantival forms in -ndum, -ndi, -ndo; under the gerundive the full adjectival declension in -ndus, a, um, etc.
The uses of the gerund and gerundive may be divided under four headings.
i. By its oblique cases the gerund (and the gerundive in the construction mentioned above—the ‘gerundival attraction’) completes the active infinite verb noun, which is only used in the nom. and acc., haec ad iudicandum sunt facillima, ‘these matters are very easy to decide’; amor agendi, canendi, etc., ‘love of acting, singing,’ etc.; causâ agendi, ‘for the sake of acting’; aqua utilis bibendo, ‘water useful for drinking’; mens alitur discendo, ‘the mind is nourished by learning.’
ii. The nom. (and in oratio obliqua the acc.) of the gerund is used intransitively with parts of the verb sum (est, erat, fuit, esse, ), as an impersonal verb to denote necessity, duty, or suitability, nunc est bibendum, ‘now it is right to drink’, eundum est, ‘there is a necessity to go’; parendum est legibus, ‘it is necessary to be obedient to the laws.’ The person on whom the duty falls is expressed by the dat. case, the ‘Dative of the Agent,’ except after verbs which govern a dative; after these, to avoid ambiguity, the agent is expressed by a or ab with the abl., e.g. eundum est mihi, ‘I must go,’ but parendum est ei a te, ‘you must obey him’.
iii. The gerundive is used (1) personally as a verb, usually with a passive signification, e.g. aqua bibenda est, ‘water ought to be drunk’; (2) as a mere epithet, e.g. ridenda poemata, ‘poems to be laughed at.’
iv. The acc. of the gerundive is used in a final sense as an oblique predicate, or complement, agreeing with the direct object of certain transitive verbs—curo, do, suscipio, habeo, etc., e.g. Caesar pontem faciendum curavit, ‘Caesar had a bridge made’; agros eis habitandos dedit, ‘he gave them the lands to dwell in’ Cf. vii3. note.
8. usui, predicative dative or dat. of purpose. Cf. dono, viii. 4. note.
memoria, etc. The order is memoria prodita est neminem ex his nationibus, quae cum S. faciebant (‘who served with Sertorius’), cum multis proeliis superatus esset (‘although he had been defeated in many battles’), unquam ab eo descivisse.48
9. neminem. The gen. of this word, neminis, is only found in writers before Cicero, the abl. nemine in late writers (e.g. Tacitus and Suetonius), and once in Plautus; the plural is not used. Hence we have
|Abl.,||nullo or nullâ,||nullis.|
1. alba. Albus is a dull white as opposed to ater, dull black; candidus, shining white, opposed to niger, shining black.
eximiae pulchritudinis et celeritatis, genitives of quality.
2. dono, predicative dat., or dat. of purpose. Cf. dono, viii. 4. note.
5. factu, the supine in -u, used as an abl. of respect. Cf. foedum dictu est, ‘it is horrible to state’ (lit. ‘in the saying’), and xxiv. 2, utilia monitu suasuque.
quid, the indef. pron.; so cui, line 13. For its use after si cf. xi. 4. note.
7. dixerat, indic. after cum in a frequentative sense, ‘whenever he had said that.’ Cf. vi. 8. note.
10. in fugam se proripuit, ‘took to hasty flight.’
18. consuerat, indic., because it is not part of what Sertorius said, but a statement made by the author.
quod opus esset facto, ‘what had to be done.’ Facto is the abl. of the perf. part. pass.; for this use cf. maturato, properato opus est, ‘there is need of haste’; and the similar construction with the abl. of the supine, dictu opus est (Terence), ‘it is necessary to speak’; quod scitu opus est (Cicero), ‘what has to be known.’
Tarquinius Superbus, according to tradition, was the seventh and last of the Roman kings (535-510 B.C.), the others being 49 Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius.
1. Libris Sibyllinis. Little is known about the famous Sibylline books. They were probably derived from Cumae in Campania, the seat of a celebrated oracle. At Rome they were kept in a stone chest (sacrarium) beneath the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, under the charge of certain officers (quindecimviri), and consulted only by the special command of the Senate. In 82 B.C. this temple was burnt and the books destroyed. A fresh collection of oracles was made by ambassadors sent to the chief cities of Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor. When the temple was rebuilt these were deposited in the same place, but many spurious prophetic books, purporting to be Sibylline oracles, seem to have got into circulation at Rome, and several revisions of the books were ordered from time to time. Christian writers frequently appeal to the Sibylline oracles as containing prophecies of the Messiah.
2. hospita, feminine form of hospes. Cf. antistes and sacerdos, priest, antistita and sacerdota (in inscriptions), priestess, sospes and sospita, saviour, etc.
4. eos velle vendere, ‘(she said) that she wished to sell them.’
6. nimium atque inmensum, 300 pieces of gold, according to one form of the legend.
quasi ... desiperet. Quasi, ‘as if,’ introducing a statement which is not a fact, naturally governs the subj., ‘as if she were mad’ (but she was not). In sentences of comparison introduced by such conjunctions as tanquam, ceu, quasi, velut, etc., the subj. is usually found, because the statement is usually not true; but when the statement is a fact the indic. is employed, e.g. Fuit olim, quasi nunc ego sum, senex (Plautus). Frequently quasi, etc., are used, not as conjunctions introducing the sentence, but adverbially with a single word; in such cases they do not affect the mood, e.g. servis respublica et quasi civitas domus est (Pl. Ep. viii. 16), ‘to slaves their home is a state, and, as it were, a city.’ Cf. xviii. 5, quasi consultans cum Jove.
7. foculum. Fŏcŭlus, deminutiveof fŏcus (a hearth). Cf. rĭvŭlus, a rivulet, and rivus, a river.
9. vellet, subj. after the dependent interrogative ecquid. Cf. x. 6. note.50
10. sed enim, ‘but indeed.’ Cf. the use of ἀλλὰ γὰρ in Greek.
14. ore ... fit, ‘now becomes serious and more attentive’ (lit. ‘of a serious countenance and more attentive mind’). Ore and animo are ablatives of quality.
19. nusquam loci, ‘nowhere in the world.’ The genitives loci, locorum, gentium and terrarum are frequently used with adverbs of place—ubi, quo, unde, usquam, nusquam, etc., e.g. ubi terrarum sumus (Cic.), ‘where on earth are we?’
1. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Maior was born in 234 B.C. He is first mentioned in 218 B.C. at the battle of the Ticinus (cf. ix. 1. note), in which he is said to have saved the life of his father Scipio. He fought at Cannae, 216, and was chosen with App. Claudius to command the remains of the Roman army after that great disaster. In 212 he was unanimously elected aedile. When the tribunes objected to the election, because he was under the legal age, he replied, ‘If all the Quirites wish to make me aedile, I am old enough In 210, at the age of twenty-four, he was appointed to command the army in Spain, having come forward as a candidate for the post which all the old generals feared to accept. By 207 he had conquered almost the whole of that country from the Carthaginians. In 205 he was elected consul. He was anxious to cross over to Africa and end the war by a blow at Carthage itself, but the Senate, partly from jealousy, partly from timidity, opposed his plans and would only grant him the province of Sicily, with power to cross over to Africa if he thought it in the interests of the State; but this permission they endeavoured to render useless by refusing him an army. Volunteers however flocked from every part of Italy to his standard, and in 204 he was able to land in Africa with a large force. In 203 he defeated Hasdrubal and his ally Syphax, and in 202 brought the second Punic war to an end by a great victory at Zama over Hannibal, who had been recalled from Italy. In 201 peace was made, and Scipio, returning to Rome, received the agnomen Africanus, and was overwhelmed with every mark of honour. In 190 he served as legate under his brother, 51 Lucius Scipio Asiaticus, in the war against Antiochus (cf. ix. and xvii.) On their return the accusations mentioned in xvi. and xvii. were made against the brothers. In 185 Scipio retired into private life, and died soon afterwards, probably in 183.
1. tribunus plebis. The tribuni plebis were appointed in 494, after the secession to Mons Sacer, to protect the plebeians against the patrician magistrates. At first they were two in number, afterwards they were increased to ten.
3. ut condicionibus, etc., ‘that peace might be made with him (i.e. Antiochus) on favourable conditions in the name of the Roman people.’
7. diem esse hodiernum, ‘that this is the day on which ...’ (lit. ‘that it is to-day on which ...’).
9. proelio. The battle of Zama, Oct. 19th, 202 B.C.
11. simus, ‘let us not be ungrateful therefore to the gods....’
12. censeo, used parenthetically, ‘I propose.’ Cf. quaeso, ii. 4.
13. gratulatum, the supine in -um, used to express purpose after the verb of , eamus.
17. aedes, in sing., a ‘temple’ (a single room), in the plur., a ‘house’ (a collection of rooms). As distinguished from templum, aedes is a simple building without division into rooms; templum is a large edifice consisting of many rooms, consecrated by the augurs, and belonging often to several deities.
18. sollemni. Sollemnis, from sollus (cf. ὅλος, salvus), whole; prop. taking place every year, ‘established,’ especially of festivals; then, with the religious force predominating, ‘religious,’ ‘festive,’ ‘solemn.’
2. M. Porcius Cato, known as the Censor (234-149), first distinguished himself in the second Punic war; in 204-3 he served as Quaestor to Scipio Africanus in Sicily and Africa. From this time forward he became the declared enemy of the Scipios and their friends, who were introducing, he said, into Rome 52 the luxury and refinement of degenerate Greece and ruining the simple and honest Roman character. He served with distinction in Spain, 195-4, and against Antiochus, 191. In 184 he was censor, and applied himself strenuously, but in vain, to stem the tide of Greek luxury. He was one of the ambassadors sent to Africa to arbitrate between Masinissa and the Carthaginians, and was so struck by the flourishing condition of Carthage, that on his return he insisted that, whilst that city existed, Rome would never be safe. Whenever he was called upon for his vote in the Senate, whatever the subject before the house was, he always concluded his remarks by ‘And I further am of opinion that Carthage must be destroyed (delendam esse Carthaginem).’ The third Punic war, which broke out soon after his death, was largely due to his influence.
5. L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus served under his brother Africanus in Spain, and in 190 defeated Antiochus at Mount Sipylus. Cf. xvi. 1.
3. comparati in eum. Comparare hominem in aliquem is the regular phrase for procuring a man to attack another. ‘Having been set upon him....’
4. pecuniae ... rationem redderet, ‘to give an account of the money paid by Antiochus, and the spoil....’
9. allatum, i.e. dixit librum allatum esse, ‘he said that it had been brought.’
10. aerarium, the public treasury at Rome, in which, besides the State treasure, the standards of the legions and copies of all decrees of the Senate were kept. After the expulsion of the kings the Temple of Saturn, at the head of the Forum, was used for this purpose.
10. sed enim, ‘but indeed.’ Cf. xv. 10.
11. nec me ipse afficiam contumeliâ, ‘nor will I insult myself with my own lips (ipse).’
12. coram, ‘before their eyes.’
13. quod cui. The order is quod ab eo ratio praedae posceretur, cui salus ... deberet, ‘indignant that an account of the booty was demanded from a man, to whom the safety of the State and constitution ought to be ascribed.’
Acceptum aliquid referre alicui, lit. ‘to put down a thing as received to a man’s account,’ ‘to credit him with it’; a metaphor from banking.53
2. Scipio Africanus “was unquestionably one of the greatest men of Rome, and he acquired at an early age the confidence and admiration of his countrymen. His enthusiastic mind led him to believe that he was a special favourite of the gods; and he never engaged in any public or private business without first going to the Capitol, where he sat some time alone, enjoying communication from the gods. For all he proposed or executed he alleged the divine approval; and the Roman people gave credit to his assertions, and regarded him as a being almost superior to the common race of men. There can be no doubt that Scipio believed himself in the divine revelations, which he asserted to have been vouchsafed to him, and the extraordinary success which attended all his enterprises must have deepened this belief.”—Smith’s Classical Dictionary.
3. noctis extremo, ‘at the end of night.’ The neuter extremum is used as a substantive, meaning ‘the end.’ Cf. extremo anni, Livy, xxxv. 11. 1; sub extremum noctis, Sil. 4. 88.
4. ventitare. Ventito is the frequentative form of venio. Frequentative or iterative verbs denote repeated action: they are of the first conjugation, and formed by adding -to, -so, -ito, or -itor to the supine stem, or, more rarely, to the clipt stem, as can-to, ‘I sing often’; cur-so, ‘I run often’; rog-ito, ‘I ask often’; min-itor, ‘I threaten often’; haes-ito, ‘I stick fast Sometimes one frequentative verb is formed from another, as cant-ito from canto.
ac iubere ... Iovis, ‘and to order the temple of Jupiter to be opened.’
5. quasi consultans. Cf. xv. 6. note.
7. id temporis. For this ‘genitive of the thing measured,’ depending on a neuter pronoun, expressing quantity, hence often called the ‘partitive genitive,’ cf. aliquid veri, falsi; id aetatis; nihil reliqui facere, ‘to leave nothing undone’ (Caes.); quantum mercedis (xxxii. 17.); si quid remedii (xxxiv. 8.), and such phrases as navium quod ubique fuerat in unum locum coegerant (Caes.). Id in this phrase is in the accusative. Similar adverbial accusatives are—hoc noctis, magnam partem, suam vicem, multum, etc. The use of the 54 acc. has arisen from an extended use of the cognate acc. after intransitive verbs (e.g. servire servitatem, dormire noctem, dolere aliquid, etc.).
quod in eum solum ... incurrerent, the order is aeditumi ... admirati, quod canes, semper in alios saevientes, neque latrarent neque incurrerent in eum solum id temporis in Capitolium ingredientem, ‘because he was the only man who entered the temple at that time, at whom the dogs, that always attacked others, did not bark and fly.’
14. re cibaria copiosum, ‘well supplied with provisions.’
15. eius potiundi. Gerundival attraction, cf. xiii. 1. note.
16. ius dicebat, ‘he was administering justice,’ the technical term.
18. in iure stare, or esse, ‘to stand,’ ‘present oneself before a magistrate’; in ius ire, ‘to go before a magistrate.’
19. vadimonium promittere, to promise or give security (bail) for a man’s appearance, ‘for what day and what place’ (i.e. for his appearance on what day and place) ‘he would order security to be given.’
iuberet, subj. after the dependent interrog. quem. Cf. x. 6. note.
21. sese, object. of sistere, ‘ordered him to present himself on the third day in yonder place.’
22. atque ita factum, ‘and so it happened.’
vadari. Vador aliquem = ‘I bind a man over by bail’: the object. of vadari here is militem; “on the third day, on which he had ordered (them) to bind (the man) over to appear.”
1. capite. Caput denotes the legal status of a citizen: he lost it “as much if he were struck off the roll of citizens as if his head were struck off his shoulders” (Wilkins, R. Lit. Primer). “I and two others were trying a friend on a capital charge.”
4. ad casum ... medendum, ‘to remedy so perilous a mischance.’
6. ad condemnandum, sc. hominem, ‘I gave my vote in silence for condemning the man.’55
1. Favorinus was a native of Arles, in Gaul; he was a famous philosopher, and resided at different periods of his life in Rome, Greece, and Asia Minor (about 110-130 A.D.).
3. Curius. M’ Curius Dentatus, consul in 290, 275, and 274 B.C., distinguished himself in the Samnite wars. He was a favourite hero of the Romans, and celebrated as a type of the old-fashioned virtue and frugality. The Samnites, it is said, once sent an embassy to him with costly gifts. The messengers found the great general sitting by his hearth, and roasting turnips. They proffered their gifts, but he rejected them, saying that he would rather rule over those who possessed gold than possess it himself.
4. Fabricius. Cf. viii. 1. note.
Coruncanius, consul 260 B.C., fought with success against the Etruscans and against Pyrrus (cf. xxvii. 1. note); he was also a distinguished lawyer, and the first plebeian who became Pontifex Maximus.
5. his, abl. after the comparative antiquiores.
antiquus, ‘former,’ ‘ancient,’ is used of what has existed in past time as opposed to novus, what has not previously existed, new. Vetus denotes what has existed for a long time, old, aged, opposed to rĕcens, what has not existed for long, recent.
Horatii. The three brothers of the Horatian gens, who, according to the legend, in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, fought against the Curiatii, three brothers from Alba, to determine whether Rome or Alba was to exercise the supremacy.
6. Auruncorum, etc., genitives depending of verbis, ‘used the language of the Aurunci,’ etc. The Aurunci, Sicani, and Pelasgi were old Italian races.
9. quasi loquare. Cf. xv. 6. note, ‘quasi desiperet.’
Euandri. The legend says that Euander, son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph, about 60 years before the Trojan war, led a Pelasgian colony from Arcadia in Greece to Italy, and built the town of Pallantium at the foot of the Palatine hill. Vergil represents Euander as still alive when Aeneas came to Italy. (Aeneid, viii. 51.)
10. abhinc multis annis, ‘many years ago.’ To express 56 ‘how long ago,’ abhinc and ante are used with either abl. or acc. case. Cf. abhinc triennium huc commigravit, ‘she came hither three years ago’ (Ter. An. i. 70).
quae dicas, ‘anything that you say.’ The subj. (a consecutive subjunctive) after the relative marks the statement as indefinite; quae dicis would mean the particular words which you are actually using.
14. sit, subjunctive, because a dependent sentence in the oratio obliqua after ais.
16. C. Julius Caesar, the Dictator, 100-44 B.C. This quotation is from his lost work De Analogia, written, it is said, when he was crossing the Alps.
18. ut tamquam, ‘that you should avoid a rare word, as (you would avoid) a rock.’
1. T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus was another of the favourite heroes of Roman history. His exploit here mentioned happened in 361. In 353 and again in 349 he was Dictator; in 347, 344, and 340, Consul. In this last year Torquatus and P. Decius Mus gained a great victory over the Latins near Mt. Vesuvius, and established the Roman supremacy in Latium. It was shortly before this battle that the disobedient act of his son occurred, mentioned at the end of xxii.
3. torquis, a ‘twisted neck chain,’ as opposed to monile (cf. ix. 6), which was made of beads, stones, etc., strung together.
ex hoste detractam induit, ‘he had taken from an enemy, and put on himself.’ A participle and verb are frequently used in Latin where in English two verbs are employed, e.g. scripsit se profectum celeriter adfore, ‘he wrote (to say) that he had set out and would soon arrive.’
4. fuerit, subj. after the dependent interrogative quis. Cf. x. 6. note.
6. cum ... processit, etc. The indicative is used in past time after cum, when the conjunction is purely temporal, and equivalent to et tum. Cf. vi. 8 note.
7. nudus, ‘unarmed.’ Nudus is used in many senses besides its usual one of ‘unclothed,’ ‘naked’: e.g. ‘without a 57 toga,’ i.e. ‘in a tunic only,’ nudus ara, sere nudus (Verg. G. i. 299); ‘uncovered by turf,’ silex nuda (Verg. E. i. 15); ‘leafless,’ nudum nemus; ‘without a garrison,’ urbs nuda praesidio (Cic. Att. vii. 13-1); ‘destitute,’ nuda senectus (Juv.); ‘unadorned,’ nuda oratio (Cic.), etc.
12. si quis ... vellet, uti prodiret, ‘that if any one was willing to fight him, he should step forward.’ The tenses are historic, because conclamant is the historical present, and therefore equivalent to a past tense. Primary tenses are sometimes used after a historic present, but historic tenses are more common.
17. scuto pedestri. The scutum was an oblong or oval shield (4 ft. by 2½ ft., Polybius), made of wood or wickerwork. It was borrowed from the Sabines and made the shield of the whole Roman army, superseding the large circular clipeus, when the Roman soldiers first began to receive pay, and to form a permanent army instead of an irregular militia (Livy, viii. 8. etc.).
cinctus in this connection is properly ‘surrounded’ with a girdle to support a shield or sword, hence ‘armed with.’
1. metu magno, ‘amid great anxiety.’ An ablative of manner, closely akin to the “ablative absolute.”
2. sua disciplina, ‘according to his custom,’ i.e. way of fighting. Cf. eadem nos disciplina utimur, ‘our habits are the same’ (Plaut. As. i. 3. 49), and disciplina militiae, bellica militaris, etc., ‘the art of war.’
3. cunctabundus. Cf. moribundus, vi. 11. note. The Gaul stood on the alert ready to parry a blow, and waiting his opportunity. Manlius disconcerted him by suddenly dashing him backwards.
7. eo pacto ei ... , etc., ‘in that way he got to close quarters with him (ei successit) under his Gallic sword, and wounded his chest with his Spanish sword (sc. gladio).’ The “Spanish sword” was a short weapon, fitted for thrusting and stabbing at close quarters; the “Gallic sword” a much longer and heavier weapon.
9. pectus hausit. Haurire of a weapon in the sense of ‘wounding,’ ‘tearing open,’ is found in Lucretius, Vergil, and 58 often in Ovid: probably the sword, etc., is regarded as devouring the flesh or drinking the blood (Conington). Cf. Verg. Aen. x. 313—
Huic gladio perque aerea suta,
Per tunicam squalentem auro, latus haurit apertum.
‘With his sword, through brazen coat of mail and tunic stiff with gold, he wounded his unguarded side.’
17. speculatum. The supine is -um, expressing purpose after a verb of motion.
pugna interdicta, ‘though he had been forbidden to fight.’ Abl. absolute.
1. Agrum Pomptinum. The Ager Pomptinus was a low plain on the coast of Latium, between Circeii and Terracina; it was originally a fertile cornland, but after the third century B.C., it became more and more marshy, till at last the Pomptine marshes were the most malarious district in Italy. They were partially drained from time to time, but no permanent relief was afforded till the time of Pius VI. (1778). The district is still the most unhealthy in Italy.
3. vasta proceritate, abl. of description.
armis auro fulgentibus, abl. abs., ‘a man of enormous stature, with armour gleaming with gold.’
5. per contemptum et superbiam, ‘scornfully and haughtily.’ Cf. per vim, ‘forcibly,’ etc.
6. venire iubet, etc., ‘bids anyone out of the whole Roman army who dares to fight, to come forward and meet him,’ lit. ‘bids (him) come, if anyone dares.’ Auderet is in historical time, because iubet is the historic present, standing for a past tense. Cf. xxi. 12. note.
8. tribunus militaris. The tribuni militum, or militares, were the chief officers of the legion; there were originally three, afterwards six, to each legion.
ceteris ... ambiguis. Abl. absol., ‘since the rest hesitated.’
11. progreditur ... obviam, ‘advances to meet him.’
13. vis quaedam divina fit, ‘a miracle happens’: lit., a divine power is manifested.59
16. laniabat ... revolabat, the imperfects denote repeated action.
21. statuam statuendam curavit, ‘had a statue set up’: for this use of curo cf. xiii. 1. 4. note.
Augustus. Cf. xxix. 2. note.
in foro suo, the ‘Forum Augusti.’ There were three great fora at Rome, the F. Augusti, the F. Magnum, Vetus, or Romanum, and the F. Julii.
23. monimentum, in apposition to simulacrum.
1. Aesopus lived about 570 B.C. Little is known about his life. He was a slave, but was freed by one of his masters, Iadmon of Samos. He is said to have visited Croesus, king of Lydia, and Pisistratus of Athens, and to have been sent by the former to Delphi to distribute a gift of money among the citizens. A dispute however arose, and he refused to give any of the money, so the angry men of Delphi threw him over a precipice. Later stories, without good authority, represent him as deformed.
e Phrygia. Cotioeum in Phrygia, Mesembria in Thrace, Samos, and Sardis each claimed to be the birthplace of Aesop.
2. utilia monitu suasuque. The abl. of the supine in -u is regularly used as an abl. of respect. Cf. nefas visu, turpe dictu, facile factu (xxvii. 7.), etc.
5. cum audiendi quadam inlecebra, lit. ‘with some charm of hearing.’
7. spem, etc., ‘that in matters (rerum) which a man can manage himself, hope and trust ought never to be placed in another, but in himself,’ i.e. that a man ought not to rely upon another for what he can do himself.
10. Q. Ennius. Cf. xxxviii. 9.
satiris. Satira or satura (satur = full), properly a mixture of all sorts of things, originally denoted a work which dealt with many subjects; then the title was applied to poems which treated ‘didactically’ the follies and vices of mankind.
versibus quadratis, versus quadrati (square) are those containing eight or seven feet. These lines of Ennius are called 60 Septenarii or Tetrameter Catalectic verses. The principal feet in them are the trochee ¯ ¯ ˘, and spondee ¯ ¯.
Hōc ĕr|īt tĭb(i) | ārgŭ|mēntūm | sēmpĕr | īn prōmp|tū sĭ|tum,
Nē quĭd | ēxpēc|tēs ă|mīcōs, | quod tŭt(e) | ăgĕrĕ | possĭ|es.
12. semper in promptu situm, ‘ever ready at hand.’
13. ne quid, etc., ‘not to wait for your friends at all (quid) in a matter which (quod) you yourself can do.’
possies, old form of possis, pres. subj. of possum.
2. id temporis. Cf. xviii. 7. note, ‘at such a time, as a rule, that the harvest is at hand when its young ones are just becoming fledged.’
3. ea cassita, that particular lark about which the story is told.
congesserat, used absolutely (i.e. without an object) in the sense of making a nest, as we used the word ‘to build.’ Cf. Verg. Ecl. iii. 69, locum aeriae quo congessere columbae.
5. dum iret. Dum, like other temporal conjunctions, takes the indic. (in Oratio R.) when strictly temporal, but the subj. is required when the notion of time is complicated with that of purpose, consequence, etc. In other words, dum, ‘whilst,’ always takes the indic., dum, ‘until,’ the indic. usually, the subj. sometimes, viz., when the idea of expecting or waiting for something comes in. Here purpose is expressed: ‘to enable her to meanwhile go ...,’ ‘till she should go.’ Cf. priusquam emeret, xxxiii. 4. note.
6. quaesitum, ‘to seek for food ...’; the supine in -um expressing purpose after a verb of motion. Cf. xvi. 13, xxii. 17.
7. si quid, etc., ‘if anything unusual happened.’ For the genitive quid rei, cf. id temporis, xviii. 7. note.
11. fac eas et roges, a less peremptory way of expressing a command than the simple imperative. Cf. scribas velim, cura ut scribas, scribe sis (for si vis), instead of scribe.
12. veniant, etc., subj. after roges, ‘ask them to come ...’
15. orare, the historical infinite, used instead of a finite verb. In this construction, which is frequent in an animated description of a scene, the pres. inf. only is used (besides the two perfects odisse and meminisse, which have a present 61 meaning). Dr. Kennedy (Pub. Sch. Lat. Gr., 332) treats it as analogous to the omission of parts of the verb sum (e.g. occisus for occisus est), as it leaves out the expression of time, number, and person. ‘It is used to express the occurrence of actions without marking the order of time.’ (Roby.)
17. misit qui amicos roget. Roget is in subj., because the relative expresses purpose: ‘has sent me to ask ....’ Misit is the perfect proper, ‘has sent,’ a primary tense, hence roget is in the pres. subj.
18. otioso animo esse, abl. of quality, lit. ‘bids them be of an easy mind,’ i.e. ‘bids them be easy in mind.’
4. isti, ironical, ‘those friends of yours are laggards.’
quin ... imus, ‘why do we not rather go ...?’ The conjunction quin (= quî, an old ablative, and -ne) is thus used in exhortations and remonstrances (a) usually with the pres. indic., e.g. quin conscendimus equos? (Livy), ‘why do we not mount?’ i.e. ‘nay, mount at once’: (b) sometimes with the imperative, quin aspice me, ‘nay, look at me quin dic uno verbo, ‘just answer in a single word.’
5. cognatos. Cognatus is a kinsman by blood, either on the father’s or the mother’s side; agnatus, a blood relation on the father’s side; gentilis, a member of the same gens, and bearing the same gentile name, e.g. Cornelii, Fabii; all these three classes were consanguinei, related by blood; adfinis, a relation by marriage, or sometimes merely a neighbour.
8. cognatos adfinesque nullos ferme ..., lit. ‘as a rule no kinsmen and neighbours were so good-natured,’ she said, ‘as to make no delay in undertaking work, and to obey orders at once.’
14. valeant, ‘good-bye to ...,’ i.e. let us have no more to do with....
18. id ubi ..., the order is, ubi mater audivit ex pullis dominum dixisse id....
19. tempus cedendi et abeundi, ‘it is time to go and be off.’
20. in ipso enim. The order is, vertitur enim iam in ipso, cuia res est, non in alio, unde petitur, lit. ‘for (the work) now depends upon the man himself, whose the property is, 62 not upon another, from whom (the work) is asked,’ i.e. who is asked to do the work.
1. Pyrrus (318-272 B.C.), king of Epirus, was one of the most famous generals of his age. In 280 he was invited to Italy by the Tarentines to aid them in their struggle with Rome. He defeated the Romans in two great battles, near Heraclea on the Siris in 280, and near Asculum in 279, but his own troops suffered so severely that he concluded an armistice, and in 278 crossed to Sicily to help the Greek colonies in that island against the Carthaginians. The incident mentioned in this selection afforded the pretext for the truce. In 276 Pyrrus returned to Italy, but he was decisively defeated by Curius Dentatus near Beneventum and compelled to leave Italy. He went back to Epirus, and engaged in many new warlike enterprises. In 272, when retreating from Argos, he was stunned by a tile thrown by a woman, and slain by the pursuing soldiers. Hannibal is reported to have said, that of all the great generals the world had seen, Alexander was the greatest, Pyrrus the second, himself the third; or, according to another version, Pyrrus the first, Scipio the second, and himself the third.
in terra Italia, ‘in the land of Italy’; cf. xxxi. 7, in terra Graecia, so urbs Roma, etc., the two substantives being in apposition.
4. Fabricius. Cf. viii. 1. note.
7. facile factu, ‘easy to do.’ Cf. xxiv. 2., utilia monitu et suasu, note.
12. salutem tutaretur, ‘should protect himself from...,’ ‘be on his guard against;’ lit. ‘protect his safety.’
13. laudes ... scripsisse, ‘it is said that Pyrrus wrote to the Roman people, praising and thanking them ...,’ lit. ‘wrote praises and thanks.’
populo Romano. Cf. ad senatum scripsit, line 9. The rule is that, if the verb expresses or implies motion, ad with the acc. is used to express the remoter object; if no motion is implied, the dative is used; so, misit hoc ad me, but dedit hoc mihi. Hence many verbs admit both constructions, as they fall on the line between expressing motion and not expressing it. Scribo is one of these, for the letter has to be 63 sent, so motion is implied, but the verb itself expresses no motion. This rule, however, is not always observed even in prose, and far less so in poetry.
1. In circo maximo. The early Roman legends say that when Tarquinius Priscus had taken the town of Apiolae from the Latins, he commemorated his success by holding races and games in the Murcian Valley, between the Palatine and Aventine hills. Round the valley temporary platforms and stands were erected, and the course with its surroundings was called ‘Circus,’ either because the spectators stood in a circle or because the races went round in a circle. Soon a permanent building was erected in this valley. This was enlarged and beautified from time to time, and known as the Circus Maximus, to distinguish it from the many similar buildings which were erected in various parts of Rome. In the time of Julius Caesar the Circus Maximus was about 600 yards in length, and 200 in width, and held 150,000 people: a century later it could hold twice as many. The building was used chiefly for chariot-racing; but sometimes the area was flooded, and naval battles were represented, and often beasts were let loose in it to fight with one another, or with men, either condemned criminals and captives, or bestiari, specially trained for the purpose. This latter exhibition was called venatio, or pugna venationis. Animals were brought in almost incredible numbers from all parts of the Roman world to be thus slaughtered. Julius Caesar once turned 500 lions into the arena together, and Augustus, in the Monimentum Ancyranum, boasts that he had thus killed 3,500 elephants during his reign.
2. multae ibi ferae, sc. erant.
7. quasi admirans. Cf. quasi desiperet, xv. 6. note.
15. videres, ‘you might have seen.’ Cf. Livy, maesti, crederes victos, redeunt in castra, ‘you would have thought they had been defeated.’ This use is confined to the second person singular (‘you’ indefinite = one); the subjunctive is explained by treating the expression as part of a conditional sentence, the condition understood being the reality of the subject. ‘If you had been there, you might have seen....’64
2. Caesar, probably Claudius, emperor 41-54 A.D.; he was the fourth emperor—Augustus being the first, Tiberius the second, and Caligula the third. Caesar was originally the name of a patrician family of the Julian gens. The name was taken by Augustus (Octavianus), as the adopted son of the Dictator, C. Julius Caesar: by Tiberius, as the adopted son of Augustus Caesar: and it continued to be used by Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, as members, by adoption, or female descent, of Caesar’s family. This family became extinct with Nero, but succeeding emperors employed the name as part of their official title.
3. uni with illi, ‘had spared him alone.’
pepercisset, subj. after the dependent interrogative cur.
5. proconsulari imperio. The Proconsulare Imperium is the power held by a man who acts pro consule, ‘in the place of a consul.’ As the number of Roman provinces increased, it became the custom under the Republic for men, who had held the office of consul, to accept the government of provinces for a year, and rule these with the “Imperium Proconsulare,” which was conferred by a special decree of the Senate and of the people. Under the Empire the provinces were divided into two groups: (1) the Senatorial Provinces (the more peaceful ones in which no large armies were maintained), which were governed with Imperium Proconsulare by men who had been consuls or praetors(2) the Imperial Provinces, which were governed with Praetorian power by Legati Caesaris, who acted as the Emperor’s deputies.
Africam, the Roman name for the district round Carthage.
10. consilium fuit, ‘my plan was,’ ‘I purposed.’
14. debili ... pede. Abl. absol., ‘with one foot lame and bloodstained.’
22. volnere intimo expressi, ‘I pressed out from the bottom of the wound.’ Words compounded with ab, cum, de, and ex usually govern an abl., either with or (less frequently in prose) without the preposition repeated.
23. cruorem: cruor is ‘gore,’ i.e. blood which has flowed from a wound; sanguis, either ‘gore,’ or blood circulating in the body.65
1. triennium totum, acc. of duration of time; ‘for three whole years.’
2. eodemque et victu, abl. of matter; ‘on the same food also.’
nam quas, etc. The order is—‘ferebat ad specum mihi (to the cave for me), membra opimiora ferarum quas venabatur,’ the antecedent ferarum being attracted into the relative sentence, and so becoming feras.
7. viam ... permensus, ‘having travelled a journey of almost three days.’
9. rei capitalis, the genitive of the charge used after verbs of condemning and acquitting. Res capitalis is a crime punishable by death or loss of civil rights, caput denoting both life and civil status. Cf. xix. 1. note.
10. damnandum curavit. Cf. xiii. 1. 4. note.
11. quoque, the lion, as well as I, having been captured.
1. in terra Graecia. Cf. in terra Italia, xxvii. 1. note.
fama celebri, abl. of quality, ‘of great reputation.’
5. Athenis, ‘at Athens,’ the locative case. Cf. xi. 1. note.
Electram, etc. The order is—acturus Electram Sophoclis, debebat gestare urnam quasi cum Oresti ossibus, ‘being about to play the part of Sophocles’ Electra (i.e. the part of Electra in the play of Sophocles called ‘the Electra’) he had to carry an urn, supposed to contain (quasi cum) the bones of Orestes Women’s characters were played by men both on the Greek and on the Roman stage.
When Agamemnon, king of Argos and Mycenae, returned from the Trojan war, he was murdered by his wife Clytaemnestra. Electra, their daughter, contrived to save her young brother Orestes, and send him to the court of Strophius, king of Phocis. After some years Orestes returned in company with Pylades, the son of Strophius. At first he pretended to be a messenger from Strophius, who had come to announce the death of Orestes in a chariot race, in token of which he brought an urn containing, he said, the ashes of the dead man. Finally, he made himself known to Electra, and then slew Clytaemnestra and her lover Aegisthus.66
Sophocles, 495-406, the great Athenian tragic poet, was thirty years younger than Aeschylus and fifteen years older than Euripides. He is said to have written 130 plays, but of these seven only have reached us, of which the ‘Electra,’ here mentioned, is one.
6. Oresti. The gen. sing. of Greek proper names in -es of the third declension usually ends in -i, sometimes in -is. Hence we have nom. and voc., Orestes; acc., Oresten and Orestem; gen., Oresti and Orestis; dat., Oresti; abl., Orestĕ, rarely Orestē. The plural, when used, follows the first declension.
11. quasi Oresti amplexus. Oresti is the gen. depending on ossa understood.
12. itaque, etc., lit. ‘and so when a play seemed to be represented, (true) grief was represented.’
When the great English actor Macready played the part of Virginius, soon after the death of his own daughter, he declared that his recent experience of real grief gave a new force to his acting. Diderot, on the other hand, in his famous Paradoxe sur le Comédien, maintains that the emotions of the actor must be artificial, not real, to produce an artistic effect.
2. qui pro se ... advocaverunt, ‘they engaged men to plead their case’; lit. ‘who should speak for them,’ qui being used in a final sense, and hence the subj. For this sense of advocaverunt cf. the English word ‘advocate.’
4. Demosthenes, the greatest of Athenian orators, was born in 385 and died in 322 B.C. As a statesman his whole policy was directed to resisting the aggressions of the Macedonian kings Philip and Alexander (cf. vi.). He made many bitter enemies, of whom Demades (line 22) was one of the most important. Demades was a warm supporter of the Macedonian party, and, as he is known to have been an unprincipled man, this story probably applies to him, and not to Demosthenes.
11. lana multa ... circumvolutus, lit. ‘wrapped round as to his neck with much wool.’ Collum is the acc. of respect.
12. eo, for that reason, therefore.
14. non synanchen ... sed argyranchen, ‘that his throat 67 was inflamed not by cold, but by gold.’ Argyranche (αργυραγχη) is a sarcastic word coined to imitate synanche (συναγχη), ‘an inflamed throat.’
15. quinquoque, ‘nay he even prided himself upon it,’ lit. ascribed it as a glory (dat of purpose or complement, cf. viii. 4. note) to himself. Quinetiam is more common than the simple quin in this sense.
17. quantum mercedis. For this ‘genitive of the thing measured,’ usually called the ‘partitive genitive,’ depending of a neuter pronoun, cf. id temporis, xviii. 7. note, ‘how much pay he had received for acting.’ Accepisset is subj. after the dependent interrogative quantum.
18. uti ageret, lit. in order to act, a final sentence. So ‘ut tacerem’.
19. talentum, the Attic talent, £243 15s.
1. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the famous Roman orator, was born near Arpinum on Jan 3rd, 106 B.C. He was consul in 63 B.C., and was murdered Dec 7th, 43 B.C., by the emissaries of M. Antonius.
in Palatio, the Palatium or Mons Palatinus was the hill on the S.W. of the Roman Forum. On it the original city is said to have been built.
2. in praesens sc. tempus, ‘for the present’. Praesens, the pres. participle of praesum, and absens, the pres. participle of absum, are the only forms in which the pres. participle of sum is found.
P. Sulla, the nephew of the great Dictator, L. Sulla, was accused of complicity in the Catilinarian conspiracy. He was defended by Cicero and Hortensius—the famous rival of Cicero, and, though certainly guilty, was acquitted, 62 B.C.
mutua ... tacita accepit, ‘accepted as a secret loan....’
sestertium viciens, 2,000,000 sestertii, i.e. about £19,000. The unit for reckoning large sums was the sestertius or nummus (¼ of a denarius, the ordinary silver coin in use, or asses), in value about 2¼d. Up to 2,000 the cardinal numbers were prefixed, e.g. centum sestertii, mille sestertii, etc. The gen. plur. of sestertius is sestertium, so 2,000 sestertii is duo millia sestertium. This form sestertium in 68 time became treated as if it were a neuter singular. Hence for duo millia sestertium, duo or bina sestertia was written, as the ‘distributive’ form of the numeral was often used. Hence for sums from 2,000 up to 1,000,000 sestertii we have duo or bina sestertia, sexaginta or sexagena sestertia, etc. For sums above 1,000,000 sestertii the numeral adverb was generally employed: thus, 2,000,000 sestertii was written viciens centena (or centum) millia sestertium, which was generally contracted into viciens sestertium, or viciens alone.
4. priusquam emeret. Priusquam and antequam, like other temporal conjunctions, usually govern the indicative; but when they introduce an event which is expected, and its occurrence prevented, i.e. when they convey any idea of purpose, they usually require the subjunctive. Cf. note on dum iret, xxv. 5. Translate, “before he could buy.”
quod ... accepisset, ‘that he had accepted.’ Fees to lawyers were illegal at Rome; but the law was evaded in many ways.
10. inter ridendum, ‘amidst his laughing.’ Cf. note on the gerund, xiii. 1.
ἀκοινονοητοι (akoinŏnŏētoi), ἀ-κοινος-νοητος (νόησις) #a-koinos-noêtos (noêsis)#, not having common sense. The word is not found in extant Greek works.
11. cum ignoratis, ‘because you do not know that.’ This use of cum with the indic., giving a reason, is common in early writers (e.g. Plautus), but only used by Cicero after such words as laudo and gratulor. Later writers do not employ it.
12. patris familias, ‘it is the custom of a prudent and careful master of the household to say that he is not going to buy what he wishes to purchase....’ For the genitive, cf. cuiusvis hominis est errare, ‘it is any man’s nature to err,’ etc. The genitive may be explained by saying that it depends upon some such word as indoles, ‘nature,’ officium, ‘duty,’ etc., understood.
3. Mons Cispius was one of the peaks of Mons Esquilinus, on the E. of the Forum.
subeuntes montem. Many intransitive verbs, especially verbs of motion, gain a semi-transitive or transitive force by being compounded with prepositions, chiefly prepositions 69 which govern an acc., e.g. adire, circumvenire, adstare, adloqui, oppugnare, etc. But many of these compounds govern a dative, instead of, or as well as, an accusative, e.g. adlabi, succedere. Some verbs compounded with prepositions which govern an ablative take an accusative, e.g. convenire, expugnare, etc.
4. insulam. Insula was a house for poor people, let out in rooms or flats to several families; as opposed to domus, the large mansion of a single wealthy family.
multis ... editam, built to a great height with many floors.
7. magni, nominative, ‘the profits of city property are great.’
8. si quid remedii. For the gen. cf. id temporis, xviii. 7. note, ‘if any remedy could have been found to prevent houses burning so constantly at Rome, I would have sold....’
10. venum dedissem. Venum (neuter) is only found in the classical period in the acc. sing., but Tacitus uses veno, and still later writers venui. Venum do—often written as one word, venumdo, contracted into vendo—is ‘I give for sale’; venum eo—often written veneo—is ‘I am for sale.’ For the acc. cf. pessum dare, ‘I give to destruction,’ and pessum ire, ‘I go to destruction.’
12. annalem undevicensimum, ‘the nineteenth book of the history (annals) of Q. Claudius....’
13. Mitridati, genitive; cf. Oresti, xxxi. 6. note.
14. defenderes, subj. after the dependent interrogative quo.
15. L. Cornelius Sulla, surnamed Felix, was born in 138 and died 78 B.C. He first distinguished himself in Africa, when serving under Marius in the campaign against Jugurtha (107-106). In 88 he was appointed to the command of the war against Mitridates, but Marius, eager to obtain this for himself, got a new law passed transferring the command to himself. Sulla thereupon marched upon Rome with his troops, and Marius fled, only to return and deluge the streets of Rome with blood, when his rival had sailed for the East. The siege of Athens here referred to took place in 86: in 83 Sulla returned to Rome, and quickly overthrew the remains of the Marian party, Marius having died in 86. In 81 Sulla was appointed Dictator. He devoted two years to reforming the State, and restoring the power of the senate and aristocracy, 70 and then retired into private life in 79. In the following year he died.
Piraeum. Piraeus, Munychia, and Phalerum were the three harbours of Athens.
1. Arion. This story about Arion comes from the Greek historian Herodotus. Periander was “tyrant” of Corinth from 625 to 585 B.C. Like most of the Greek “tyrants” he was a patron of art and literature.
nobilis is common in the sense of ‘famous,’ as well as in its technical use of one whose ancestors had held curule office.
Methymnaeus. Methymna was a town at the northern extremity of Lesbos.
5. viseret, the imperf. subj., because proficiscitur is the ‘historical present’ standing for a past tense. Cf. xxi. 12. note.
8. ut notiores, ‘as better known....’
10. in altum, ‘the deep sea.’
11. de necando Arione, gerundial attraction. Cf. xiii. 7. note.
21. carmen ... orthium, Greek νόμος ὄρθιος, lit. the loud, high song, was the name for a shrill, stirring air.
2. cursum ... tenuerunt, ‘held on their course.’
4. fluitanti sese homini subdidit, ‘placed itself under the floating man.’
5. incolumique corpore et ornatu, abl. absol., ‘carried him to land (devexit) at Taenarum, in the country of Laconia, with body and clothes unharmed.’ Taenarum is the acc. of ‘place whither.’
in terram Laconicam, lit. ‘to Taenarum into the land of Laconia.’ So ‘he set out for Carthage in Africa’ is ‘profectus est Carthaginem in Africam.’
6. Taenarum was a promontory and town in the S.W. of Laconia, now Cape Matapan.
7. devexit, ‘carried down,’ i.e. to land. The Greeks and 71 Romans spoke of the coast line as lower than both the inland country and the ‘high’ sea. Cf. the uses of ἀναβαίνω and καταβαίνω.
8. talemque, etc., lit. ‘presented himself to King Periander, not expecting him, in the same guise (talem) as he had been in (qualis) (when) carried on the dolphin.’
quasi falleret. Cf. quasi desiperet, xv. 6. note.
12. dissimulanter, secretly, hiding the truth; simulanter, feignedly, pretending what does not exist (the form simulanter is post-classical). This distinction between simulo and dissimulo is expressed in the pentameter—
“Quod non es simulas, dissimulasque quod es,”
‘you pretend what you are not, and hide what you are.’
13. audissent, subj. after the dept. interrogative ‘ecquid.’
unde venissent, subj. because a dept. sentence in the interrogatio obliqua, after interrogavit.
18. ire infitias, ‘to deny.’ For the phrase, cf. ire exequias, ‘to attend a funeral.’ The acc. in these phrases must be compared with the ‘acc. of place whither’ after a verb of motion, e.g. Romam, domum, rus ire; and the acc. of the supine used to express purpose after a verb of motion, e.g. lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego (Horace), ‘Maecenas goes to play, I to sleep.’
20. quod, ‘the fact that...,’ introduces the substantival sentence ‘simulacra ... visuntur’ which is the subject of est.
21. delphinus and homo are in opposition with simulacra.
1. ruris colendi insolens, ‘ignorant of agriculture.’ For the gerundial attraction, cf. xiii. 1. note.
3. qui ... sciret, ‘since he knew...,’ the relative when used in a causal sense governs the subjunctive.
10. faceret, subj. after the dept. interrogative cur; ‘he asked why he was making....’
13. gratias agens. The plural gratias is always used with agere; but after referre, debere, sentire, etc., the singular, gratiam, is most commonly found.
15. imperitus goes closely with detruncat. In English we 72 should use the adverb, ‘ignorantly (or, in his ignorance) cuts the tops off....’
vites suas sibi omnes et oleas, ‘all the vines and olives that he possessed.’
18. pomis gignendis felicia, lit. all the twigs ‘productive for bearing fruit,’ i.e. ‘all the fruit-bearing twigs.’ Pomis gignendis is the dative after felicia. For the gerundive attraction cf. xiii. 1. note.
felicia. The root of felix is the same as the root of fecundus (fruitful), fetus (offspring), etc. Hence the earliest meaning of felix is fruit-bearing: in this sense it is used in Lucretius, Ovid, Livy, etc., and the adverb felicius in Verg. (hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvae.—Georg. i. 54.)
1. Mitridates VI., king of Pontus, 120-63 B.C., was the most powerful foe whom the Romans encountered in the East. The first Mitridatic war was brought to a successful conclusion by Sulla in 84 B.C.; the second, 83-82 B.C., was uneventful; the third, 74-63 B.C., in which Pompeius distinguished himself, ended in the flight and suicide of the king, as described in line 8.
2. quorum ... cavebat, ‘by the continual use of which he protected himself from secret attempts at banquets’; epularum is a descriptive genitive depending on insidiis.
3. quin ... est. Cf. quin quoque, xxxii. 15. note, ‘nay, he even....’
ostentandi gratia, ‘to show off.’
6. in ultima regni, ‘to the most distant parts of his kingdom.’
9. Q. Ennius (239-169 B.C.), though a Greek by birth, spent his life at Rome, and was regarded by the Romans as the father of their poetry, alter Homerus (Horace). His most important work was the Annales, an epic poem upon the history of Rome. Only a few fragments of his writings have reached us.
10. Osce. The Osci were a primitive people who lived in Campania.
14. lingua locutus est, ‘he spoke in the tongue and language of each as skilfully as if he had been of that nation.’73
1. eloquentiae discendae causarumque orandi cupidus, lit. ‘was anxious to learn eloquence and to plead causes.’
causarum orandi, the genitive orandi depends upon cupidus, and causarum is a genitive depending on the gerund orandi. This construction (instead of the gerundial attraction, or the ordinary acc. after the gerund) is very rare; but cf. nobis fuit exemplorum eligendi potestas (Cic de Juv. ii. 2), ‘we had the power of choosing examples.’
in disciplinam ... sese dedit, ‘entered himself as a pupil of Protagoras,’ lit. gave himself to the teaching of Protagoras.
3. Protagoras, of Abdēra, in Thrace, was born about 480 B.C. and died 411 B.C. He came to Athens before the year 445, and there established a school. He was the first Greek philosopher who called himself a ‘Sophist,’ and taught for pay.
daturumque, etc. The order is—promisit se daturum esse grandem pecuniam mercedem, ‘promised to give a large sum as a remuneration....’ Mercedem is in apposition with pecuniam.
6. quo primo die, ‘on the first day on which he pleaded and won a case’; the antecedent primo die is attracted into the relative clauses, a common construction in Latin. Cf. xxx. 2.
8. causas ... reciperet, ‘did not undertake cases,’ i.e. take briefs.
12. litem ... contestatur is the technical phrase for setting a suit on foot by calling witnesses; ‘he brings an action against Euathlus.’
17. ex sententia, in accordance with the votes of the judges. ‘Sententia’ is an expressed opinion, hence our ‘sentence.’
18. secundum te, ‘in your favour.’
24. pro causa mea senserint, ‘shall have pronounced in my favour.’
1. proelium Cannense, 216 B.C. Cf. ix. 1. Note the use of the adjective, where we use a subst. and prep., ‘the battle of Cannae.’74
2. electos ... misit, ‘sent to Rome ten men chosen out of our captives,’ i.e. ‘selected ten of our captives and sent them to Rome.’ Cp. xxi. 3. note.
3. videretur, ‘if it seemed good to the Roman people.’
4. quos alteri plures acciperent, ‘whom the one side received more (than the other)’; plures is acc. qualifying quos.
5. argenti, etc., ‘a pound and a half of silver by weight.’
6. hoc iusiurandum eos adegit, ‘bound them by this oath.’ Adigere aliquem iusiurandum, or ad iusiurandum, is literally to drive a man to an oath, i.e. to make him take it. After the time of Livy the construction adigere aliquem iure iurando, ‘to bind a man by an oath,’ was more common.
12. postliminio, ‘by the right of postliminium.’ Postliminium is “the recovery of rights by a person returned from captivity, or the recovery of rights over a person or thing recovered from hostile possession” (Poste’s Gaius, § 129), since a man by hostile capture became the slave of the enemy, and so during the interval of captivity his rights as a free citizen were suspended. The usual derivation given is from post and limen, ‘a returning behind the threshold’; others derive the post from the same root as potestas and possessio.
liberatos religione, ‘freed from their obligation.’
19. quoniam, etc., lit. ‘since, when they had left the enemy’s camp, they had returned to it (eo lem. lit. to the same place) on an imaginary pretext, as if for some accidental reason, and so had again left (the camp) not bound by an oath.’
24. censores. Two censors were elected every five years (lustrum); they held office for 18 months. Their duties were (1) to take the census, i.e. the register of the citizens and their property; (2) to exercise a supervision over the morals of the citizens, and punish defaulters by the nota censoria, and degrade them in various ways. The consequence of the nota was ignominia.
[The words in brackets are not to be translated.]
1. Vergil used to produce his verses like a bear.
2. The verses of Vergil were at first rough and unfinished.
3. He used to polish and correct his rough verses like a bear.
4. That animal by licking gives features to its shapeless offspring.
5. All the verses of Vergil were afterwards polished and corrected.
6. The offspring of that animal is at first rough and shapeless.
7. It produces a shapeless offspring, but afterwards licks and forms it.
8. The rough verses were polished and corrected by Vergil, as (its) offspring is licked and formed by that animal.76
1. Philemon was an author by no means equal to Menander.
2. Do you not blush, whenever you defeat me in such contests?
3. Philemon did not blush when he met Menander.
4. Philemon often defeated Menander in those contests.
5. Menander will meet Philemon by chance.
6. Menander, a writer of comedies, defeated Philemon by bribery.
7. Menander and Philemon were by no means equal.
8. How do you defeat me in these contests?
1. A wonderful thing is told by Plutarch about the palm.
2. Great weights were placed by the philosophers on the stem of that palm tree.
3. The tree will not yield, but will rise against the great weight.
4. They have made the palm the emblem of victory.
5. Why is this tree an emblem of victory in battle?
6. The stem of the tree was not bent by the weights placed upon it.
7. Philosophers tell many wonderful tales about this tree.
8. This tree was made by the Greeks the emblem of victory.77
1. It is said that Xanthippe was the wife of Socrates the philosopher.
2. Socrates had a very bad-tempered wife, Xanthippe by name.
3. He did not drive his quarrelsome wife from home.
4. I can bear the impertinence of the others more easily.
5. The wife of Socrates was very quarrelsome both day and night.
6. The friends of Socrates wondered at his bad-tempered wife.
7. Why has your quarrelsome and bad-tempered wife not been driven from home?
8. Alcibiades, the friend of Socrates, wondered at Xanthippe, the quarrelsome wife of that philosopher.
1. Voluntary labours used to strengthen the body of Socrates.
2. He used to stand day and night motionless.
3. Socrates lived in perfect health for almost his whole life.
4. A plague ravaged the city of Athens in the Peloponnesian war.
5. Socrates kept his bodily vigour during the plague which ravaged Athens.
6. He used to stand with his eyes directed to the same place.78
7. Socrates bore very many labours to strengthen his body.
8. He directed his eyes to the same place from one sunrise to the next sunrise.
1. King Alexander had a wonderful horse called Bucephalas.
2. No one, except King Alexander, could mount this horse.
3. The king, seated on this horse, performed many brave deeds in the Indian war.
4. Darts were thrown from all sides at King Alexander.
5. The king was carried back at full speed by the dying horse from the middle of the battle.
6. A town, called Bucephalon, was built by Alexander in that place.
7. The horse was pierced by many wounds and fell down almost lifeless.
8. Alexander built a town in India, which he called Bucephalon in honour of his wonderful horse Bucephalas.
1. Alcibiades was educated by his uncle Pericles.
2. A flute-player endeavoured to teach Alcibiades to play the flute.
3. The flute was handed to Alcibiades by his master.79
4. The flute was thrown away and broken by the boy Alcibiades.
5. The Athenians unanimously ceased to play the flute.
6. The uncle caused the boy to be taught to play the flute.
7. The wise uncle caused many masters to be summoned.
8. Flute-playing was formerly considered by the Athenians a most honourable accomplishment.
1. The Samnites sent ambassadors to C. Fabricius, the Roman general.
2. They offered the Roman general a large sum of money as a gift.
3. Many things were lacking to the magnificence of his home.
4. Fabricius could control his eyes, mouth and ears.
5. Fabricius was unwilling to receive the money from the Samnites.
6. The Samnites know (how) to use the money.
7. Fabricius did many things for the Samnites after peace had been made.
8. The Roman general was unwilling to use the Samnite money.
1. The king had collected his forces on the plain.
2. King Antiochus was about to make war on his enemies, the Roman people.80
3. The army of the king was glittering with gold and silver trappings.
4. He manœuvred his chariots, cavalry and elephants.
5. These things will be enough for the greedy Romans.
6. Many elephants had been collected by Antiochus.
7. Hannibal jeered at the cowardice of Antiochus’ soldiers.
8. The king had collected chariots with sickles and elephants with turrets.
1. The death of Milo was wonderful and pitiable.
2. Athletics were abandoned by Milo (when) advanced in age.
3. A large oak was standing near the road.
4. He thrust his fingers into the hollows of the tree.
5. Milo endeavoured with his fingers to tear open the oak.
6. The tree returned to its natural position and shut in his hands.
7. The man was torn to pieces by wild beasts.
8. The oak was torn open by the hands of Milo.
1. The Roman senators used to enter the senate house with their sons.
2. The senators were consulting about a very important matter.81
3. No one spoke about the matter, (which had been) adjourned to the next day.
4. The mother of the boy Papirius was very anxious to hear the matter.
5. It is advantageous to the state for one man to have two wives.
6. The boy was unwilling to tell his mother those matters.
7. In that city one woman was not married to two men.
8. I must be silent, for I am not allowed to tell you this.
1. On hearing this she betook herself in alarm to the other women.
2. Next day a crowd of women came to the senate-house.
3. What is this crowd of women, and what do these demands mean?
4. The boy advances into the middle of the senate-house and says these things.
5. Afterwards no boy entered the senate-house except Papirius.
6. The name (of) “Praetextatus” was given to the boy.
7. The women were frightened and surrounded the senate-house weeping and praying.
8. The senators wondered, when they saw the crowd of matrons.82
1. Sertorius was an energetic general, skilled in commanding an army.
2. In times of difficulty he used to pretend dreams and tell lies to the soldiers.
3. A certain man gave Sertorius a white doe of remarkable beauty.
4. This doe has been presented to me by heaven.
5. The doe used to converse with Sertorius and advise him.
6. He announced that the doe had given him this advice.
7. The soldiers willingly obeyed Sertorius as if (he were) a god.
8. The doe, which had been given him as a gift, was of remarkable beauty and extraordinary speed.
1. The doe, alarmed by an inroad of the enemy, took to flight.
2. The doe one day hid in a neighbouring marsh, and was searched for in vain.
3. It was believed that Sertorius’ doe had perished.
4. Sertorius ordered the man, who found the doe, to be silent.
5. The doe appeared to me in the middle of the night and foretold what must be done.
6. The doe was suddenly let loose into the room, in which Sertorius and his friends were sitting.83
7. The credulity of these barbarians was very useful to the general.
8. No one deserted Sertorius, though he was often conquered.
1. An old woman brought nine books to King Tarquin.
2. She said that she wished to sell the books, which she had brought.
3. The woman demanded an immense (sum of) money, and therefore the king laughed.
4. Three out of the nine books were burnt before the king’s face.
5. The king said that the old woman was certainly mad.
6. She sold these books for the same price that she had demanded for all.
7. Tarquin at first despised the old woman, but afterwards bought the three remaining books.
8. The books, which this old woman sold to Tarquin, are called the Sibylline (books).
1. Scipio Africanus did not receive money from King Antiochus.
2. Scipio made peace with Antiochus on favourable terms.
3. Many charges were made against Scipio by M. Naevius.84
4. This is the day on which Scipio conquered Hannibal in a very great battle in Africa.
5. This victory of Scipio in the land of Africa was very famous.
6. They went to the Capitol, to give thanks to Jupiter.
7. The assembly did not pass sentence on Scipio.
8. They all followed Scipio to his house with rejoicings and congratulations.
1. Cato, Scipio’s enemy, won over a certain tribune, named Petilius.
2. He was unwilling to give an account of the money and spoil to the senate.
3. Scipio produced a book, in which was written an account of the money and the spoil.
4. He tore the book to pieces with his own hands.
5. The safety of the state ought to be ascribed to Scipio.
6. He rose and produced a book, in which were the accounts.
7. I will not read the accounts to you, for I am unwilling to insult myself.
8. Scipio had taken much money and spoil in the war against Antiochus, and had written an account of it in a book.
1. Old writers have told many (tales) about the life and deeds of Africanus.85
2. Before dawn Scipio used to go to the temple of Jupiter.
3. The dogs did not attack Scipio as he went to the Capitol.
4. The attendants of the temple wondered that the dogs did not bark at Scipio.
5. Scipio was attacking a very strong town, situated in Spain.
6. There was small hope of taking this strong town.
7. He ordered bail to be given by the soldier for (his appearance on) the third day.
8. Scipio stretched out his hand towards the town, which he was attacking.
1. The man must be condemned by the law.
2. I consulted about the life of my friend with the judges.
3. I persuaded the other judges to acquit my friend.
4. He silently gave his vote for condemning the man.
5. The duty of a friend and of a judge was thus safe.
6. He consulted with himself about the life of his friend.
7. Two out of the three judges acquitted my friend.
8. It is the duty of a judge to condemn a man, who ought by the law to be condemned.
1. A certain young man was very fond of old words.
2. In his daily conversations he used old-fashioned expressions.86
3. The Pelasgi were the first who inhabited Italy.
4. He used old-fashioned words, as though he were talking with the mother of Evander.
5. He did not wish any one to understand what he said.
6. You ought to be silent, and thus you would gain what you wish for.
7. You ought to use modern expressions, if you wish to be understood.
8. I love the old Aurunci, for they were honourable and good.
1. Titus Manlius took a necklace from an enemy, whom he had killed.
2. He was named Torquatus in honour of a necklace, which he had taken from an enemy.
3. A certain Gaul advanced with a shield and two swords.
4. A Gaul advanced, who surpassed the other in height and strength.
5. He beckoned with his hand, and cried with a very loud voice.
6. The others dared not fight against this enemy, on account of his dreadful appearance.
7. The barbarian began to jeer at them, because no one dared to advance.
8. T. Manlius was grieved that the others dared not fight against the Gaul.87
1. The two soldiers, the Roman and the Gaul, fought on the bridge in the sight of both armies.
2. Manlius trusted in his courage, the Gaul in his skill.
3. The enemy’s shield was struck again by Manlius.
4. Manlius wounded the Gaul’s shoulder with his Spanish sword.
5. The Roman threw his enemy down and cut off his head.
6. The bloodstained necklace was taken from the neck of the Gaul by Manlius.
7. The son of Manlius killed an enemy, who had challenged him, although he had been forbidden to fight by his father.
8. Harsh commands are called “Manlian,” because this Manlius beheaded his own son.
1. The consul drew up the Roman lines facing the vast forces of the Gauls.
2. The arms of the Gallic leader shone with gold.
3. The Gaul, a man of enormous height, advanced shaking his spear.
4. He haughtily ordered any Roman to come, who dared to fight against him.
5. Whilst the others were wavering between shame and fear, Valerius advanced boldly against the enemy.
6. A raven suddenly attacked the eyes of the Gaul.88
7. The raven, having torn the hands and face of the Gaul, perched on the head of Valerius.
8. Thus, helped by the bird, he killed his enemy, and in honour of the victory was named Corvinus.
1. Aesop, who lived in Phrygia, was a very wise writer of fables.
2. He invented amusing stories, and thus gave useful advice.
3. Philosophers give useful advice, but what they say is not amusing.
4. Aesop invented an amusing story about a lark.
5. This fable about the lark warned men that their hopes ought to be placed in themselves.
6. Q. Ennius composed many verses about this story of Aesop.
7. This is a proof that our confidence ought to be placed in ourselves.
8. It is the custom with philosophers to give useful advice, with writers of fables amusing advice.
1. It is said that a lark built in the corn.
2. The corn was ripening when the young ones were unfledged.
3. The lark went to search for food, and left her young ones in the nest.
4. If anything unusual happens, said she, tell me when I return home.89
5. The young ones saw the owner of the crops calling his son.
6. The owner’s friends were unwilling to assist him in the harvest.
7. Make haste, mother, and carry us to another nest.
8. The lark said that it was not necessary to take her young ones to another home.
1. When the mother had flown to seek food, the owner returned to the field with his son.
2. He told his son that the friends were loiterers, for they had not come.
3. Let us go, said he, and ask our relations to help us to-morrow.
4. The young ones told their mother that the master had sent for his relations.
5. The master said that he would himself reap the corn with his sickle.
6. The relations neglected to come, and so the master and his son themselves reaped the corn.
7. The mother said that it was time to go; for what he had ordered would now be done.
8. The matter now depends on the master himself, not on his friends.
1. Pyrrhus fought many battles with success in the land of Italy.
2. Timochares, a friend of Pyrrhus, wished to kill the king by poison.90
3. If we agree about the reward, I promise to kill the king by poison.
4. My son is the king’s cup-bearer, and so he will easily be able to give poison to the king.
5. Fabricius wrote to the Roman Senate, that Timochares wished to kill King Pyrrhus by poison.
6. The Senate advised the king to act more cautiously.
7. Your friends wish to kill you by poison; therefore it is necessary to act very cautiously.
8. The king wrote to the Roman Senate, thanking and praising them, and restored all the prisoners whom he had taken.
1. A lion of enormous size was brought into the circus.
2. Many slaves had been given by their masters to fight wild beasts.
3. An enormous and terrible lion attracted the attention of all by its roaring.
4. It is said that the lion, seeing Androclus, suddenly stood still.
5. It is said that the lion wagged its tail like a dog, and licked the man’s hands.
6. The slave recovered his lost courage and turned his eyes on the lion.
7. You might have seen the lion licking the legs and hands of the slave.
8. A mimic hunt was given in the circus, for which many wild-beasts had been sent from Africa.91
1. Loud shouts were aroused by this wonderful sight.
2. Caesar asked why the lion spared Androclus alone.
3. A wonderful and marvellous story was told Caesar by the slave.
4. The slave, driven to flight by his master’s daily blows, took refuge in the desert.
5. At mid-day the slave hid in a cave, to which a lion came.
6. An enormous lion was coming to the cave, with one foot lame, groaning and sighing.
7. He was at first terrified by the sight of the lion, but soon recovered his courage.
8. The slave pulled a large thorn out of the lion’s foot; the lion then placed its foot in his hands and slept.
1. He said that for three years he had lived in the same cave as the lion.
2. I used to cook my food by the mid-day sun, because I had no fire.
3. I am weary of this wild-beast’s life, and I will leave the cave.
4. His master arrested him and sent him from Africa to Rome.
5. My master had me condemned to death and given to the wild-beasts in the Circus.
6. The lion, after I was separated from it, was taken and sent to Rome.92
7. Androclus, after telling this wonderful tale, was pardoned and presented with the lion.
8. They gave money to the slave and flowers to the lion, which had been the host of the man.
1. Polus, a famous actor in Greece, had a well-loved son.
2. Polus lost his son, and mourned for him many days.
3. Polus was about to act the “Electra” of Sophocles, and to carry the bones of Orestes in his hands.
4. Electra carried the remains of her brother in an urn, and wept for his death.
5. Electra, the sister of Orestes, was dressed in mourning and carried the remains of her brother.
6. She took the urn from the tomb and carried it in her hands.
7. The urn, which Electra was carrying, had been placed in a tomb.
8. Polus carried in his hands the remains of his own son, and wept for his, not Orestes’, death.
1. It is said that ambassadors came from Athens to Miletus to ask for help.
2. They pleaded for the Milesians, but Demades replied that help ought not to be given to them.
3. Demades maintained that the Milesians were not worthy of help.93
4. He said that it would not be advantageous to the state to give help.
5. It is said that Demades received from the Milesian ambassadors as much money as he asked for.
6. I am suffering from an inflamed throat and therefore I cannot oppose the Milesian demands.
7. He did not conceal what he had done, but said he had received much money.
8. You received three talents for acting, I received more for being silent.
1. Cicero wished to buy a house on the Palatine, but had no money at the time.
2. P. Sulla lent Cicero 5,000,000 sesterces secretly.
3. You have received, said they, money from Sulla for buying a house.
4. Cicero afterwards bought the house with the money which he had received from Sulla.
5. I said that I did not wish to buy that house, because I was a cautious father of a family.
6. Cicero’s friends reproached him with this lie.
7. Cicero told that lie, because he had received money from a defendant.
8. Cicero wished to buy that house, but he said that he did not wish to buy it.
1. Many friends accompanied Julianus home.
2. A block, many stories high, was blazing.94
3. He said that property in the city gave great returns.
4. There is no remedy to prevent houses at Rome burning.
5. He sold all his country property and bought city property.
6. The philosopher said that alum was the best remedy for fire.
7. A wooden tower, which had been built to defend the city, was smeared with alum by Archelaus.
8. Q. Claudius says that this tower, smeared with alum, could not burn.
1. Arion of Lesbos lived at Corinth, and was loved by Periander.
2. Arion went to Italy and charmed the ears of all in that land.
3. He gained much money by playing, and afterwards wished to return to King Periander at Corinth.
4. He chose a Corinthian ship, because he thought the sailors would be more friendly to him.
5. Arion gave all his money to the sailors, but prayed them to spare his life.
6. The sailors ordered Arion to spring down into the sea, in order that they might take possession of his money.
7. In a loud voice he sang this song, and then threw himself into the sea.
8. He took his lyre in his hand and, standing on the stern, began to sing a song.95
1. The sailors thought that Arion had perished in the sea, and held on their course to Corinth.
2. It is said that a dolphin carried the man safe to Taenarum.
3. Arion went from Taenarum to Corinth and related what had happened to himself.
4. The king believed that Arion was deceiving him, and ordered him to be guarded for two days.
5. The king ordered the sailors to be sent for, and asked them if they had heard anything about Arion.
6. The sailors told the king that Arion was living in Italy.
7. Arion stood forth before the astounded sailors, who thought that he had perished in the sea.
8. At Taenarum two bronze figures stand as a proof of this tale.
1. A certain barbarian bought a large farm planted with olives and vines.
2. The Thracian saw his neighbour pruning his trees.
3. He asked his neighbour why he pulled up the vine suckers.
4. The trees of his neighbour were more fruitful than his own.
5. He thanked his neighbour and went home rejoicing.
6. The ignorant Thracian took a sickle, and began to cut off the most luxuriant foliage of the trees.96
7. He cut off all the fruitful twigs of the apple-trees.
8. The ignorant man thought that he was pruning his trees, as his neighbour had done.
1. The King of Pontus was very skilled in medicine.
2. It is said that these medicines are good for dissipating poisons.
3. The King of Pontus for his whole life was on his guard against secret treachery.
4. Mitridates often drank poison to show that it was harmless to him.
5. He slew himself with his own sword, (after) having in vain tried the strongest poisons.
6. Ennius could speak Greek, Latin and Oscan, and so he used to say that he had three hearts.
7. The King of Pontus knew the languages of all the nations under his dominion, twenty-two in number.
8. Mitridates used to talk with the men of each nation, whom he had under his dominion, in the language of that nation, and not through an interpreter.
1. He gave Protagoras half of the money which he asked for, and promised to give the remaining half afterwards.
2. I will give you, said he, the remaining half on the first day on which I win a case.
3. He was a pupil of Protagoras for a long while, but did not undertake any case.97
4. He did not undertake any case, in order to avoid paying the rest of the money.
5. Protagoras thought that his plan for gaining the money was very clever.
6. If the verdict is given in your favour,* it will be necessary for you to pay me the money.
7. The judges left the matter unsettled, because they did not know what sentence they ought to give.
8. The wise judges adjourned the law-suit to a very distant day.
1. Hannibal chose ten prisoners and sent them to Rome.
2. He wished after the battle of Cannae to make an exchange of prisoners with his enemies.
3. The Roman prisoners promised with an oath to return to Hannibal.
4. They told the senators what Hannibal had said about an exchange of prisoners.
5. Their relations embraced them and prayed them with tears not to return to Hannibal.
6. Of the ten prisoners eight returned to Hannibal, and two only remained at Rome.
7. The two prisoners, who remained at Rome, were despised by all.
8. The censors branded with every mark of infamy the prisoners, who had refused to return to Hannibal.
* The verdict is given in my favour: pronuntiatum est pro me.98
The parts of regular verbs are not given.
A dot occurring in a word separates the parts of a compound.
a, ab, prep. gov. abl., from, by.
ab·eo, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, -īre, 4 v. n., I go away.
ab·hinc, adv., henceforward, since.
ab·iĭcio, -iēci, -iectum, 3 v. a., I throw away, throw from. (iăcio.)
ab·lēgo, v. a. 1, I send away.
ab·solvo, -solvi, -sŏlūtum, 3 v. a., I set loose, I acquit.
ăbundē, adv., abundantly, sufficiently. (ab·undo, I overflow; cf. unda, a wave.)
ac, conj., and.
ac·cēdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. n., I go to, I approach. (ad, cēdo.)
ac·cĭdo (or adcĭdo), -cidi, no sup., 3 v. n., I fall to, fall out, happen. (ad, cădo.)
ăcies, -ei, f., line-of-battle (lit. sharp edge). (ācer, ăcus.)
ac·cĭpio, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 v. a., I receive, learn, hear. (ad, căpio.)
ac·cūso, 1 v. a., I impeach, blame.
ācer, acris, acre, adj., sharp, eager, energetic.
ăcerbus, -a, -um, adj., bitter, bad-tempered. (ācer.)
ācrĭter, adv., sharply, keenly. (ācer.)
actor, -ōris, m., actor. (ăgo.)
acturus, fut. part., fr. ăgo.
ăd, prep. gov. acc., to, for.
ad·cido. Cf. accido.
ad·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I bring to, add.
ăd·eo, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, 4 v. n., I go to, approach.
ad·eō̆, adv., thus far;
usque adeo, to such an extent, (ad, is; cf. quoad.)
ad·fĕro (or affĕro), -tŭli, -lātum, 3 v. a., I bring to.
ficio. Cf. afficio.
ad·fīnis (or affinis), -e, adj., neighbouring to, related to (by marriage);
as a subst., neighbour, relation.99
ad·ĭgo, -ēgi, -actum, 3 v. a., I drive to.
adigo aliquem (ad) iusiurandum, I drive a man to an oath, make him swear. (ăgo.)
ad·hĭbeo, -hĭbui, -hĭbĭtum, 2 v. a., I bring to, employ. (hăbeo.)
ad·ĭpiscor, -eptus, 3 v. dep., I obtain. (ăpiscor.)
ad·iŭvo, -iūvi, -iūtum, 1 v. a., I assist.
ad·mīrātio, -ōnis, f., wonder.
ad·mĭror, 1 v. dep., I wonder at.
ad·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I bring to, bring in, admit.
ad·mŏdum, adv., lit. to a measure, in a high degree, very. (mŏdus.)
ad·no, 1 v. n., I swim to.
ad·prĕhendo (or apprehendo), -prĕhendi, -prĕhensum, 3 v. a., I seize.
adsĭduus, -a, -um, adj., constant, eager, diligent. (adsideo: cf. continuus, fr. contineo.)
adsĭdue, adv., constantly. (adsiduus.)
ad·signo, 1 v. a., I attribute to. (signum.)
ad·sum, -fui, -esse, v. n., I am present.
adŭlescens (or adŏlescens), -entis, c., young man, young woman. (ad·ŏlesco.)
adŭlescentia, -ae, f., youth, manly strength, (ad·olesco.)
adŭlor, 1 v. dep., I fawn on, flatter.
ad·vĕnio, -vēni, -ventum, 4 v. n., I come to, approach.
ad·versārius, -a, -um, adj., turned towards, opposed to;
subst., antagonist. (ad, versus.)
ad·versum, or ad·versus, adv., and prep. gov. acc., towards, against.
ad·verto, -verti, -versum, 3 v. a., I turn towards, observe (generally in phrase ‘animum adverto’).
ad·vŏco, 1 v. a., I call to my aid.
ad·vŏlo, 1 v. n., I fly towards.
aedes (or aedis), -is, f., a building, temple;
in pl., a house.
aedĭtŭmus, -i, m., keeper of temple, sacristan. (aedes.)
aegrē, adv., with difficulty, scarcely.
aegre passus, displeased. (aeger.)
ăēneus, -a, -um, adj., brazen. (aes.)
aerārium, -ii, n., treasury. (aes.)
aes, aeris, n., copper, brass, money.
Aesōpus, -i, m., Aesop. (Αἴσωπος.)
aetas, -ātis, f., age (for aevĭtas, fr. aevum, αἰών.)
affero. Cf. adfero.
af·fĭcio, -fēci, -fectum, 3 v. a., I affect in some way:
afficio contumeliâ, I affect, brand with disgrace, i.e. I disgrace, insult. (făcio.)
Afrĭca, -ae, f., Africa, i.e. the land round Carthage.
Afrĭcānus, -i, m., agnomen of Scipio.
ăger, agri, m., land, territory. (ἀγρός, cf. English acre, German Acker.)100
ăgo, ēgi, actum, 3 v. a., I drive, do, act;
of the Senate, I transact, I discuss:
ago gratias, I give thanks;
bene ago, I fare well, prosper.
āio, v. n., defective, I say.
ἀκοινονόητοι (cf. xxxiii. 10, note), deficient in common sense.
āla, -ae, f., wing.
albus, -a, -um, adj., white.
Alcĭbĭădes, -is or -i, m., Alcibiades. (Ἀλκιβιάδης.)
āles, -ĭtis, adj., winged;
as subst., c., a bird. (āla.)
Alexander, -dri, m., Alexander. (Ἀλέξανδρος.)
ălĭquĭs, aliquid, subst. pron., some one, any one. (ălius, quis.)
ălĭter, adv., otherwise. (ălius.)
ălius, -a, -um, adj., other, another. (Cf. ἄλλος.)
altē, adv., deeply. (altus.)
alter, -ĕra, -ĕrum, adj., the one (or other) of two. (Cf. ălius.)
altus, -a, -um, adj., deep;
as subst., altum, i, n., the deep sea. (ălo, I nourish.)
ălūmen, -ĭnis, n., alum.
ambĭguus, -a, -um, adj., wavering, hesitating. (ambĭgo, fr. ambi, Gr. ἀμφί, ăgo.)
ambĭtus, -us, m., lit. a going round, bribery. (ambio. fr. ambi, Gr. ἀμφί, eo.)
Ambrăciensis, -e, adj., Ambracian, belonging to Ambrăcia, town in S. of Epīrus.
ăm·ĭcio, -ĭcui or -ixi, -ictum, 4 v. a., I wrap around, clothe. (am or amb, Gr. ἀμφί, and iăcio. Cf. ἀμφιβάλλω.)
ămictus, -a, -um, part. fr. amĭcio.
As subst., amictus, ūs m., clothing.
ămīcus, -a, -um, adj., friendly;
subst., ămīcus, i, m., a friend. (ămo.)
ā·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I send away, let go, lose.
ămo, 1 v. a., I love.
am·plector, -exus, 3 v. dep., I embrace. (am cf. am·icio, plecto, I plait.)
amplĭtūdo, -ĭnis, f., dignity. (amplus.)
amp·ŭto, 1 v. a., I lop off.
ăn, conj., or, whether (in disjunctive interrogations).
an·ceps, -cĭpĭtis, adj., two-headed, doubtful, dangerous. (an, cf. am·ĭcio, caput.)
Androclus, -i, m., Androclus.
ănĭma, -ae, f., soul. (animous, ἄνεμος, that which breathes.)
ănĭm·ad·verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., I direct my attention to, notice. (animus, ad, verto.)
ănĭmus, -i, m., mind. (Cf. anima.)
annālis, -e, adj., belonging to a year.
As subst., annalis, -is, m. (sc. liber), chronicle, annal. (annus.)
annus, -i, m., year.
antĕ, adv., and prep. gov. acc., before.
antĕā, adv., before.
antĕ·quam, conj., before that.
Antĭŏchīnus, -a, -um, adj., belonging to Antiochus.
Antĭŏchus, -i, m., Antiochus (Ἀντίοχος.)
antīquĭtas, -ātis, f., antiquity, old times. (antiquus.)101
antīquĭtus, adv., from of old, in former times. (antiquus.)
antīquus (or anticus), -a, -um, adj., ancient. (ante.)
Antōnius, -ii, m., Antonius.
ănus, -us, f., old woman.
ăpĕrio, -ĕrui, -ĕrtum, 4 v. a., I open.
ăpŏlŏgus, -i, m., fable. (ἀπόλογος.)
ap·pello (or ad·pello), 1 v. a., I drive to, go to, I accost, appeal to.
ap·pĕto (or ad·peto), -īvi and -ii, -ītum, 3 v. a. and n., I seek for, long for, approach.
ap·pono (or ad·pono), -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 v. a., I place near.
ap·prŏbo (or ad·prŏbo), 1 v. a., I approve, I confirm.
aptus, -a, -um, part. fr. ăpo, ăpere, I fit to; fit, suited. (Cf. apiscor, ἅπτω.)
ăpŭd, prep. gov. acc., near to, at the house of.
arbor, -ŏris, f., a tree.
arcesso, -īvi, -ītum, 3 v. a., I send for.
Archĕlāus, -i, m., Archelaus.
ardeo, arsi, arsum, 2 v. n., I am on fire, burn.
arduus, -a, -um, adj., steep, lofty.
argentum, -i, n., silver.
argūmentum, -i, n., proof, argument, plot. (arguo.)
argy̆ranche (ἀργυράγχη). Cf. xxxii. 14, note.
Ărīon, ŏnis, m., Arion.
Aristŏdēmus, -i, m., Aristodemus.
Ăristŏtĕles, -is or -i, m., Aristotle.
arma, -orum, n., plur. only, arms.
armilla, -ae, f., bracelet. (arma.)
armo, 1 v. a., I arm, equip. (arma.)
ars, artis, f., art, skill. (Cf. arma.)
arx, arcis, f., citadel. (arceo.)
a·scendo, -ndi, -sum, 3 v. n., I mount up. (scando, I climb.)
Ā̆sĭātĭcus, -a, -um, adj., belonging to Asia.
aspectus, -us, m., look. (aspicio.)
asper, -ĕra, -ĕrum, adj., harsh, rough.
a·spernor, 1 v. dep., I despise. (ab, sperno.)
a·spicio, -exi, -ectum, 3 v. a., I behold, look at.
as·porto, 1 v. a., I carry away. (abs, porto.)
as·sĭdeo, -sēdi, -sessum, 2 v. n., I sit by; I besiege. (ad, sedeo.)
assum. Cf. adsum.
astūtus, -a, -um, adj., skilled, clever. (astus.)
ăt, conj., but.
Ăthēnae, -arum, f. plur. only, Athens.
Ăthēniensis, -e, adj., Athenian.
āthlēta, -ae, m., wrestler, athlete. (ἀθλητής.)
āthlētĭcus, -a, -um, adj., athletic.
ars athletica, athletics.
atquĕ, conj., and.
ā̆trox, -ōcis, adj., frightful, fierce. (āter, black, gloomy.)
Attĭca, -ae, f., Attica.102
attentē, adv., comp., attentius, attentively. (attendo.)
at·tingo, -tĭgi, -tactum, 3 v. a., I touch. (ad·tango.)
auctor, -ōris, m., author. (augeo.)
audeo, ausus, 2 v. a. and n., I dare.
audio, 4 v. a., I hear. (Cf. auris, ear.)
audītor, -ōris, m., hearer. (audio.)
au·fĕro, abs·tŭli, ab·lātum, au·ferre, 3 v. a., I carry away, take. (ab, fero.)
aureus, -a, -um, adj., golden. (aurum.)
auris, -is, f., ear.
aurum, -i, n., gold.
Aurunci, -orum, m., the Aurunci.
aut, conj., or.
aut ... aut, either ... or.
autem, conj., but, however, moreover.
auxĭlĭum, -ii, n., help. (augeo.)
ăvārus, -a, -um, adj., covetous, greedy. (ăveo, I long for.)
āversus, -a, -um, part. from āverto, turned away.
ā·verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., I turn away.
ăvis, -is, f., bird.
ăvuncŭlus, -i, m., maternal uncle. (Diminutive of ăvus, grandfather.)
barbărus, -a, -um, adj., foreign. (βάρβαρος: cf. balbus, stammering.)
bellum, -i, n., war.
bellātor, -ōris, m., warrior. (bellum.)
bĕnĕ, adv., well.
bene facio, I benefit.
bĕnĕfĭcium, -ii, n., kindness. (bene, facio.)
bestia, -ae, f., wild beast.
blandē, adv., gently. (blandus).
blandīmentum, -i, n., blandishment. (blandior, I caress.)
bŏnus, -a -um, adj., good.
Būcĕphălas, -ae (Βουκεφάλας), m., Bucephalas. Cf. vi. 1. note.
caedes, -is, f., lopping off, destruction. (caedo.)
Caesar, -ăris, m., Caesar.
Cāĭŭs, -i, m., Caius.
callĭdĭtas, -ātis, f., skill, cunning. (callidus.)
campus, -i, m., plain.
cănis, -is, c., dog. (κύων.)
Cannensis, -e, adj., of Cannae.
căno, cĕcĭni, cantum, 3 v. a., I sing, I play.
cano tibiis = I play the flute.
canto, 1 v. n. and a., I sing, I play (frequentative form of cano.)
cantor, -ōris, m., singer, musician. (căno.)
cantus, -us, m., song, melody. (căno.)
căpesso, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 v. a., I strive for, undertake. (desiderative form fr. căpio.)
căpio, cēpi, captum, 3 v. a., I take.
capio consilium, I form or adopt a plan.
Căpĭtōlium, -ii, n., the Capitol. (căput.)103
căpĭtālis, -e, adj., relating to the caput, i.e. life or civil rights, capital.
res capitalis, capital offence. (căput.)
captīvus, -i, m., captive, (căpio.)
căput, -ĭtis, n., head, life, civil rights. (Cf. κεφαλή.)
carmen, -ĭnis, n., song. (căno.)
cassīta, -ae, f., the crested lark, ălauda cristata, L. (cassis, a helmet.)
castrum, -i, n., fort; in plur., a camp. (Cf. căsa, hut.)
cāsus, -us, m., accident, case. (cădo, I fall, happen.)
căterva, -ae, f., troop, band, body of men.
Căto, -ōnis, m., Cato. (cătus, shrewd.)
cauda, -ae, f., tail.
causa, -ae, f., cause, reason, case.
causā, abl. of causa, for the sake of, with genitive.
cautē, adv., cautiously, (cautus.)
cautus, -a, -um, part. from căveo, careful.
căveo, cāvi, cautum, 2 v. n., I am on my guard, cautious.
căverna, -ae, f., cave, hollow. (căvus, hollow.)
cēdo, cessi, cessum, 3 v. n. and a., I yield, go away, depart.
cĕlĕber, -bris, -bre, adj., numerous, famous.
cĕlĕrĭtas, -ātis, f., speed. (cĕler.)
cēlla, -ae, f., shrine, part of temple in which the image of the god stood.
cēlo, 1 v. a., I conceal.
censeo, -ui, censum, 2 v. a., I assess, think, vote for, decree, resolve.
censor, -ōris, m., censor. (censeo.)
centum, indecl. num. adj., one hundred.
certāmen, -ĭnis, n., contest, competition. (certo, I strive.)
cerva, -ae, f., doe.
cervix, -īcis, f., neck.
cessātor, -ōris, m., loiterer. (cesso.)
[cētĕrus], -a, -um, the other, the rest. The nom. sing. masc. is not in use.
Chīlō, -ōnis, m., Chilo. (Χείλων.)
cĭbārius, -a, -um, adj., belonging to food (cĭbus).
res cibaria, provisions.
cĭbus, -i, m., food.
cĭcātrix, -īcis, f., scar.
Cĭcĕro, -ōnis, m., Cicero.
cingo, -nxi, -nctum, 3 v. a., I surround, gird on, clothe.
circum, adv., and prep. gov. acc., around.
circum·fĕro, -tŭli, -lātum, 3 v. a., I carry round, report.
circum·fundo, -fūdi, -fūsum, 3 v. a., I pour around, surround.
circum·plector, -plexus, 3 v. dep. a., I embrace, surround.
circum·spĭcio, -spexi, -spectum, 3 v. n. and a., I look around, survey.
circum·volvo, no perf., -vŏlūtum, 3 v. a., I roll round.
circus, -i, m. (κίρκος), circus.
Cispius (mons), the Cispian hill.
cĭtātus, -a, -um, part. fr. cĭto, urged on.
citato cursu, at full speed.104
cĭto, 1 v. a., I urge on. (frequentative form of cieo.)
cīvis, -is, c., citizen.
cīvĭtas, -ātis, f., state. (cīvis.)
clāmor, -ōris, m., shout, noise. (clāmo.)
clandestīnus, -a, -um, adj., secret. (clam.)
Claudius, -ii, m., Claudius.
claudo, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I shut. (Cf. clavis, key, κλείω.)
coepi, coepisse, 3 v. a., defective (the pres. coepio only in ante-classical writers.) perf. with pres. signific., I begin.
cōgĭto, 1 v. a., I meditate upon. (co, agito.)
co·gnātus, -a, -um, adj., related by blood;
as subst., a kinsman. (co, gnatus for natus.)
co·gnōmen, -ĭnis, n., surname. (co, nōmen.)
co·gnōmĭno, 1 v. a., I surname.
co·gnosco, -gnōvi, -gnĭtum, 3 v. a., I become acquainted with, investigate a case. (nosco.)
cōgo, cŏēgi, cŏactum, 3 v. a., I drive together, compel, (co, ago.)
col·lŏquor, -lŏcūtus, 3 v. dep., I talk with.
cŏlo, cŏlui, cultum, 3 v. a., I cultivate. (Cf. ā̆grĭ-cŏla.)
collum, -i, n., neck.
cŏma, -ae, f., hair, foliage. (κόμη.)
cŏmes, -ĭtis, c., companion. (com, eo.)
commentĭcius, -a, -um, adj., pretended, false. (comminiscor.)
cŏmĭtor, 1 v. dep., I accompany. (cŏmes.)
commentus, -a, -um, part. fr. commĭniscor.
com·mĭniscor, -mentus, 3 v. dep., I devise, invent. (Cf. re·miniscor.)
cōmoedia, -ae, f., comedy. (κωμῳδία.)
certamina comoediarum, dramatic competitions.
com·păro, 1 v. a., prepare, procure.
compĕtītor, -ōris, m., rival, competitor. (com·peto.)
com·plōro, 1 v. a., I bewail violently.
com·plūres, -a, rarely -ia, adj., several.
com·pōno, -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 v. a., I place together, arrange, compose.
litterae compositae, forged letters.
con·cēdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. a. and n., I yield, grant, retire.
con·cĭdo, ĭdi, no sup., 3 v. n., I fall down. (cădo.)
con·cĭpio, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 v. a., I take to myself.
concepta sanies, matter which has gathered in a wound. (căpio.)
con·clāmo, 1 v. a. and n., I cry out, shout together or loudly.
con·demno, 1 v. a., I sentence, condemn. (damno.)
condĭcio, -ōnis, f., agreement, conditions, terms, (con·dico.)
con·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I bring together, build, lay up, hide.
con·fĕro, -tŭli, -lātum, or collātum, 3 v. a., I bring together, employ, attribute.105
con·fĭcio, -fēci, -fectum, 3 v. a., I execute, finish. (făcio.)
confīdentia, -ae, f., boldness, confidence. (confīdo.)
con·fīdo, -fisus, 3 v. n., I trust in.
con·firmo, 1 v. a., I establish, confirm.
confīsus, -a, -um, part. fr. confido, confident.
con·formo, 1 v. a., I shape.
con·fūto, 1 v. a., I restrain, silence. (futo, intens. form of fŏveo.)
con·gĕro, -gessi, -gestum, 3 v. a., I bring together.
Absolutely (sc. nidum), I build a nest.
con·grĕdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep., I meet as friend, or foe, I attack. (gradior.)
congressio, -onis, f., meeting, attack. (congredior.)
cōn·iĭcio, -iēci, -iectum, 3 v. a., I throw together, hurl. (iăcio.)
coniūrātio, -ōnis, f., conspiracy. (con·iūro.)
cōnor, 1 v. dep., I attempt.
con·scisco, -scīvi, or -scii, -scītum, 3 v. a., I approve of.
conscisco aliquid mihi, I adjudge something to myself;
conscisco necem, mortem, mihi, I kill myself.
consensus, -us, m., consent, agreement. (consentio.)
con·sĕquor, -sĕcūtus, 3 v. dep., I follow after, attain, gain.
con·sĕro, -sēvi, -sĭtum, or -sătum, 3 v. a., I sow, plant.
con·sīdo, -sēdi, -sessum, 3 v. n., I sit down, encamp. (sĕdeo.)
consĭlium, -ii, n., plan, purpose. (con, root sul; cf. consul.)
con·sisto, -stĭti, stĭtum, 3 v. n. and a., I halt.
consĭtus, -a, -um, part. fr. consĕro.
conspectus, -us, m., sight, view. (conspĭcio.)
con·spĭcio, -spexi, -spectum, 3 v. a. and n., I look at with attention, see.
con·sterno, 1 v. a., I stretch on ground, terrify.
con·stĭtuo, -ui, -ūtum, 3 v. a., I place (a thing) somewhere, station. (stătuo.)
con·sŭesco, -suēvi, -suētum, 3 v. n., I grow accustomed.
consul, -ŭlis, m., consul. (Cf. consĭlium.)
consŭlāris, -e, adj., consular.
consŭlo, -lui, -ltum, 3 v. n. and a., I reflect, I consult with. (Cf. consilium.)
consulto, 1 v. a., I deliberate upon, I debate. (frequentative form of consŭlo.)
consultum, -i, n., decision, decree. (consŭlo.)
con·temno, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 v. a., I despise.
con·tendo, -di, -tum, 3 v. a. and n., I strain after, strive for, assert.
con·testor, 1 v. dep., I call to witness.
Contestor litem, I introduce a lawsuit by calling witnesses. (testis.)
con·tingo, -tĭgi, -tactum, 3 v. n., I touch, reach to, happen. (tango.)
contĭnuo, adv., immediately. (continuus, fr. con·tineo.)106
contio, ōnis, f., meeting, assembly. (for con·ventio, a coming together.)
contrā, adv., prep. gov. acc., against.
contra dīco, I object to. appeal against sentence.
con·tueor, -tuitus, 2 v. dep., I gaze upon.
contŭmēlia, -ae, f., disgrace, ignominy. (root tem: cf. con·temno.)
con·turbo, 1 v. a., I throw into disorder. (turba.)
con·vello, -velli (rarely -vulsi), -vulsum, 3 v. a., I tear away, up.
con·vĕnio, -vēni, -ventum, 4 v. n. and a., I come together, agree with, meet.
con·verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., I turn round, manœuvre.
con·vinco, -vīci, -victum, 3 v. a., I completely conquer. I convict of (a crime).
convīvium, -ii, n., banquet. (vīvo.)
cōpia, -ae, f., plenty, supply; in plur., forces. (co, ops.)
cōpiōsus, -a, -um, adj. with abl., well supplied with.
cor, cordis, n., heart. (Cf. καρδία.)
cōram, adv., and prep. gov. abl., in the presence of.
Cŏrinthius, -a, -um, adj., Corinthian.
Cŏrinthus, -i, f., Corinth.
cŏrōna, , f., wreath, garland. (κορώνη.)
cŏrōno, 1 v. a., I crown. (cŏrōna.)
corpus, -ŏris, n., body.
cor·rĭgo, -rexi, -rectum, 3 v. a., I make straight, correct. (con, rego.)
Cŏruncānius, -ii, Coruncanius.
Corvīnus, -i, m., Corvinus. (corvus.)
corvus, -i, m., raven. (κόραξ.)
cŏtīdĭānus (or quŏtīdĭānus), -a, -um, adj., daily. (cŏtīdĭē.)
cras, adv., to-morrow.
Crassus, -i, m., Crassus.
crēdo, -dĭdi, -ditum, 3 v. a., I entrust, I trust in, I believe.
Used absolutely, I suppose.
crēdŭlĭtas, -ātis, f., easiness of belief, credulity, (crēdŭlus, crēdo.)
crīmen, -ĭnis, n., charge, accusation.
Crŏtōniensis, -e, adj., of Crotona.
crŭcĭātus, -us, m., torture, (crŭcio, crux.)
cruentus, -a, -um, adj., stained with blood. (cruor.)
cruor, -ōris, m., gore, blood which has flowed from wounds.
crūs, crūrĭs, n., leg.
cŭbĭcŭlum, -i, m., a resting or sleeping room, (cŭbo.)
cūius, -a, -um, interrog. and relat. adj. pron., whose? or whose. (qui.)
cultus, -a, -um, part. fr. colo, cultivated, civilized.
cum (or quum), conj., when, since, if, although.
cum, prep. gov. abl., with.
cunctābundus, -a, -um, lingering, (cunctor.)
cunctor, 1 v. dep., I loiter, linger.107
cunctus, -a, -um, adj., all in a body, all. (for con·iunctus.)
cŭneus, -i, m., wedge, wedge-shaped body of troops.
cŭpĭdus, -a, -um, adj., eager, desirous, proud of (with gen.) (cŭpio.)
cūr, adv. and conj., why, wherefore.
cūra, -ae, f., care, anxiety.
cūria, -ae, f., senate-house. (Quiris, Cures.)
Cŭrius, -ii, m., Curius.
cūro, 1 v. a., I take care of.
With gerundive, cf. vii. 3. note.
Curo puerum docendum, I get the boy taught. (cūra.)
currus, -us, m., chariot. (curro.)
cursus, -us, m., running, race, course.
Cĭtato cursu, at full speed. (curro.)
custōdio, 4 v. a., I guard. (custos.)
custos, -ōdis, c., guard.
de, prep. gov. abl., concerning, from.
dēbeo, 2 v. a., I owe. (de, hăbeo.)
dēbĭlis, -e, adj., lamed, feeble. (de, habilis.)
dĕcem, numer., ten.
dē·cerno, -crēvi, -crētum, 3 v. a. and n., I determine, decide; of the senate, I pass a decree.
dē·cīdo, -cīdi, -cīsum. 3 v. a., I cut off. (caedo.)
de·clāmo, 1 v. n. and a., I exercise myself in speaking, declaim.
de·clāro, 1 v. a., I show, proclaim.
dĕcŏro, 1 v. a., I adorn. (dĕcus, ornament, glory.)
dēdĭtio, -ōnis, f., surrender. (dēdo.)
dē·dūco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I lead away, withdraw, bring down.
dē·fendo, -di, -sum, 3 v. a., I ward off, keep off.
dēfensor, -ōris, m., defender. (dēfendo.)
dē·fĕro, -tŭli, -lātum, 3 v. a., I bring down, hand over.
dē·fīo, -fectus, -fĭĕri, v. n. (used as passive of dēfĭcio), I am wanting, I fail.
dēformĭtas, -ātis, f., ugliness, deformity. (dē·formis, ugly. Cf. forma.)
dē·iĭcio, -iēci, -iectum, 3 v. a., I throw down. (iăcio.)
deīnceps (dissyl.), or dĕïnceps, adv., next, following. (deinde.)
deīndĕ (dissyl.), or dĕīndĕ, adv., then, thereupon.
dēlecto, 1 v. a., I delight. (intens. of delĭcio.)
dē·lĭgo, -lēgi, -lectum, 3 v. a., I choose out, select. (lĕgo.)
dē·līro, 1 v. n., I rave. (de, lira, out of the furrow.)
dē·lĭtesco, -tui, 3 v. n., I lie hid, conceal myself. (lătesco, inceptive of lăteo.)
delphīnus, -i, m., dolphin. (δελφίς.)
Dēmādēs, -is, m., Demades. (Δημάδης.)
de·mĕto, -messui, -messum, 3 v. a., I reap, mow.108
dē·mīror, 1 v. dep. a., I wonder at.
dē·mŏror, 1 v. dep., I linger.
Dēmosthĕnes, -is and -i, m., Demosthenes. (Δημοσθένης.)
dē·mulceo, -mulsi, -mulctum, 2 v. a., I stroke down, caress.
dēmum, adv., at last. (de.)
dēnĭquĕ, adv., and then, finally. (de.)
Dentātus, -i, m., Dentatus.
dēnuo, adv., again. (For de novo.)
dē·pŏpŭlor, 1 v. dep. a., I ravage.
dē·pŭto, 1 v. a. I cut off, prune.
de·rīdeo, -si, -sum, 2 v. a., I laugh at.
de·scisco, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 v. n., I withdraw, revolt from, abandon; with prep. ab and abl.
dē·sĕro, -rui, -rtum, 3 v. a., I desert, abandon. (Lit., I undo, sever; sero, I join.)
dēsertus, -a, -um, part. fr. dēsĕro, lonely, desert.
dē·sīdĕro, 1 v. a., I long for.
dē·sĭlio, -ĭlui, -ultum, 4 v. n., I leap down, (sălio.)
dē·sĭno, -sii, rarely -sīvi, -sĭtum, 3 v. n. and a., I give up, cease.
dē·sĭpio, no perf. or sup., -ere, v. n., I act foolishly, I am foolish, (săpio.)
dēsĭtus, -a, -um, part. of desĭno, obsolete, disused.
dē·spĭcio, -exi, -ectum, 3 v. a. and n., I look down upon, despise.
dē·sum, -fui, -esse, v. n., I am wanting.
dē·tĕgo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I uncover, discover.
dē·tergeo, -si, -sum, 2 v. a., I wipe off.
dē·trăho, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I take away.
dē·trunco, 1 v. a., I lop, cut off.
dĕ·ūro, -ussi, -ustum, 3 v. a., I burn up.
deus, -i, m., god
dē·vĕho, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I carry away, carry down.
dē·vĕnio, -vēni, -ventum, 4 v. n., I come from, I go to, arrive at.
dexter, -tĕra, -tĕrum, and tra, trum, adj., on the right side, right. (δεξιός.)
Diāna, -ae, f., Diana.
dĭcio, -ōnis, f., rule, jurisdiction. (Cf. dico, condicio.)
dīco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I say, tell, call.
dictum, -i, n., saying, command, (dīco.)
dī·dūco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I draw apart, separate.
dies, -ei, m. (in sing. com.), day.
dif·fero, distŭli, dīlātum, 3 v. a., I carry away, put off.
dif·fīcĭlis, -e, adj., difficult, hard. (făcĭlis.)
dī·gĕro, -gessi, -gestum, 3 v. a., I separate, disperse, dissipate.
dĭgĭtus, -i, m., finger.
dignĭtas, -ātis, f., rank, dignity. (dignus.)
dignus, -a, -um, adj., worthy.
dī·grĕdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep., I go away. (grădior.)109
dī·lăcĕro, 1 v. a., I tear to pieces.
dīlūcesco, luxi, no sup., 3 v. n., I begin to grow light. (Inceptive form of dilūceo.)
dīlūcĭdē, adv., clearly. (dilūceo, lux.)
dīmĭdium, -ii, n., half, (di, medius.)
dī·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I send away, dismiss.
dī·rĭgo, -rexi, -rectum, 3 v. a., I arrange in a straight line, I direct to.
dis·cēdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. n., I depart, go away.
di·scindo, -scĭdi, -scissum, 3 v. a., I tear asunder, cut open.
discī̆plīna, -ae, f., teaching, knowledge, tactics, custom. (discĭpŭlus, disco.)
discĭpŭlus, -i, m., disciple, follower. (disco.)
disco, dĭdĭci, no sup., 3 v. a., I learn. (Root da: cf. διδάσκω, doceo.)
dissĭmŭlanter, adv., secretly. (dissĭmŭlo.)
dĭū, adv., for a long time. (dies.)
dī·vello, -velli, rarely -vulsi, -vulsum, 3 v. a., I tear asunder.
dīves, -ĭtis, adj., rich.
dīvīnĭtus, adv., from heaven, by divine providence or influence. (dīvus, deus.)
dīvīnus, -a, -um, adj., divine. (dīvus, deus.)
do, dĕdi, dătum, dăre, v. a., I give. (Cf. δίδωμι dōnum.)
dŏceo, -cui, -ctum, 2 v. a., I teach. (Cf. disco.)
dŏleo, -ui, -ĭtum, 2 v. n. and a., I grieve, I grieve for.
dŏlor, -ōris, m., pain, grief. (dŏleo.)
dŏmi, adv., at home. Locative case of dŏmus.
dŏmus, -us, f., home, house. (δόμος, root dem, to build.)
, conj., until.
dōno, 1 v. a., I give, I present. (do.)
dōnum, -i, n., gift, (do.)
dorsum, -i, n., back.
dŭbĭto, 1 v. a., I hesitate.
dŭbius, -a, -um, adj., doubtful.
Dŭbio prŏcul, without doubt.
dum, conj., whilst, until.
dŭŏ, -ae, -ŏ, numer., two. (δύο.)
dŭŏ·dē·vīginti, numer., eighteen.
dūrus, -a, -um, adj., hard, harsh.
dux, dŭcis, m., leader. (dūco.)
Ex republica, to the advantage of the state.
ĕdo, ēdi, ēsum, 3 v. a., I eat. (Cf. ĕdax, ἔδω, ἐσθίω.)
ecquĭs, ecquĭd, interrog. subst. pron., whether any?
ē·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I give forth, bring forth, produce, utter, form, raise.
ē·dūco, 1 v. a., I rear, educate.
ef·fĕro, ex·tŭli, ē·lātum, 3 v. a., I bring out.
ef·fĭcio, -fēci, -fectum, 3 v. a., I bring to pass, accomplish. (ex, făcio.)
ĕgŏ, pers. pron., I.
ĕgŏ·mĕt, I myself.110
ē·grĕdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep., I go out, I leave. (grădior.)
ēgrĕgĭus, -a, -um, adj., distinguished, eminent. (e, grex, chosen from the herd.)
Ēlectra, -ae, f., Electra. (Ἠλέκτρα.)
ĕlĕphantus, -i, m., elephant. (ἐλέφας.)
ēlŏquentia, -ae, f., eloquence. (ēlŏquor.)
ē·lūdo, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I mock, jeer at.
ē·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I send out.
ĕmo, ēmi, emptum, 3 v. a., I buy.
emptio, -ōnis, f., purchase, buying. (ĕmo.)
ĕnim, conj., for.
sed enim, but indeed.
Ennius, -ii, m., Ennius.
ē·nuntio, 1 v. a., I declare, mention.
eo, īvi or ii, ĭtum, īre, 4 v. n., I go. (Root i; cf. εῖμι.)
eo, adv., thither, for that reason, therefore. (is.)
ĕphippium, -ii, n., saddle, horse caparison. (ἐφίππιον, from ἐπὶ, ἵππος.)
ĕpŭlae, -arum, f., feast, banquet. (In sing. ĕpŭlum, -i, n.)
ĕquĭtātus, -us, m., cavalry. (ĕquus.)
ĕquŭs, -i, m., horse. (ἵππος.)
ergo, adv., therefore.
ē·rŭbesco, -bui, no sup., 3 v. n. incep., I grow red, blush.
ĕt, conj., and.
ĕtĭam, conj., also, even.
ĕtĭam·si, conj., even if.
Euander, -dri, m., Evander.
Euathlus, -i, m., Euathlus.
ēverto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., I overthrow.
exanguĭs, or exsanguis, -e, adj., bloodless, lifeless. (ex, sanguis.)
ex·ănĭmātus, part., from ex-ănĭmo, lifeless.
ex·ănĭmo, 1 v. a., I deprive of life. (anima.)
ex·cīdo, -cīdi, -cīsum, 3 v. a., I cut out, off. (caedo.)
excĭto, 1 v. a., I arouse. (Freq. form of excio.)
ex·clāmo, 1 v. a. and n., I cry out, exclaim.
ex·eo, -ivi or ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 v. n., I go out.
ex·erceo, -ui, -ĭtum, 2 v. a., I drive on, I practise. (arceo.)
exercĭtus, -us, m., army. (exerceo.)
exerto, or exserto, no perf. and sup., 1 v. a., I thrust out. (ex, serto, freq. of sĕro.)
ex·ĭgo, -ēgi, -actum, 3 v. a., I drive out. (ăgo.)
exĭlium, or exsilium, -ii, n., exile. (exul.)
exĭmius, -a, -um, adj., extraordinary, uncommon. (eximo, I take out of the mass.)
ex·istĭmo, 1 v. a., I judge, consider. (aestimo.)
exĭtus, -us, m., going out, departure. (exeo.)
ex·ordior, -orsus, 4 v. dep. a., I begin.
ex·pecto, or ex·specto, 1 v. a., I look for. (ex, specto.)
ex·pĕrior, -pertus, 4 v. dep., I try.111
ex·pīro, or ex·spīro, 1 v. a., I breathe out. (ex, spiro.)
ex·pōno, -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 v. a., I set forth, explain.
ex·prĭmo, -pressi, -pressum, 3 v. a., I press out. (prĕmo.)
ex·prōmo, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 v. a., I bring forth, utter.
extemplo, adv., immediately.
ex·to, or ex·sto, no perf. and sup., -are, v. n., I stand forth, appear. (ex, sto.)
extrā, prep. gov. acc., outside.
Extra tela, out of range.
extrēmus, -a, -um, adj., outermost, furthest.
Extremâ nocte, at the very end of night.
Superl. degree from [exter and extĕrus, post-classical], extĕrior, extrēmus, and extĭmus. (ex.)
ex·urgo, or ex·surgo, exurrexi, no sup., 3 v. n., I rise up. (ex, surgo.)
exūro, -ussi, -ustum, 3 v. a., I burn up.
Fābrĭcius, -ii, m., Fabricius.
fābŭla, -ae, f., fable, story. (fāri, to say.)
făcĭlis, -e, adj., easy, good-natured. (făcio.)
făcĭnus, -ŏris, n., deed, crime. (făcio.)
făcio, fēci, factum, făcĕre, 3 v. a., I make, do.
Facio cum aliquo, I take part with anyone.
factum, -i, n., deed. (făcio.)
fācundia, -ae, f., eloquence(fāri, to say.)
fallo, fĕfelli, falsum, 3 v. a., I deceive. (σφάλλω, ἀ·σφαλής.)
falsus, -a, -um, adj., false. (fallo.)
falx, falcis, f., sickle.
fāma, -ae, f., renown. (fāri, to say.)
fămĭlia, -ae (old gen. -as), f., the slaves in a household, a household.
fămĭliāris, -e, adj., belonging to a household (fămĭlia), intimate;
as subst., friend.
Făvōrīnus, -i, m., Favorinus.
fēcundus, -a, , adj., fruitful.
fēlīcĭter, happily: fēlīcius, fēlīcissime. (fēlix.)
fēlix, fēlīcis, adj., happy, rich.
fĕra, -ae, f., wild beast. (ferus.)
fĕrē, adv., almost.
fĕrīnus, -a, -um, adj., of wild beasts. (fĕrus.)
fermē, adv., nearly, about, usually. (Cf. fere.)
fĕro, tŭli, lātum, ferre, 3 v. a., I bear; I tell, say. (φέρω, tollo.)
fĕrox, fĕrōcis, adj., fierce. (Cf. ferus.)
fĕrus, -a, -um, adj., wild. (Cf. ferox.)
fervo, -vi, no sup., 3, v. n., I grow hot;
commoner form, ferveo, -bui, no sup., 2.
festīno, 1, v. n. and a., I hasten.
fētus, -us, m., brood, offspring.
fĭdes, -ei, f., faith, trustworthiness. (fīdo.)
fĭdes, -is, f., string, stringed instrument, lyre; usually in plural only.112
fīdūcia, -ae, f., trust, courage. (fido.)
fīlius, -ii, m., son.
fingo, -nxi, -nctum, 3 v. a., I form, fashion.
fīo, factus, fiĕri, v. n., (used as pass. of facio), I am made, become.
firmo, 1 v. a., I strengthen. (firmus.)
flāgĭtium, -ii, n., shameful act, disgrace. (flāgĭto.)
flăgro, 1 v. n., I burn, blaze.
flāvesco, no perf. and sup., 3 v. n., I become yellow. (Inceptive form of flāveo.)
flecto, -xi, -xum, 3 v. a., I bend.
flōs, -ōris, m., flower.
fluctus, -us, m., wave. (fluo.)
fluito, 1 v. n., I float. (Intensitive form of fluo.)
fŏcŭlus, -i, m., little hearth, brazier. (diminutive of focus.)
fŏris, adv., out of doors, (fŏris, a door.)
formīdo, -ĭnis, f., fear.
fors, fortis, f., chance.
fortĕ, adv., by chance. (abl. of fors.)
fortis, -e, adj., brave.
fortĭter, adv., bravely. (fortis.)
fortĭtūdo, -ĭnis, f., bravery. (fortis.)
fortuī̆tus, -a, -um, adj., accidental. (fors.)
frāter, -tris, m., brother. (φράτηρ, clansman.)
fraudŭlentus, -a, -um, adj., deceitful. (fraus.)
fraus, fraudis, f., deceit.
fraxĭnus, -i, f., ash tree.
frĕmĭtus, -us, m., roaring (frĕmo.)
frēnum, -i, n., bridle, bit.
frons, frondis, f., leafy branch, foliage.
frūges, -um. Cf. frux.
frūmentum, -i, n., corn. (For frugĭmentum, cf. frux, fruor.)
frustrā, adv., in vain. (Cf. fraus.)
frux, frūgis, f., fruit. Nom. sing. rare; more common in plural. (Cf. fruor.)
fŭga, -ae, f., flight, (fŭgio, φεύγω.)
fŭgĭtīvus, -a, -um, adj., fugitive. (fŭgio.)
fulgeo, fulsi, no sup., 2 v. n., I glitter. (Cf. fulgur, lightning.)
fundo, fūdi, fūsum, 3 v. a., I pour out, scatter.
fundus, -i, m., farm.
furtim, adv., secretly. (fur, thief.)
fūsus. Cf. fundo.
Gallĭcus, -a, -um, adj., belonging to Gaul, Gallic.
Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul.
Gellius, -ii, m., Gellius.
gĕmĭtus, , m., groan. (gĕmo.)
gens, gentis, f., clan, race, nation. (Cf. gigno, genus.)
gĕnus, -ĕris, n., race, kind. (γένος, gens, gigno.)
gĕro, gessi, gestum, 3 v. a., I bear, I carry on.
gesto, 1 v. a., I carry. (Intens. of gĕro.)
gigno, gĕnui, gĕnĭtum, 3 v. a., I produce. (Cf. gens, genus.)
glădius, -ii, m., sword.113
glōria, -ae, f., renown, glory.
Graecē, adv., in Greek.
Graecia, -ae, f., Greece.
grāmen, -ĭnis, n., grass.
grāmĭneus, -a, -um, adj., made of grass. (grāmen.)
grandis, -e, adj., great, large, abundant.
Grandis natu, advanced in age.
grātia, -ae, f., favour, influence, gratitude, thanks: with agere in plural only.
In abl. gratiâ, for the sake of, with gen. (gratus.)
grātŭlātio, -onis, f., rejoicing, congratulation. (grātŭlor.)
grātŭlor, 1 v. dep., I congratulate, give thanks. (grātus.)
gŭla, -ae, f., throat.
hăbĭto, 1 v. a. and n., I inhabit, dwell in. (Intensitive of hăbeo.)
haereo, haesi, haesum, 2 v. n., I stick to.
Hannĭbal, -ălis, m., Hannibal.
haud, adv., not.
haurio, hausi, haustum, 4 v. a., I draw up, drink, tear open, wound.
haut (or haud), adv., not.
haut·quā·quam, or haud·qua·quam, adv., by no means.
Hercles (or Hercŭles), -is and -i. m., Hercules.
For form Hercle, cf. iii. 1. note.
hīc, haec, hōc, demonstr. pron., this.
hīc, adv., here.
hĭlăris, -e, adj., merry, amusing.
hinc, adv., hence. (hic.)
hio, 1 v. n., I open my mouth, gape.
Rimis hiantem, with wide open clefts, lit., gaping open with clefts.
Hispānia, -ae, f., Spain.
Hispānĭcus, -a, -um, adj., Spanish.
histrio, -ōnis, m., actor. (Etruscan word hister, an actor.)
hŏdiē, adv., to-day. (hoc die.)
hŏdiernus, -a, -um, adj., of this day. (hŏdie.)
hŏmo, -ĭnis, m., man. (Cf. hūmānus.)
hŏnestus, -a, -um, adj., honourable, proper, respectable. (hŏnor.)
hŏnor, or hŏnos, -ōris, m., honour.
Hŏrātius, -ii, m., Horatius.
hortor, 1 v. dep., I encourage, urge. (Cf. ὄρνυμι, ὁρμή.)
hospes, -ĭtis, m., host, guest, stranger. (Cf. hostis, stranger, enemy.)
hospĭta, -ae, f. (feminine form of hospes,) female host, guest, stranger.
hostis, -is, c., enemy.
hūius·cĕ·mŏdi, and hūius·mŏdi, of this kind. (Cf. mŏdus.)
hŭmĕrus, -i, m., shoulder.
hŭmĭlis, -e, adj., low, humble, insignificant. (hŭmus, ground.)
iam, adv., already, now.
ĭbī̆, adv., there, thereupon. (is.)
ĭbī̆dem, adv., in the same place, immediately. (ibi, dem. cf. idem.)114
ictus, -us, m., blow, stroke. (Obsolete present, ico and icio, I strike.)
idcirco, adv., therefore. (id-circo.)
īdem, ĕădem, ĭdem, pron., same. (is, and suffix dem.)
ĭdōneus, -a, -um, adj., fit.
ĭgĭtur, conj., then, therefore. (is, and suffix tur.)
ignāvia, -ae, f., cowardice. (in-gnāvus, lazy, cowardly; from navus, or gnavus, busy.)
ignis, -is, m., fire.
ignōmĭnia, -ae, f., disgrace. (in-nōmen, or gnōmen, loss of good name.)
ignōro, 1 v. a. and n., I am ignorant of. (ignārus, for in-gnarus or -narus
i·gnosco, -nōvi, nōtum, 3 v. a., I pardon, overlook. (in-gnosco or -nosco.)
i·gnōtus, -a, -um, adj., unknown. (in·gnotus or notus.)
īlex, -ĭcis, f., holm-oak, or great scarlet oak. Quercus ilex L.
īlĭco (or illico), adv., on the spot, immediately. (in, loco.)
illĕ, illă, illŭd, demonstr. pron., that, he.
illīc, adv., in that place, there. (ille, ce.)
im·mōbĭlis, -e, adj., motionless. (in, mŏveo.)
impĕdio, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 4 v. a., I hinder. (in, pes.)
impĕrātor, -ōris, m., general. (impĕro.)
impĕrium, -ii, n., command, empire. (impĕro.)
impĕro, 1 v. a., I command, I rule over (dat.).
impetro, 1 v. a., I accomplish, obtain.
impĕtus, -us, m., attack, force. (in·peto, I rush upon.)
mītis, -e, adj., stern.
in, prep. gov. acc. and abl., in, into, on, against.
in·cēdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. n., I approach.
incendium, -ii, n., fire. (in-cendo, fr. in, candeo.)
in·cīdo, -cīdi, -cīsum, 3 v. a., I cut into, cut through, open. (in, caedo.)
in·cĭpio, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 v. a., I begin. (in, căpio, I seize upon.)
in·clūdo, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I shut in. (claudo.)
in·cognĭtus, -a, -um, adj., unknown. (in·cognosco.)
in·cŏlŭmis, -e, adj., uninjured, safe.
in·cruentus, -a, -um, adj., bloodless. (cruor.)
in·curro, -curri or -cŭcurri, cursum, 3 v. n., I rush into, rush against, attack.
incursio, -ōnis, f., inroad, attack. (in·curro.)
indĕ, adv., thence, thenceforward. (is.)
in·dīco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I proclaim.
Indĭcus, -a, -um, adj., Indian.
in·dignus, -a, -um, adj., unworthy.
in·dūco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I bring in, exhibit.115
induo, -ui, -ūtum, 3 v. a., I put on. (ἐνδύω.)
ineptus, -a, -um, adj., unsuitable, foolish. (in, aptus.)
ĭn·explĭcābĭlis, -e, adj., hard to unfold, understand, intricate. (in, ex, plico, I fold.)
infĭtiae, -arum, f., denial. Only used in acc. plur. in phrase infitias ire, to deny. (infateor.)
in·flo, 1 v. a., I blow into or upon.
informis, -e, adj., shapeless. (forma.)
infrā, adv., and prep. gov. acc., below. (For inferă, sc. parte.)
in·fringo, -frēgi, -fractum, 3 v. a., I break in upon, break. (frango.)
ingĕnium, -ii, n., nature, talent, genius. (in, gigno.)
ingens, -entis, adj., immense.
in·grātus, -a, -um, adj., ungrateful.
in·grĕdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep., I step into, advance. (grădior.)
ĭn·ĭmīcus, -a, -um, adj., hostile;
as subst., an enemy. (in, ămīcus.)
in·īquus, -a, -um, unequal, unfair, dangerous. (in, aequus.)
in·iūrātus, -a, -um, adj., unsworn, relieved from oath. (in, iūro.)
iniūria, -ae, f., wrong, insult. (in, ius.)
inlĕcĕbra, or illĕcĕbra, -ae, f., attraction, allurement. (illicio.)
inlustris, or illustris, -e, adj., famous. (inlustro, I make light.)
inmānis, or immanis, -e, adj., fierce. (in, mānus, old Latin word = bonus: cf. manes, good spirits.)
inmensus, -a, -um, adj., immeasurable. (metior.)
inmĕrĭto, adv., undeservedly. (in, mereo.)
in·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I send in, thrust in, carry in, incite or suborn against.
Used absolutely, sc. equum, urge horse forward, vi. 9.
in·mortālis, or im·mortālis, -e, adj., immortal.
in·ŏpīnātus, -a, -um, adj., unexpected. (in, ŏpīnor.)
in·pĕrītus, -a, -um, unskilled.
in·perfectus, -a, -um, adj., not thoroughly finished, unfinished. (făcio.)
in·plūmis, -e, adj., unfeathered, unfledged. (plūma.)
in·pōno, -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 v. a., I place on.
inquam, v. n., defective, I say.
in·quīro, -sīvi, -sītum, 3 v. a., I search into, examine, (in, quaero.)
in·rīdeo, -rīsi, -rīsum, 2 v. a. and n., I laugh at.
insānia, -ae, f., madness. (sānus.)
in·scendo, -endi, -ensum, 3 v. a., I climb up, mount. (scando.)
in·sĭdeo, -sēdi, -sessum, 2 v. n., I sit on, occupy, (sĕdeo.)
in·sĭdiae, -arum, f., plur. only, ambush, treachery. (insĭdeo.)
insigne, -is, n., badge, ornament. (in·signis, distinguished by a mark, signum.)116
in·sisto, -stiti, no sup., 3 v. n., I stand on, rest on, persist.
in·sŏlens, -entis, adj., unaccustomed to, with gen. (in, sŏleo.)
insŏlenter, adv., haughtily. (in·solens.)
in·specto, 1 v. a., I look upon. (Frequentative of in·spicio, from specio.)
instinctus, -a, -um, part. fr. instinguo.
instinguo, -nxi, -nctum, 3 v. a., I incite. (Only in perf. part. pass. in classical writers.)
instĭtuo, -ui, -ūtum, 3 v. a., I determine. (stătuo.)
in·sto, -stĭti, no sup., 1 v. n., I stand upon, press upon, insist.
in·struo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I build upon, I draw up, arrange.
in·suesco, -ēvi, -ētum, 3 v. n., I am accustomed.
insŭla, -ae, f., island, lodging-house.
intĕger, -gra, -gram, adj., untouched, sound. (tango.)
intellĕgo, -exi, -ectum, 3 v. a., I perceive, understand. (inter, lĕgo.)
inter, prep. gov. acc., between, among.
intĕr·ĕā, adv., meanwhile. (inter·ea, from is.)
inter·dīco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I forbid.
intĕr·eo, -ii, -ĭtum, 4 v. n., I die. (Lit., I go among several things, and so, disappear.)
inter·fĭcio, -fēci, -fectum, 3 v. a., I kill. (făcio, lit., I put between.)
intĕrim, adv., meanwhile. (inter, im old acc. of is.)
interĭtus, -us, m., ruin, death. (intereo.)
interpres, -ĕtis, com., interpreter.
inter·rŏgo, 1 v. a., I question, ask.
intĭmus, -a, -um, adj., inmost, superlative from [intĕrus, not found; cf. inter and intra], intĕrior.
intrā, adv., and prep. gov. acc., within.
in·trĕpĭdus, -a, -um, adj., fearless.
intrō·dūco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I bring in, introduce.
intrŏ·eo, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, 4 v. n., I go in, enter.
intrō·grĕdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep., I step in, enter. (grădior.)
intrō·rumpo, -rūpi, -ruptum, 3 v. n., I burst into.
in·vĕnio, -vēni, -ventum, 4 v. a., I come upon, find.
in·vīsus, -a, -um, adj., hated. (in·vĭdeo, I look at with evil eye, hate.)
ipse, -a, -um, demonstr. pron., himself, herself, itself.
īra, -ae, f., anger.
is, ea, id, demonstr. pron., that, he, she, it.
istĕ, -a, -ŭd, demonstr. pron., that of yours, that near you.
istic, -aec, -oc or -uc, demonstr. pron., that of yours, that near you. (For iste·ce.)117
ĭta, adv., thus, so.
Ītălia, -ae, f., Italy.
ĭtem, adv., likewise, also. (is.)
ĭter, itĭnĕris, n., journey. (eo.)
ĭtĕrum, adv., a second time, again. (Acc. sing. of comparative form from is.)
ĭtĭdem, adv., in like manner. (ita, dem.)
iŭbeo, iussi, iussum, 2 v. a., I order.
iūcunde, adv., pleasantly. (iūcundus.)
iūcundus, -a, -um, adj., pleasant, delightful. (iŏcus.)
iūdex, -ĭcis, m., judge. (ius, dīco.)
iūdĭco, 1 v. a., I judge, decide. (ius, dīco.)
Iūliānus, -i, m., Julian.
Iūpĭter (or Iuppĭter), Iŏvis, m., Jupiter, Jove. (Iovis pater: cf. Ζεύς πατήρ. Iovis from root div, bright.)
iūro and iūror (dep.), 1 v. a., I swear. (ius.)
iūs, iūris, n., right, law, justice. (Root iu, join: cf. ζεύγνυμι.)
ius·iurandum, iuris·iurandi, n., oath. (ius, iūro.)
iustus, -a, -um, adj., right, fair. (ius.)
lăbor, -ōris, m., toil, labour.
Lăcĕdaemŏnius, -a, -um, adj., Lacedaemonian, Spartan.
Lăcōnĭcus, -a, -um, adj., Laconian, Lacedaemonian.
lā̆crĭmo, 1 v. n., I weep. (lā̆crĭma: cf. δάκρυ, tear.)
laetĭtia, -ae, f., joy. (laetus.)
laetus, -a, -um, adj., glad, rich.
lambo, -bi, -bĭtum, 3 v. a., I lick.
lāmenta, orum, n., plur. only, wailing, lamentation.
lāna, -ae, f., wool.
lănio, 1 v. a., I tear, mangle. (Cf. lăcer, torn to pieces.)
latē, adv., widely. (lātus.)
lătēbra, -ae, f., hiding place. (lăteo, I lie hid.)
lătē̆brōsus, -a, -um, adj., full of hiding places; hidden, retired. (lătē̆bra.)
Lătīnē, adv., in Latin.
Lătīnus, -a, -um, adj., Latin.
lātro, 1 v. n., I bark, bark at.
lātus, -a, -um, adj., broad.
lātus, -a, -um, part. of fĕro.
lătus, -ĕris, n., side.
laudo, 1 v. a., I praise. (laus.)
laurus, -us, f., bay tree, laurel tree.
laus, laudis, f., praise.
laxo, 1 v. a., I loosen, relax. (laxus; cf. languidus.)
lēgātus, -i, m., ambassador, lieutenant. (lēgo, -are, I send with a charge, depute.)
lĕgo, -lexi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I collect, choose out, read. (λέγω, λόγος, dilegens.)
lēnĭter, adv., gently. (lēnis: cf. lentus.)
leo, -ōnis, m., lion. λέων
lĕpĭdē, adv., charmingly, humorously. (lĕpĭdus.)
lĕpĭdus, -a, -um, adj., charming, humorous. (lĕpos, charm.)
Lesbius, -a, -um, adj., Lesbian, of Lesbos.
lĕvo, 1 v. a., I raise up, relieve. (Cf. lĕvis, light.)118
lex, lēgis, f., law.
lĭbenter, adv., gladly, willingly. (lĭbet.)
lĭber, -bri, m., book. (Lit., inner bark of tree.)
lībĕrālis, -e, adj., befitting a freeman, decorous, noble. (līber.)
lībĕro, 1 v. a., I set free. (.)
lībra, -ae, f., pound. (Cf. λίτρα)
lĭcet, lĭcuit and lĭcĭtum est, 2 v. n., defective, it is allowable.
ligneus, -a, -um, adj.., wooden. (lignum.)
lignum, -i, n., what is gathered (lĕgo) as firewood, wood.
līneāmentum, -i, n., feature. (līnea, a line.)
lingua, -ae, f., tongue.
līs, lītis, f., lawsuit.
lītigiōsus, -a, -um, quarrelsome. (lis.)
littera (or lītera), -ae, f., letter. (lĭno.)
lŏcus, -i, nom. plur. -i and -a, m., place, position, rank.
longē, adv., far off, by far.
longus, -a, -um, adj., long, far off.
lŏquor, -cūtus, 3 v. dep., I speak, say.
lōrum, -i, n., thong, leash.
Lūcius, -ii, m., Lucius.
luctus, -us, m., mourning. (lūgeo.)
lūgeo, -xi, [-ctum], 2 v. n. and a., I mourn, mourn for.
lūgū̆bris, -e, adj., mournful. (lūgeo.)
Lūsĭtānus, -a, -um, adj., of Lusitania.
lux, lūcis, f., light, day.
Lucis ortu, at sunrise;
primâ luce, at dawn. (lūceo.)
măgis, adv., more: comparative degree from magnŏpĕre, magis, maxime. (Root magh: cf. μέγας.)
măgister, -tri, m., master. (măgis and comparative suffix ter.)
magnĭtūdo, -ĭnis, f., size. (magnus.)
magnus, -a, -um, adj., great. (Root magh: cf. μέγας.)
māior, maius, adj., comparative degree of magnus, maior, maxĭmus.
mandātum, -i, n., command. (mando.)
mando, 1 v. a., I entrust, command, enjoin upon.
Mando litteris, I commit to writing. (manus, do.)
măneo, -nsi, -nsum, 2 v. n., I remain.
Manlius, -ii, m., Manlius.
mansŭētus, -a, -um, part. from mansuesco, tamed, gentle.
mansŭēsco, -sŭēvi, sŭētum, 3 v. a. and n., I tame, grow tame. (Manus, suesco, I accustom to the hand.)
mănus, -us, f., hand, band.
Marcus, -i, m., Marcus.
mărĕ, -is, n., sea. (Root mar, to shine: cf. marmor.)
mărĭtĭmus, -a, -um, belonging to the sea, maritime. (mare.)
mărītus, -i, m., husband. (mas.)
māter, -tris, f., mother. (μήτηρ.)119
māter·fămĭliās, mātris·fămĭliās, f., mother of a family, matron.
mātrĭmōnium, -ii, n., marriage. (māter.)
mātrōna, -ae, f., matron. (māter.)
mātūresco, -rui, no sup., 3 v. n. inceptive, I become ripe.
maxĭmus, -a, -um, adj., greatest; superlative degree, from magnus, maior.
mĕdeor, no perf., 2 v. dep., I cure.
mĕdĭcīna, -ae, f., medicine, remedy. (From adj. mĕdĭcīnus, sc. ars.)
mĕdĭcīnus, -a, -um, adj., medical. (Cf. mĕdeor.)
mĕdĭcus, -i, m., doctor. (Cf. mĕdeor.)
mĕdius, -a, -um, adj., middle. (μέσος.)
membrum, -i, n., limb.
mĕmŏria, -ae, f., memory, recollection, story. (mĕmor.)
mĕmŏro, 1 v. a., I call to remembrance, I relate. (Cf. memoria.)
Mĕnander, -dri, m., Menander. (Μένανδρος.)
mendācium, -ii, n., lie. (mendax, mentior.)
mens, mentis, f., mind. (Root mem; cf. memini.)
mentior, 4 v. dep., I tell lies. (Lit., I invent, root men: cf. mens.)
merces, -ēdis, f., price. (mĕreor, I earn.)
mercor, 1 v. dep. a., I buy. (merx, merchandise, mĕreor.)
mĕreor, 2 v. dep., I deserve, earn, (μέρος, share.)
mĕrīdiānus, -a, -um, adj., of mid-day. (merīdies for medi- dies, from mĕdius, dies.)
messis, -is, acc. -em and -im, f. harvest. (mĕto.)
Mēthymnaeus, -a, -um, adj., of Methymna. (Μήθυμνα.)
mĕto, messui, messum, 3 v. a., I reap. (Cf. messis.)
mĕtus, -us, m., fear.
meus, -a, -um, adj., my.
mĭco, -ui, no sup., 1 v. n., I glitter.
mī̆gro, 1 v. n., I depart from, quit. (Cf. meo, I go.)
mīles, -ĭtis, c., soldier.
Mīlēsius, -a, -um, adj., of Miletus.
Mīlētus, -i, f., Miletus, a town in Asia Minor. (Μίλητος.)
mīlĭtāris, -e, adj., military. (mīles.)
Mĭlo, -ōnis, m., Milo.
mĭnistro, 1 v. a., I wait upon, serve up, hand. (mĭnister, servant.)
mĭnor, -us, adj., less. comparative of parvus. (Root min: cf. minuo, I lessen.)
mĭnor, 1 v. dep., I threaten. (minae, threats.)
mīrandus, -a, -um, wonderful: ger. of mīror.
mīrĭfĭcus, , -um, adj., causing wonder, marvellous. (mīrus, făcio.)
mīror, 1 v. dep., I wonder at. (Cf. mīrus.)
mīrus, -a, -um, adj., wonderful.
mĭser, -era, -erum, adj. wretched. (Root mi: cf. mĭnuo.)120
mĭserandus, -a, -um, pitiable: gerundive of mĭseror.
mĭseror, 1 v. dep., I pity. (mĭser.)
mītis, -e, adj., gentle.
Mĭtrĭdātes, -is and -i, m., Mitridates or Mithridates.
mitto, mīsi, missum, 3 v. a., I send.
mōbĭlis, -e, adj., movable, fickle. (For movibilis, from mŏveo.)
mŏdestus, -a, -um, adj., moderate, virtuous, discreet. (mŏdus.)
mŏdŏ, adv., only. (Lit., by measure, mŏdus.)
mŏdus, -i, m., measure, manner.
huiusmodi, of this sort.
moenia, -ium, n., plur. only, defensive walls, ramparts. (Cf. mūnio.)
mollis, -e, adj., easy, soft, (moveo.)
mŏneo, 2 v. a., I warn, advise, remind.
mŏnīle, -is, n., collar, necklace.
mŏnĭmentum, -i, n., monument. (mŏneo, I remind.)
mons, montis, m., mountain.
mŏrĭbundus, -a, -um, adj., dying. (mŏrior.)
mŏrior, mortuus, 3 v. n., I die.
mōrōsus, -a, -um, adj., bad-tempered.
mors, mortis, f., death. (Cf. mŏrior.)
mos, mōris, m., manner, custom.
More ursino, like a bear.
De more, according to custom, as usual.
mox, adv., soon.
mŭliēbris, -e, adj., womanly, (mŭlier.)
mŭlier, -ĕris, f., woman.
multo (or mulcto), 1 v. a., I punish, fine.
multus, -a, -um, adj., many, much. Comp., plūs; sup., plūrĭmus.
mundus, -a, -um, adj., clean, tidy.
mūnīmentum, -i, n., fortification. (mūnio.)
mūnio, 4 v. a., I fortify. (Cf. moenia, mūrus.)
murmur, -ŭris, n., complaint.
mūrus, -i, m., wall. (Root mu: cf. mūnio, moenia.)
mūtuus, -a, -um, adj., borrowed, lent. (mūto, I change.)
nanciscor, nactus, and nanctus, 3 v. dep., I obtain, reach.
nāris, -is, f., nostril, nose; usually in plural.
narro, 1 v. a., I tell, relate. (Cf. i·gnarus, nosco; root gna, know.)
nascor, nātus, 3 v. dep., I am born, spring up.
nātio, -ōnis, f., race, nation. (nascor.)
nātūra, -ae, f., nature.
Rediit in naturam, it returned to its natural position. (nascor.)
nātus, -us, m., birth, age.
Natu grandis, advanced in age. (nascor.)
nauta. Cf. navita.
nāvālis, -e, adj., naval. (nāvis.)
nāvis, -is, f., ship. (ναῦς.)
nāvĭta (or nauta), -ae, m., sailor. (nāvis.)
nē, adv. and conj., not, in order that not, lest.
-nĕ, enclitic interrog. particle.121
nĕbŭlo, -ōnis, m., worthless fellow. (nĕbŭla, mist: cf. nūbes, cloud.)
nĕc, neither, nor, and not.
nĕcessĕ, adj., nom. and acc. neuter only, necessary.
nĕco, 1 v. a., I kill. (Cf. νέκυς, corpse.)
neglĭgo, and neglĕgo, -exi, -ectum, 3 v. a., I neglect. (nec, lĕgo, I do not pick up.)
nĕego, 1 v. n. and a., I deny, refuse.
nēmo, -ĭnis, pron., no one. (ne, hŏmo.)
nē·quā·quam, adv., by no means.
nĕquĕ, neither, nor, and not.
nex, nĕcis, f., violent death. (nĕco.)
nīdŭlus, -i, m., a little nest. (demin. of nīdus.)
nĭhĭl, nīl, n., indecl., nothing.
nĭhĭlo, by nothing; cf. nĭhĭlum.
Used with comparatives, nihilo minus, none the less.
nĭhĭlum, -i, n., nothing.
nĭmis, adv., too much.
nĭmĭum, adv. and subst., too much.
nĭ·sĭ, conj., unless.
nītor, nīsus and nixus, 3 v. dep., I strive.
nōbĭlis, -e, adj., celebrated, noble. (For gnobilis, from nosco or gnosco.)
nōmen, -ĭnis, n., name. (Cf. nosco.)
non, adv., not.
non·nĕ, interrog. adv., is not?
non·nullus, -a, -um, adj., some, several.
nos, plur. of ego, we. (Cf. νώ.)
nos met·ipsi, we ourselves.
nosco, nōvi, nōtum, 3 v. a., I know. (Or gnosco, root gno: cf. nōmen, nōbilis.)
noster, -tra, -trum, adj., our. (nōs.)
nōta, -ae, f., mark, brand. (nosco.)
nōtus, -a, -um, known, part. from nosco.
nŏvem, numer., nine.
nŏvus, -a, -um, adj., new.
nox, noctis, f., night. (νύξ.)
noxa, -ae, f., injury, harm. (nŏcco.)
nūbo, -psi, -ptum, 3 v. n., I am married (of the woman), with dative. (Lit., I veil myself: cf. nūbes.)
nūdus, -a, -um, adj., bare, unarmed.
nullus, -a, -um, adj., none. (ne·ullus.)
nūmen, -ĭnis, n., nod, will, divinity. (nuo.)
nŭmĕrus, -i, m., number. (Cf. νέμω, I distribute, nummus.)
nunc, adv., now. (num·ce: cf. νῦν.)
nunquam, adv., never. (ne-unquam.)
nuntio, 1 v. a., I announce, report. (Cf. nŏvus.)
nusquam, adv., nowhere. (ne-usquam.)
ob·iĭcio, and ōbĭcio, obiēci, obiectum, 3 v. a., I throw before, I reproach with. (jăcio.)122
ob·lĭno, -lēvi, -lĭtum, 3 v. a., I smear over.
ŏb·oedio, 4 v. n., I obey, with dative. (ob, audio.)
ŏb·ŏrior, -ortus, 4 v. dep., I grow, spring up.
ob·pĕto (or op·peto), -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 v. a., I encounter.
ob·pugno (or op·pugno), 1 v. a., I fight against, attack.
ob·sĕcro, 1 v. a., I beseech, entreat. (sacro, lit., I ask on religious grounds, ob sacrum.)
ob·sĭdeo, -sēdi, -sessum, 2 v. n., I besiege. (sĕdeo.)
obsĭdio, -ōnis, f., siege. (obsĭdeo.)
ob·servo, 1 v. a., I notice, attend to.
ob·tĭneo, -ui, -tentum, 2 v. a., I hold. (tĕneo.)
vĕnio, -vēni, -ventum, 4 v. n., I come in way of, fall to lot of.
ob·viam, adv., with dative, in the way.
Obviam ire, progredi, etc., alicui, to meet anyone. (via.)
ob·vius, -a, -um, adj., in the way. (via.)
oc·cīdo, -cīdi, cīsum, 3 v. a., I kill. (caedo.)
occŭpo, 1 v. a., I seize, take hold of. (ob, căpio.)
octo, num., eight. (ὀκτώ.)
octōginta, num., eighty.
ŏcŭlus, -i, m., eye. (Cf. ὄσσε, the two eyes; ὄσσομαι, I see.)
of·fĕro, obtŭli, oblātum, 3 v. a., I offer, present.
offĭcium, -ii, n., service, work, duty. (For opificium, opus, făcio.)
ŏlea, -ae, f., olive tree. (ἐλαία.)
ŏleāgĭneus, -a, -um, adj., of the olive. (ŏlea.)
ŏleum, -i, n., olive oil. (ἔλαιον.)
ŏ·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I neglect. (ob, mitto, I let go.)
omnis, -e, adj., all.
ŏpĕra, -ae, f., work. (Cf. ŏpus.)
ŏpīmus, -a, -um, adj., rich, fat, choice.
ŏpīnio, -ōnis, f., opinion, supposition. (opīnor.)
oppĕrior, -perītus and -pertus, 4 v. dep., I wait for. (Cf. experior and peritus, from obsolete perior.)
oppĭdum, -i, n., town.
op·pleo, -ēvi, -ētum, 2 v. a., I fill up.
op·prĭmo, -essi, -essum, 3 v. a., I press against, oppress, crush. (prĕmo.)
[ops], ŏpis, f., nom. sing. not used, power, wealth, help. (Cf. ŏpulentus.)
optĭmus, -a, -um, superlative of bŏnus. (Cf. ops.)
opto, 1 v. a., I wish for. (Root op, pick out: cf. ὄψομαι.)
optŭlit (or obtŭlit), fr. offĕro.
ōrācŭlum, -i, n., oracle, (ōro.)
ŏrātio, -onis, f., speech, (ōro.)
Ŏrestes, -is or -i, Orestes. (Ὀρέστης.)
ŏrior, ortus, 4 v. dep., I arise.
Sol oriens, sunrise. (Cf. ὄρνυμι.)
ornātus, -us, m., attire. (orno.)
orno, 1 v. a., I adorn.123
ōro, 1 v. a., I pray for, beg. (ōs.)
orthius, -a, -um, adj., high.
Carmen orthium, νόμος ὄρθιος: cf. note xxxv. 21.
ortus, -us, m., rising. (ŏrior.) solis ortu, at sunrise.
ōs, ōris, n., mouth, face.
ŏs, ossis, n., bone. (ὀστέον.)
Oscē, adv., in Oscan.
ostendo, -di, -sum and -tum, 3 v. a., I show. (obs·tendo.)
ostento, 1 v. a., I show; freq. form fr. ostendo.
ōtiōsus, -a, -um, adj., unoccupied, free, quiet. (ōtium.)
pābŭlum, -i, n., food. (pasco.)
păciscor, -i, pactus, 3 v. dep., a. and n., I agree, bargain. (Cf. pax, pactum.)
pactum, -i, n., agreement, manner. (păciscor.)
pălam, adv., openly.
Pălātium, -ii, n., the Palatine hill.
palma, -ae, f., palm.
palmes, -ĭtis, m., vine-shoot. (palma.)
pălūs, -ūdis, f., marsh. (πηλός, mud.)
pango, pĕpĭgi, pactum (also panxi and pēgi, panctum), 3 v. a., I settle. (Cf. pax.)
Păpīrius, -ii, m., Papirius.
pār, păris, adj., equal.
parco, pĕperci, rarely parsi, parcĭtum and parsum, 3 v. n., with dat., I spare.
părens, -entis, c., parent. (părio.)
pāreo, 2 v. n., with dative, I obey.
părio, pĕpĕri, părĭtum and partum, 3 v. a., I beget, produce.
pars, partis, f., part, side.
partus, -us, m., birth, offspring. (părio.)
părum, adv., too little. (Cf. parvus.)
parvus, -a, -um, adj., small. (Cf. paucus.)
pastus, -us, m., food, pasture. (pasco.)
păter, pātris, m., father. (πατήρ, root pa: cf. pasco.)
pătior, passus, 3 v. dep., I suffer, allow.
Aegre passus, displeased.
paucus, -a, -um, adj., few. (Root pau: cf. παῦρος, paulus.)
paulātim, adv., by degrees, gradually. (paulus, little.)
păvĕ·făcio, -fēci, -factum, 3 v. a., I terrify. (păveo)
pax, pācis, f., peace. (Root pac, make firm: cf. paciscor, pango, πήγνυμι)
pectus, -ŏris, n., breast: mind.
pĕcūnia, -ae, f., money. (pĕcus, cattle being the original standard of value.)
pĕdester, -tris, -tre, adj., on foot;
in plur. as subst., foot-soldiers. (pes.)
Pĕlasgus, -a, -um, adj., Pelasgian.
Pĕlŏponnensiăcus, -a, -um, adj., Peloponnesian.
pĕnĭtus, adv., deeply, thoroughly.
per, prep. gov. acc., through.124
per·callesco, -lui, no sup., 3 v. a., I am well versed in, know well. (Inceptive form from per·calleo: cf. callĭdus.)
per·contor, 1 v. dep., I enquire.
per·crēbesco (or per·crebresco), bui (or brui), no sup., 3 v. n., I spread abroad. (creber.)
per·cŭtio, cussi, cussum, 3 v. a., I strike.
securi percutio, I behead. (quătio.)
per·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I lose.
pĕren·die, adv., on the day after to-morrow. (πέραν, dies.)
pĕr·eo, -ii or -īvi, -ĭtum, 4 v. n., I pass away, die.
per·fŏdio, -fōdi, -fossum, 3 v. a., I dig through, pierce through.
Pĕriander, -drim., Periander.
Pĕrĭcles, -is or -i, m., Pericles.
pĕrīcŭlum, -i, n., danger.
pĕrītus, -a, -um, adj., skilled. (Part. fr. obsolete perior: cf. op·perior.)
per·mētior, -ensus, 4 v. dep. a., I measure through, travel over.
per·mitto, mīsi, missum, 3 v. a., I suffer, allow.
per·mŏveo, -mōvi, -mōtum, 2 v. a., I move thoroughly, rouse, disturb.
per·mūtātio, -ōnis, f., exchange. (per·mūto.)
per·mūto, 1 v. a., I exchange.
per·pĕtior, pessus, 3 v. dep. n., and a., I suffer, endure. (pătior.)
per·suādeo, -suāsi, suāsum, 2 v. a., I convince, persuade.
per·taedet, -taesum est, 2 v. n., impersonal; it thoroughly wearies. (Acc. of person affected, and gen. of thing or person causing the weariness.)
per·vĕnio, -vēni, -ventum, 4 v. n., I arrive at.
pēs, pĕdis, m., foot. (Cf. ποῦς, ποδός.)
pestĭlentia, -ae, f., plague. (pestis.)
Pĕtīlius, -ii, m., Petilius.
pĕto, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 v. a., I seek, ask for. (Lit., to fall upon: cf. πίπτω.)
pĕtŭlantia, -ae, f., impudence. (Obsolete pĕtŭlo: cf. pĕto.)
phălĕrae, -arum, f., plur. only, ornaments for chests and foreheads of horses. (φάλαρα.)
Phĭlēmon (or Phĭlēmo), -ōnis, m., Philemon. (Φιλήμων.)
phĭlŏsŏphus, -i, m., philosopher. (φιλόσοφος.)
Phrygia, -ae, f., Phrygia.
pĭget, pĭguit and pĭgĭtum est, 2 v. n. (rarely used personally), it troubles, displeases.
pinna, or penna, -ae, f., feather. (Root pet: cf. πέτομαι, I fly.)
Pīraeus, -i, the Piraeus, port of Athens.
pius, -a, -um, adj., dutiful, kind.
plăceo, 2 v. n., I am pleasing;
often used impersonally, placet mihi, it pleases me, seems good to me, is my opinion;
of the senate, it is resolved, determined.
plăcĭdē, adv., gently, quietly. (plăcĭdus, plăceo.)125
plānē, adv., clearly, plainly. (plānus, level.)
plebs, plebis (or plēbes, -ei and -is), f., the common people.
plērus·que, -aque, -umque, adj., very many, most. (plerus: cf. plēnus, root ple, fill.)
plūmo, 1 v. a. and n., I cover, or am covered with, feathers, am fledged. (plūma.)
plūs, plūris, adj., more: comparative of multus.
Plūtarchus, -i, m., Plutarch.
pōcŭlum, -i, n., cup, goblet. (Cf. pōtus, a draught.)
Poenĭcus, -a, -um, adj. Cf. Poenus.
Poenus, -a, -um, Punic, Carthaginian. Cf. ix. 8 note.
poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty. (ποινή, punio, poeniteo.)
Pŏlus, -i, m., Polus.
Pomptīnus, -a, -um, adj., Pomptine, i.e. near Pometia, in Latium.
pōmum, -i, n., fruit or apple.
pondo, adv., in or by weight. (pondus.)
pondus, -ĕris, n., weight. (pendo, I hang up.)
pōno, pŏsui, pŏsĭtum, 3 v. a., I place.
pons, pontis, m., bridge. (prop, a path, πάτος, German Pfad, esp. across a river: cf. Pontifex.)
Pontus, -i, m., district in Asia Minor.
pŏpŭlus, -i, m., people.
porgere. Cf. porrigo.
porrĭgo, -rexi, -rectum, 3 v. a., I stretch out. (Several contracted forms, porgere, porge, porgite, etc.) (pro, rego.)
posco, pŏposci, no sup., 3 v. a., I demand.
possies, old pres. subj. of possum, for possis.
possum, pŏtui, posse, v. n., I am able. (pŏtis, sum.)
post, adv., and prep. gov. acc., afterwards, after.
posteā, adv., afterwards. (post, ea, from is.)
postĕrior, -us, comparative fr. posterus.
postĕrus, -a, -um, adj., coming after;
as subst., descendant. (post, comp. postĕrior, sup. postrēmus.)
post·hac, adv., after this, henceforth.
postlīmĭnium, -ii, n., return to rank and privileges. Cf. note xl. 13. (post, limen, usual derivation.)
post·quam, conj., after that.
postrēmus, -a, -um, last; superlative from postĕrus.
ad postremum, at last.
postrīdiē, adv., on the next day. (postĕrus, dies.)
postŭlātio, -ōnis, f., demand. (postŭlo.)
postŭlātum, -i, n., demand. (postŭlo.)
postŭlo, 1 v. a., I demand. (posco.)
pŏtior, 4 v. dep., I obtain possession of; with gen. and abl. (pŏtis, able.)126
pŏtius, adv., rather; only used in comparative pŏtius, and superl. pŏtissime. (fr. pŏtis, -e, adj., pŏtior, pŏtissimus.)
praebeo, 2 v. a., I offer, give.
praeceps, -ĭpĭtis, adj., head-first, headlong, (prae, căput.)
prae·cīdo, -cīdi, -cīsum, 3 v. a., I cut off. (caedo.)
prae·cĭpio, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 v. a., I take beforehand, I instruct. (căpio.)
prae·clārus, -a, -um, adj., famous.
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoil.
prae·dĭco, 1 v. a., I proclaim, declare publicly.
praedium, -ii, n., farm, estate.
praefectus, -i, m., a man placed over, overseer, prefect. (prae, făcio.)
prae·for, 1 v. dep., I say beforehand.
prae·fulgeo, -si, no sup., 2 v. n., I glitter.
praemium, -ii, n., reward.
prae·mŏneo, 2 v. a., I forewarn, admonish beforehand.
praesens, -entis, adj., present. (praesum.)
prae·ses, -ĭdis, adj., protecting;
as subst., ruler. (prae, sĕdeo.)
prae·sto, -ĭti, -ĭtum (rarely -āvi, -ātum), 1 v. n. and a., I am superior, I surpass.
praeter, prep. gov. acc., besides, except. (prae, and suffix ter.)
praeterĭtus, -a, -um, part. fr. praetereo, past.
praetĕr·eo, -ii or -īvi, ĭtum, 4 v. n. and a., I pass by.
praetextātus, -a, -um, adj., wearing the toga praetexta.
prĕtiōsē, adv., expensively, splendidly. (prĕtiōsus: cf. prĕtium.)
prĕtium, -ii, n., price.
prīmum, adv., at first.
Ubi, or cum, primum, as soon as.
prīmus, -a, -um, adj., first, superl.; no positive; comp. prior. (Cp. priscus.)
princĭpium, -ii, n., beginning. (princeps.)
prior, -us, adj., former, comp.; (Cf. prīmus.)
prius, adv., before. (prior.)
prius·quam, conj., before that.
pro, prep. gov. abl., before, for, in proportion to.
prō·cēdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. n., I advance.
prōcērĭtas, -ātis, f., height. (prōcērus.)
prōcērus, -a, -um, adj., tall. (procello.)
prō·consŭlāris, -e, adj., proconsular, acting instead of a consul.
prŏcŭl, adv., absolutely, or with abl., with or without ‘ab’; at a distance, far from.
Dubio procul, without doubt.
prŏ·cūro, 1 v. a. and n., I take care of.
prōd·eo, -ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 v. n., I come forward, (pro, eo.)
prō·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I give forth, report, relate; I betray.
proelium, -ii, n., battle.
prō·fĕro, -tŭli, -lātum, 3 v. a., I bring forth, I prolong.127
prŏ·fĭciscor, -fectus, 3 v. dep. n., I set out. (pro, făcio.)
prŏ·fundus, -a, -um, adj., deep;
as subst. profundum, -i (sc. mare), deep sea.
prō·grĕdior, -essus, 3 v. dep. n., I advance. (grădior.)
prŏ·indē, adv., just so, just as.
prō·iĭcio, or prō·ĭcio, -iēci, -iectum, 3 v. a., I throw forward, thrust forward. (iăcio.)
prō·mitto, -mīsi, -missum, 3 v. a., I send forth; I say beforehand, promise.
prō·mŏveo, -mōvi, -mōtum, 2 v. a., I move forward, cause to advance.
promptus, -us, m., readiness.
in promptu esse, to be at hand, ready. (prōmo, I take forth.)
prō·nuntio, 1 v. a., I proclaim, announce.
prŏpe, adv., and prep. gov. acc., near, almost: prŏpe, prŏpius, proxĭmē.
prŏpĕro, 1 v. a. and n., I hasten. (prŏpĕrus, quick.)
prŏpinquus, -a, -um, near, neighbouring;
as subst., a neighbour. (prŏpe.)
propter, prep. gov. acc., on account of. (for propiter, fr. prŏpe.)
proptĕr·eā, adv., on account of those things, therefore.
prō·pugno, 1 v. n., I fight in front of, fight for, defend.
prō·rĭpio, -rĭpui, -reptum, 3 v. a., I drag forth;
se proripere, to rush forth, take refuge in. (răpio.)
prorsus, adv., forward, directly. (pro, versus.)
prō·sĕquor, -cūtus, 3 v. dep. a., I follow.
prospectus, -us, m., view. (prospĭcio.)
prospĕrē, adv., successfully. (prospĕrus, from prospe, answering to hope.)
prō·sum, -fui, prōdesse, v. n., I am of use to.
Prōtăgŏras, -ae, m., Protagoras.
prō-tendo, -di, -sum and -tum, 3 v. a., I stretch forth.
prō·tĭnus, adv., forthwith. (tĕnus, prep., as far as.)
prō·vĕho, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I carry forward;
in pass., I go forward, I sail, etc.
prō·vĭdens, -entis, part. of provĭdeo, careful.
prō·vĭdeo, -vīdi, -vīsum, 2 v. n. and a., I foresee, I am careful.
prōvincia, -ae, f., sphere of duty, province.
prō·vŏco, 1 v. a., I call forth, challenge.
proxĭmē, adv., and prep. with acc., very near: super. fr. prŏpe.
proxĭmus, -a, -um, adj., very near: [prŏpis obsolete], prŏpior, proxĭmus. (Cf. prŏpe.)
prūdens, -entis, adj., foreseeing, discreet. (For pro·vĭdens.)
publĭcē, adv., in behalf of the state.
pŭdor, -ōris, m., shame, modesty. (pŭdeo.)128
puer, -ĕri, m., boy.
pugna, -ae, f., battle, contest. (Root pug, strike: cf. pugil, pugno.)
pugno, 1 v. a., I fight. (pugna.)
pulchrĭtūdo, -ĭnis, f., beauty. (pulcher.)
pullus, -i, m., young animal or bird.
pūnio, -īvi or ii, ītum, 4 v. a., I punish. (poena.)
puppis, -is, f., stern, poop of ship.
purgo, 1 v. a., I make clean, clear. (pūrus, ăgo.)
pŭto, 1 v. a., I think. (Lit., I trim, arrange, and so reckon, think; root, pu, cleanse: cf. purus.)
Pyrrhus, -i, m., Pyrrhus.
quaero, -sīvi or , sītum, 3 v. a., I seek, inquire for, ask.
quaeso, -īvi or -ii, no sup., 3 v. a., I seek, beg.
Used parenthetically, ‘pray.’
quaestus, -us, m., gain, business. (quaero.)
quālis, -e, adj. pron., of what kind;
talisqualis, such ... as. (quis.)
quam, conj. and adv., than, as. (qui.)
quam·ob·rem, adv, relative and interrog., wherefore.
quam·quam, conj., although.
quantus, -a, -um, adj., how great, as great. (quam.)
quăsĭ, adv., as if, just as. (quamsi.)
quattuordĕcim (or quatuordĕcim), numer., fourteen.
-quĕ, enclitic conj., and.
quĕo, -īvi and -ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 v. n., I am able.
quercus, -us, f., oak.
qui, quae, quod, rel. pron., indef. adj. pron. and inter. adj. pron., who, what.
quĭă, conj., because. (For qui-am, quî-iam, whereby now.)
quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (and quiddam, subst.), indef. pron., a certain one.
quĭdem, adv., indeed.
quĭes, -ētis, f., rest.
quĭesco, -ēvi, -ētum, 3 v. n., I rest, (quies.)
quīn, conj., that not, but that, but indeed, rather;
interrog., why not? (qui, ne.)
quin·dĕcim·vĭr, -i, a quindecimvir, one of the college of 15 men who had charge of the Sibylline books.
quinquĕ, numer., five.
quinquĭes, adv., five times.
quis, quid, inter. pron., who? which?
quis, qua, quid, indef. pron., any.
quis·nam, quidnam, inter. pron., who, which, what pray? whoever?
quis·piam, quaepiam, quodpiam (and subst., quidpiam or quippiam), indef. pron., any, some.
quis·quĕ, quaeque, quodque (and subst., quidque or quicque), indef. pron., each, every.
quis·quam, quaequam, quicquam or quidquam, indef. pron., anyone.129
quo, adv. and conj., for which reason, in order that, so that. (qui.)
quod, conj., because, that. (qui.)
quŏnĭam, adv., since, because. (quom for cum, iam.)
quŏquĕ, conj., also.
răpĭdus, -a, -um, adj., swift. (răpio.)
rătio, -ōnis, f., reason, account. (reor.)
rĕ·cēdo, -cessi- -cessum, 3 v. n., I fall back, withdraw.
rĕ·cĭpio, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 v. a., I take back, receive. (căpio.)
rĕ·cĭto, 1 v. a., I read out, repeat.
rĕ·condo, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I put back, hide.
rĕcordātio, -onis, f., recollection. (re·cordor: cf. cor.)
rĕ·cumbo, -cŭbui, 3 v. n., I lie down again.
rĕ·cŭpĕro, 1 v. a., I recover. (căpio.)
rĕ·curvo, no perf., -ātum, 1 v. a., I bend back.
red·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I give back, render, impart, restore. (re, do.)
rĕd·eo, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 v. n., I go back.
rĕdĭtus, -us, m., return. (rĕdeo.)
rĕ·fĕro, rētŭli (and rettŭli), rĕlātum, 3 v. a., I bring back, return, turn back, attribute.
rĕ·fŭgio, -fūgi, no sup., 3 v. n. and a., I flee back, flee away, escape.
regnum, -i, n., kingdom. (rex.)
rĕgo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I rule, direct. (rex.)
rĕ·grĕdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep. n., I return. (grădior.)
reicit, for reiicit.
rē·iĭcio, or rē·ĭcio, -iēci, -iectum, 3 v. a., I throw back, postpone. (iăcio.)
rĕlĭcus. Cf. reliquus.
rē̆lĭgio, -ōnis, f., religious scruple, obligation.
rĕ·linquo, -līqui, -lictum, 3 v. a., I leave behind.
rē̆lĭquĭae, -arum, pl. only, remains. (rĕlĭquus.)
rĕlĭquus (or relicus), -a, -um, adj., remaining. (rĕlinquo.)
rĕmĕdium, -ii, n., remedy, cure. (re, mĕdeor.)
rĕ·mōtus, -a, -um, part. from remŏveo, retired, distant.
rĕ·mŏveo, -mōvi, mōtum, 2 v. a., I move back, withdraw.
reor, rătus, 2 v. dep. a., I believe, think.
rĕpentē, adv., suddenly. (rĕpens, sudden.)
rĕ·pĕto, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 v. a., I seek again.
Memoriâ repeto, I call to mind.
rĕ·quīro, -sīvi or -sii, -sītum, 3 v. a., I seek again, seek for. (quaero.)
rēs, rei, f., thing, deed.
re·scindo, -scĭdi, -scissum, 3 v. a., I tear open.
re·scrībo, -psi, -ptum, 3 v. a., I write back.
re·spondeo, -di, -sum, 2 v. n., I reply. (Lit., I promise in return.)130
res·publĭca, reipublicae, f., state.
rĕ·surgo, -surrexi, -surrectum, 3 v. n., I rise again.
rĕ·tĭneo, -ui, -tentum, 2 v. a., I hold back, keep. (tĕneo.)
rĕŭs, -i, m., defendant in an action, culprit. (res.)
rĕ·vello, -velli, -vulsum and -volsum, 3 v. a., I pull away, pull out.
rĕ·verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. n., I turn back, return.
rĕvertor, -versus, 3 v. dep. n., I turn back, return.
rĕ·vincio, -nxi, -nctum, 4 v. a., I bind back, fasten.
rĕ·vŏlo, no perf. or sup., are, 1 v. n., I fly back.
rex, rēgis, m., king. (rĕgo.)
rhētor, -ŏris, m., teacher of oratory, rhetorician. (ῥήτωρ.)
rīdeo, -si, -sum, 2 v. n. and a., I laugh, laugh at, mock.
rīma, -ae, f., crack, cleft.
rītĕ, adv., duly, fitly. (ritus, religious observance.)
rŏgo, 1 v. a., I ask for, ask.
Rōma, -ae, f., Rome.
Rōmānus, -a, -um, adj., Roman.
rostrum, -i, n., beak, prow. (rōdo, I gnaw.)
rŭbus, -i, m., bramble. (rŭber, red.)
rŭdis, -e, adj., rough.
rursum and rursus, adv., again. (For revorsum, from re·verto.)
rustĭcus, -a, -um, adj., of the country, rural, rustic. (rus.)
saepĕ, adv., often. (Obsolete adj. saepis, frequent.)
saepĕ·nŭmĕrō, adv., often.
saevio, -ii, -ītum, 4 v. n., I rage, am fierce. (saevus.)
sălum, -i, n., the open sea. (σάλος.)
sălūs, -ūtis, f., safety. (Cf. salvus.)
salvus, -a, -um, adj., safe.
Samnis, -ītis, adj., Samnite.
sanguĭnŏlentus, -a, -um, blood-stained. (sanguis.)
sănĭes (-em, -e, no genitive nor plural), f., corrupted blood, matter. (sanguis.)
săpiens, -entis, adj., wise. (săpio.)
sătĭra, or sătŭra, -ae, f., a satire.
sătis, adv., sufficiently.
scăteo, no perf. or sup., -ēre, 2 v. n., I bubble, flow forth; bubble over with: with abl.
scio, -īvi, -ītum, 4 v. a., I know.
Scīpio, -ōnis, m., Scipio.
scītē, adv., cleverly, skilfully. (scio.)
scŏpŭlus, -i, m., rock. (σκόπελος.)
scrībo, -psi, -ptum, 3 v. a., I write. (γράφω, schreiben.)
scriptor, -ōris, m., writer, author. (scrībo.)
scūtum, -i, n., shield. (σκῦτος.)
sē, and sēsē, gen. sui, reflex. pron., himself, herself, itself.
sēcessus, -us, m., withdrawal. (sē·cēdo.)
sē·cum, for cum se, with himself, etc.
sĕcundum, prep. gov. acc., following after, according to. (sĕquor.)131
sĕcundus, -a, -um, adj., following, second, favourable, (sĕquor.)
sĕcūris, -is, f., axe.
securi percutio, I behead. (sĕco.)
sēcūrus, -a, -um, adj., free from care. (se, = sine, cura.)
sed, conj., but.
sed enim, but indeed.
sĕdeo, sēdi, sessum, 2 v. n., I sit. (sēdes, insĭdiae.)
sĕges, -ĕtis, f., cornfield.
sē·lībra, -ae, f., half pound. (semi, libra.)
sēmentis, -is, f., seed, crop. (sēmen.)
sē·mĕt, strengthened form of se.
semper, adv., always. (Cf. sĕmel.)
sĕnātor, -ōris, m., Senator. (sĕnex.)
sĕnātus, -us, m., Senate.
sĕnātus consultum, -i, n., decree of Senate.
sensim, adv., slowly. (sentio, lit., perceptibly.)
sententia, -ae, f., way of thinking, opinion, decision. (sentio.)
sentio, -si- -sum, 4 v. a., I perceive, judge, decide.
sentis, -is, m., rarely f., thorn.
se·orsum, adv., separately, (se, verto.)
sē·păro, 1 v. a., I separate. (păro.)
septem, numer., seven. (Cf. ἑπτά.)
sĕpulcrum, -i, n., tomb. (sĕpĕlio.)
sermo, -ōnis, m., speech. (sĕro.)
Sertōrius, -ii, m., Sertorius.
servo, 1 v. a., I preserve.
servus, -i, m., slave.
sestertium, -ii, n., a thousand sestertii. Cf. note vi. 4.
sĕvērē, adv., austerely, severely.
sex, numer., six.
sexāginta, numer., sixty.
si, conj., if.
Sĭbyllīnus, -a, -um, adj., of the Sibyl, Sibylline. (Sĭbylla.)
sīc, adv. so, thus.
ut ... sic, correlatives, as ... so.
Sĭcāni, -orum, m., the Sicani.
sicco, 1 v. a., I dry. (siccus, dry.)
Sĭcĭlia, -ae, f., Sicily.
sīc·ŭt, adv., just as, so as.
signĭfĭco, 1 v. a., I show, make known, signify, beckon. (signum, făcio.)
signum, -i, n., sign, emblem.
sĭlentium, -ii, n., silence, (sĭleo.)
silvestris, -e, adj., woody. (silva.)
sĭmŭl, adv., at once, at same time.
sĭmŭlācrum, -i, n., image, representation, appearance. (sĭmĭlis, sĭmŭlo.)
sĭmŭlo, 1 v. a., I pretend. (similis.)
sīn, conj., but if. (si, ne.)
sĭnĕ, prep. gov. abl., without.
sĭno, sīvi, sĭtum, 3 v. a., I set down; I allow.
sĭnus, -us, m., folds of garment, bosom.
sisto, stiti, statum, 3 v. a. and n., I cause to stand, I stand.
Se sistere, to present oneself, appear, (sto, ἵστημι.)
sĭtus, -a, -um, part. from sĭno, situated.
sīvĕ (or seu), conj., or if.
Sive ... sive, whether ... or.132
sōbrius, -a, -um, adj., not drunk, sober, moderate.
Sōcrătes, -is or -i, m., Socrates. (Σωκράτης.)
sōl, sōlis, m., sun.
sōlemnis (or solennis or sollennis), -e, adj., annual, stated, customary, solemn. (sollus, whole, cf. ὅλος.)
sŏleo, -itus, 2 v. n., I am accustomed.
sollers, -ertis, adj., skilled: with gen. (sollus, whole.)
sōlus, -a, -um, adj., alone. (Cf. sollus, whole.)
solvo, -lvi, -lūtum, 3 v. a., I release, set loose. (se·luo.)
somnium, -ii, n., dream. (somnus, ὕπνος.)
sŏnōrus, -a, -um, adj., loud. (sŏnus.)
Sŏphocles, -is and -i, m., Sophocles. (Σοφοκλῆς.)
Sp. for Spurius, -i, m., Spurius.
spargo, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I sprinkle, strew.
spĕcŭlor, -atus, 1 v. dep. a., I spy out, reconnoitre. (spĕcio, spĕcŭla, watch tower.)
specto, 1 v. a., I gaze at. (Intens. form of spĕcio.)
spĕcus, -us, m., cave.
spēs, -ei, f., hope. (Cf. spēro.)
splendor, -ōris, m., magnificence. (splendeo, I shine.)
spŏlium, -ii, n., spoil, booty.
stătim, adv., immediately. (sto.)
stătus, -us, m., position. (sto.)
stirps, stirpis, f., rarely m., stem, root.
sto, stĕti, stătum, stāre, 1 v. n., I stand. (ἵστημι.)
stŏlo, -ōnis, m., sucker of tree.
strēnuus, -a, -um, adj., active, energetic. (Cf. στερεός, hard.)
struo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I build up.
stŭdeo, -ui, no sup., 2 v. a., I am eager, I strive.
stŭdium, -ii, n., zeal, study. (stŭdeo.)
stultus, -a, -um, adj., foolish.
stŭpĕ·făcio, -fēci, -factum, 3 v. a., I make stupid or senseless; I amaze. (stŭpeo.)
suādeo, -si, -sum, 2 v. n. and a., I persuade. (Cf. suāvis.)
sŭb, prep. gov. acc. and abl., under.
sub·do, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I place under.
sublātissĭmus, superl. of sublātus, from tollo, very high.
sŭbŏles, -is, f., shoot. (sub, ŏlesco, grow.)
sub·verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., I overthrow.
suc·cēdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. n., I go under, go from under, ascend, advance. (sub, cēdo.)
suffrāgium, -ii, n., vote.
Sulla, -ae, m., Sulla.
sum, fui, esse, v. n., I am.
summus, -a, -um, adj., highest; superl. fr. sŭpĕrus, sŭpĕrior, sūprēmus or summus.
sŭpĕr, adv., and prep. gov. acc. and abl., above, over, on, about.
sŭperbia, -ae, f., pride. (sŭperbus.)
sŭperbus, -a, -um, adj., proud, haughty. (sŭper.)
sŭpĕrior, -us, adj., higher, former; comp. fr. sŭpĕrus, supĕrior, sū̆prēmus or summus133
sŭpĕro, 1 v. a., I overcome. (sŭper.)
sŭperstes, -ĭtis, adj., surviving.
supplĭcium, -ii, n., punishment. (supplex.)
sursum, adv., from below. (sub-versum.)
suus, -a, -um, reflex. adj. pron., his own, her own, its own.
synanchē, -es, f., (συνάγχη), a sore throat.
tăberna, -ae, f., shop. (Cf. tăbŭla, plank.)
tăbŭlātūm, -i, n., floor. (tăbŭla, plank.)
tăceo, 2 v. n. and a., I am silent, pass over in silence.
tăcĭtus, -a, -um, part. from taceo, not spoken of, silent.
taedium, -ii, n., weariness. (taedet.)
Taenărum, -i, n., and Taenărus, -i, m. and f., Taenarum and Taenarus.
tălentum, -i, n., talent (sum of money, £243 15s.). (τάλαντον.)
tālis, -e, adj., of such a kind, such.
tam, adv., so.
tămen, adv., however.
tam·quam, adv., just as, as if, as it were.
tandem, adv., at last.
tantus, -a, -um, adj., so great.
Tarquĭnius, -ii, m., Tarquin.
tēlum, i., n., dart.
tempĕrantia, -ae, f., moderation, temperance. (tempĕro, tempus.)
tempestīvus, -a, -um, adj., seasonable, ripe. (tempus.)
templum, -i, n., temple.
tempus, -ŏris, n., time.
tĕneo, tĕnui, tentum, 2 v. a., I hold, keep.
Cursum teneo, I hold on a course.
tĕnŭis, -e, adj., drawn out, thin, slender. (tĕneo.)
terra, -ae, land, country.
terreo, 2 v. a., I alarm. (τρέω.)
terrĭfĭcus, -a, -um, alarming, terrible. (terreo, făcio.)
tertius, -a, -um, adj., third. (ter.)
testis, -is, c., witness. (testor.)
Thrācus, -a, -um, adj., Thracian.
Tib., for Tĭbĕrius, -ii, m., Tiberius.
tībia, -ae, f., pipe, flute.
tībīcēn, -ĭnis, m., flute-player. (For tibĭĭcen, fr. tībĭă, căno.)
Tīmŏchăres, -is and -i, m., Timochares.
tŏga, -ae, f., a garment, a toga. (tĕgo.)
tollo, sustŭli, sublātum, 3 v. a., I raise. (Cf. tŭli, tŏlĕro.)
Torquātus, -i, m., Torquatus.
torques (and torquis), -is, m. and f., twisted necklace or collar. (torqueo.)
torreo, torrui, tostum, 2 v. a., I roast.
tōtus, -a, -um, adj., all, whole.
tracto, 1 v. a., I handle, treat, polish. (Intens. of trăho.)
trādo, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I hand over, give up, hand down, relate. (trans, do.)
trans·curro, -curri and -cŭcurri, -cursum, 3 v. n., I run past, I pass.134
trans·ĭgo, -ēgi, -actum, 3 v. a., I drive through, I pierce. (ăgo.)
transĭlio, -īvi or -ui, no sup., 4 v. a. and n., I leap across, leap over. (trans, sălio.)
trĕmĭbundus, -a, -um, adj., full of trembling. (trĕmo.)
trĕpĭdans, -antis, part. fr. trepido, trembling.
trĕpĭdo, 1 v. n., I am in a state of confusion or alarm. (Cf. τρέπω.)
trēs, tria, numer., three. (τρεῖς, τρία.)
trĭbūnus, -i, m., tribune. (Lit., the chief of a tribe, trĭbus.)
trīduum, -i, n., space of three days. (tres, dies, sc. spătium.)
triennium, -ii, n., space of three years. (tres, annus, sc. spătium.)
trĭgĕmĭnus, -a, -um, adj., three born at a birth. (tres, geminus.)
triumpho, 1 v. n. and a., I triumph. (triumphus.)
triumphus, -i, m., a triumph. (θρίαμβος, procession in honour of Bacchus.)
tu, pers. pron., thou. (σύ.)
tum, adv., then.
tŭmultus, -us, m., disturbance. (tŭmeo.)
tunc, adv., then. (tum-ce.)
turba, -ae, f., uproar, crowd.
turpis, -e, adj., base.
turris, -is, f., turret, tower.
tūtē, adv., safely. (tutus.)
tūtor, 1 v. dep. a., I watch, defend. (tueor.)
tūtus, -a, -um, adj., safe. (tueor.)
tuus, -a, -um, adj., thy. (tu.)
ŭbī̆, adv., relat. and interrog., where, when.
Ubi primum, as soon as.
ŭbī·quĕ, adv., wherever, everywhere, anywhere.
ullus, -a, -um, adj., any. (For ūnŭlus, demin. of ūnus.)
ultĭmus, -a, -um, adj., farthest, super. fr. [ulter, obsolete; cf. ultra] ultĕrior, ultimus.
ultrā, adv., and prep. gov. acc., beyond. (Cf. ultĭmus.)
ultro, adv., beyond, besides, of one’s own accord. (Cf. ultimus.)
unda, -ae, f., wave.
un·dē·vīcēsĭmus, -a, -um, adj., nineteenth.
undĭquĕ, adv., from or on all sides. (unde-que.)
unguis, -is, m., nail or talon. (ὄνυξ.)
ūnĭcē, adv., solely, especially. (unĭcus, unus.)
ūnĭversus, -a, -um, adj., all together. (unus, verto, turned into one.)
unquam, or umquam, adv., at any time, ever.
ūnus, -a, -um, numer., one.
urbānus, -a, -um, adj., of the city. (urbs.)
urbĭcus, -a, -um, adj., of the city. (urbs.)
urbs, -is, f., city.
urgeo, ursi, no sup., 2 v. a., I press on, press hard upon, urge.135
urna, -ae, f., urn. (Properly a vessel of burnt clay; ūro, I burn.)
ursīnus, -a, -um, adj., like a bear. (ursus.)
usquam, adv., anywhere, in anything. (For ubs·quam, from ŭbi.)
usquĕ, adv., all the way, always.
Usque adeo, to such an extent. (For ubs·que, from ŭbi.)
ūsus, -us, m., use, advantage. (ūtor.)
ŭt, ŭtī, with indic., as, when;
ut ... sic, correlatives, as ... so;
with subj., in order that, so that.
ŭter·quĕ, ū̆trăque, ū̆trumque, adj. pron., both, each.
ūtĭlis, -e, adj., useful. (ūtor.)
ūtor, ūsus, 3 v. dep., I use; with abl.
ū̆trum, interrog. adv., whether. (ŭter.)
uxor, -ōris, f., wife.
vădor, 1 v. dep. a., I bind over by bail. (văs.)
văleo, 2 v. n., I am strong, I am of value.
In leave-taking, vălē, etc., farewell.
Vălĕrius, -ii, m., Valerius.
vălĭdus, -a, -um, adj., strong. (văleo.)
vălītūdo (or vălētūdo), -ĭnis, f., health. (văleo.)
vallum, -i, n., a rampart with palisades. (vallus, a stake.)
vărius, -a, -um, adj., diverse, different.
vastūs, -a, , adj., empty, immense.
-vĕ, enclitic, or.
vecto, 1 v. a., I carry. (intens. of vĕho.)
vĕho, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I carry.
vēlox, -ōcis, adj., swift. (Cf. vŏlo, -āre, I fly.)
vĕl·ŭt, vĕl·ŭti, adv., just as, as if.
vēnātio, -ōnis, f., hunting. (vēnor.)
vendo, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 v. a., I sell. (vēnum, do.)
vĕnēnum, -i, n., poison.
vĕnia, -ae, f., pardon.
Bonâ veniâ, by your kind leave.
vĕnio, vēni, ventum, 4 v. n., I come.
vēnor, 1 v. dep. a., I hunt.
vēnum, -i, n., sale. In classical writers only in acc. sing.
ventĭto, 1 v. n., I come frequently. (Intens. of vĕnio.)
verber, -ĕris, n., scourge, blow.
verbum, -i, n., word.
Vergilius, -ii, m., Vergil.
vērō, adv., in truth, but indeed. (vērus.)
versus, -us, m., a line, verse. (verto.)
vertex, -ĭcis, m., whirlpool, top, head. (verto.)
verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., I turn; in pass. also with abl., I turn upon, depend upon.
vērus, -a, -umadj., true.
vester, -tra, -trum, poss. pron., your. (vos.)
vestīgium, -ii, n., footprint, sole of foot. (vestīgo, I track.)
vestio, 4 v. a., I clothe. (vestis, garment.)136
vĕtus, -ĕris, adj., old.
via, -ae, f., road, way.
vī̆bro, 1 v. a. and n., I brandish, I shake.
vīcĭes, adv., twenty times.
vīcīnus, -a, -um, adj., neighbouring;
as subst., a neighbour. (vīcus, hamlet.)
victōria, -ae, f., victory. (victor, vinco)
victus, -us, m., food, way of life. (vīvo.)
vĭdeo, vīdi, vīsum, 2 v. a., I see; in pass., I seem.
Impersonally, videtur mihi, it seems good to me.
vīginti, numer., twenty.
vĭgor, ōris, m., force, strength. (vĭgeo, I flourish.)
vincio, -nxi, -nctum, 4 v. a., I bind.
vinco, vīci, victum, 3 v. a., I conquer.
vindĭco, 1 v. a., I avenge. (vim-dico, I assert authority.)
vīnum, -i, n., vine, wine. (οἶνος.)
viŏlens, -entis, adj., impetuous. (vis.)
vir, vĭri, m., man, husband.
virgultum, -i, n., twig. (For virgŭlētum, fr. virgŭla, demin. of virga, branch, twig.)
virtūs, -ūtis, f., valour. (vir.)
vis (vim, vi, no gen. sing., plur. vīres, etc), f., strength, force. (ἴς.)
vīso, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I behold. (Intens. of vĭdeo.)
vīta, -ae, f., life. (vivo.)
vītis, -is, f., vine.
vīvo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. n., I live.
vŏco, 1 v. a., I call. (vox.)
volgus (or vulgus), -i, n., rarely m., common people;
in abl., volgo, as adv., commonly.
vŏlo, -ui, no sup., velle, 3 v. a., I wish for.
Quid hoc sibi vult, what does this mean.
vŏlo, 1 v. n., I fly.
vŏluntārius, -a, -um, adj., voluntary. (vŏlo, I wish.)
vos, plur. of tu, you.
vox, vōcis, f., voice, expression. (vŏco.)
vulgus and vulgo. Cf. volgus.
vulnus, or volnus, -ēris, n., wound. (Cf. vello, I tear.)
vultus, -us, m., countenance.
For details about Latin words turn to the Latin-English Vocabulary.
able, I am, possum.
accompany (home), prosequor.
account, on account of, propter.
actor, histrio, actor.
adjourn, profero, differo.
administer (justice), dico (jus).
advance, incedo, procedo, prodeo, progredior.
advanced (in age), grandis (natu).
advantageous to, e, ex.
afterwards, postea, posthac.
again, denuo, iterum.
against, adversus, adversum, in.
alarm, in, trepidans.
allowed, it is, licet.
almost, fere, prope.
amusing, hilaris, iucundus.
and, et, atque, -que.
animal, bestia, fera.
as, ut, velut.
as if, as though, quasi.
ask, interrogo, rogo; peto, oro.
ask for, peto, oro.
ascribe, acceptum refero.
athletics, ars athletica.
attack, oppugno, pugno in, incurro.
attract attention, converto oculos, animum.
back, in the, aversus.
battle, pugna, proelium.
bear (v.), fero.
before, ante, coram.
behead, securi percutio.
bodily, genitive of corpus.
both ... and, et ... et.
brand (with mark of infamy), adficio.
brave, fortis, strenuus.
bring in, introduco.
build, struo, condo, congero.
burn, ardeo, deuro.
but, sed, at.
buy, emo, mercor.
by no means, nequaquam, haudquaquam.
call, appello, voco.
carry, fero, vecto.
carry back, refero.
carry to, asporto.
case, causa, res.
cause, (v.), curo with gerundive.
centre, media pars.
certain, a (indef.), quidam.
certainly, procul dubio.
chance, by, forte.
choose, deligo, eligo.
city, in the (adj.), urbanus, urbicus.
come to, pervenio.
command (army), rego.
condemn, condemno, damno.
conquer, vinco, supero.
I am considered, videor, habeor.
consult, consulo, consulto.
converse with, colloquor.
country (adj.), rusticus.
crowd, turba, caterva.
crown (s.), corona.
crown (v.), corono.
cut off, decido, praecido.
dawn, prima lux.
death, mors, exitus e vita;
(condemn to) death, capitis (damno.)
deed, facinus, factum.
defeat, vinco, supero.
demand (s.), postulatum, postulatio.
demand (v.), posco.
depend on, vertor in.
desert (s.), locus desertus.
desert (v.), descisco ab.
difficulty, of (adj.), difficilis.
distance, at a, procul.
draw up, instruo.
drive, cogo; (from home), exigo.
enemy, hostis, inimicus.
enormous, ingens, vastus.
enter, introeo, ascendo in.
except, nisi, praeter.
facing, adversum, adversus.
fall down, concido.
famous, praeclarus, famâ celebri.
father, pater, paterfamilias.
fire, ignis, incendium.
first at, primum.
five times, quinquies.
food, cibus, victus, pabulum.
for, enim, nam.
form, conformo, fingo.
friend, amicus, familiaris.
from, e, ex; a, ab.
from all sides, undique.
front, in, adversus.
fruitful, felix, fecundus, uber.
full speed, at, citato cursu.
gain, adipiscor, mihi obvenit.
gain possession of, potior.
gift, praemium, donum.
give, do, reddo.
give account of, rationem reddo.
give advice, praecipio, moneo.
give bail, vadimonium dare, promittere.
give thanks, gratias ago.
give vote, sententiam fero.
go, eo, cedo.
gold (adj.), aureus.
good for, I am, valeo.
groan, gemitus edo.141
guard, I am on my, caveo.
hand to, trado.
happen, fio, accido.
harmless, sine noxâ.
haste, make, propero.
haughtily, per superbiam.
heaven, by, divinitus.
height, proceries, magnitudo.
help (s.), auxilium.
help (v.), adjuvo.
herself, ipsa, se.
hide, recondo, delitesco.
high, many stories, multis tabulatis editus.
his, suus, ejus.
hold on, teneo.
in honour of, ob honorem.
in honour of, ob honorem.
inhabit, incolo, colo.
insult, contumeliâ afficio.
jeer at, eludo, inrideo.
kill, occido, interficio.
know, scio, percallesco.
large, magnus, ingens.
large sum of, grandis.
laugh at, derideo.
laurel (s.), laurus.
laurel (adj.), laureus.
lend, dare ... mutuum.
lick, lambo, demulceo.
lies, tell, mentior.
life, vita, caput.
like, more (with adj. or gen.).
line (of battle), acies.
long while, for a, diu.
loose, let, emitto.
loud, sublatus, magnus.
mad, I am, deliro.
maintain, retineo, contendo.
make, facio, reddo.
make haste, propero.
many sorts of, varius.
married to, I am, nubo.
master, dommus, magister.
mean, what does this, quid hoc sibi vult.
medicine, medicina, res medicina.
meet, obviam fio.
mid-day, (s.), dies medius.
mid-day, (adj.), meridianus.
mimic hunt, pugna venationis.
mourn for, lugeo.
mourning, habitus lugubris.
much, multus, grandis.
much, as much as, tantus ... quantus.
must, necesse est.
myself, ego ipse.
name, nomen, cognomen.
natural position, natura.
never, nunquam, nusquam.
next day, postridie.
no one, nemo, nullus.
not, non, haud.
old, antiquus, vetus.143
old days, in, antiquitus.
old woman, anus.
on, in, super.
one day, quodam die.
opinion, I am of, censeo.
oppose, loquor contra.
order, jubeo, impero.
order that, in, ut, quo.
others, the, ceteri.
ought, debeo, or gerundive.
out of, e, ex.
own, his, suus.
pardon, poenâ solvo.
pass (sentence), fero (sententiam).
pay, do, solvo.
people, populus, vulgus.
perch on, insisto.
place, (s.), locus.
place (hope), habeo (spem).
place in, condo.
place on, impono, pono.
plead, verba facere.
position, natural, natura.
possession, take, potior.
pray, obsecro, oro.
present, dono, offero.
prevent, to, ut ne, ne.
produce, pario, edo, profero.
provided with, copiosus.
pull out, revello.
pull up, revello.
punish, vindico, punio, multo.
receive, accipio, fero.
rejoicing (s.), laetitia.
rejoicing (adj.), laetus.
relate, narro, trado.
returns (s.), reditus.
rise, exurgo, resurgo.
safe, salvus, incolumis.
say, dico, narro.
search for, quaero, requiro.
seated on, insidens.
secret, clandestinus, tacitus.
send for, arcesso.
shut in, includo.
shut up, claudo.
sigh, murmura edo.
sight, in my, me inspectante
silent, I am, taceo.
silver (adj.), argenteus.
skill, ars, disciplina.
skilled, peritus, sollers.
so, ita, itaque.
speak, loquor, dico, enuntio.
speed, at full, citato cursu.
spring into, transilio.
spring down, desilio.
stand forth, exto.
stand still, consisto.
story, tabulatum (of house); apologus (tale).145
stretch out, protendo.
strong, validus, violentas.
success, with, prospere.
such, talis, ejusmodi.
suffer from, patior.
sunrise, lucis ortus, sol oriens.
take, capio, fero.
take from, detraho.
take to flight, in fugam me proripio.
take possession of, potior.
take refuge in, concedo in.
talk with, colloquor.
tear in pieces, dilacero, discindo.
tear open, rescindo, divello.
tell, dico, narro, enuntio.
tell lies, mentior.
thank, grates ago, gratias ago.
thanks, grates, gratiae.
that, ille, is.
their, suus, eorum, illorum.
three years, triennium.
throw, iacio, coniicio.
throw away, abiicio.
throw down, everto.
thus, ita, sic.
time, at the, in praesens.
triumph (s.), triumphus.
triumph (v.), triumpho.
trust in, confido.
try, experior, cognosco.
turn to or on, refero.
unwilling, I am, nolo.
use, utor, expromo.
useful, utilis, magno usu and magno usui.
vain, in, frustra.
verdict, I give a, pronuntio.
warn, moneo, praemoneo.
weary, I am, of this, pertaedet me huius.
weep for, comploro.
when, ubi, cum.
whenever, ubicumque, cum.
who, quis, qui.
wild-beast, fera, bestia.
wild-beast, of a, (adj.), ferinus.
win over, comparo.
woman, old, anus.
wonder at, miror, admiror, demiror.
wonderful, minis, mirandus, mirificus.
wound (s.), vulnus.
wound (v.), haurio.
you, tu, vos.
young man, adulescens.
young ones, pulli.
The Roman figures give the number of the selection, the Arabic figures the number of the line in the selection.
The Notes and the Proper Names were printed as shown here, in a single merged Index. Links go to the beginning of each Note.
abhinc multis annis, xx. 10.
ablative absolute, v. 9.
acceptum referre, xvii. 13.
accusative plural of 3rd declension in -is, ix. 2.
acerbus, v. 5.
adfines, xxvi. 5.
adigere aliquem iusiurandum, xl. 6.
advocare, xxxii. 2.
aedes, xvi. 17.
aerarium, xvii. 10.
Aesopus, xxiv. 1.
ager Pomptinus, xxiii. 1.
ἀκοινονόητοι, xxxiii. 10.
albus, xiv. 1.
Alcibiades, iv. 4.
Alexander, vi. 1.
ambitus, ii. 2.
animus and mens, v. 5.
Antiochus, ix. 1.
antiquus, xx. 4.
argyranche, xxxii. 14.
Arion, xxxv. 1.
Aristoteles, iii. 1.
Aurunci, xx. 6.
avunculus, vii. 1.
Bucephalas, vi. 1.
-bundus and -cundus, vi. 11.
Caesar, C. Iulius, xx. 16.
Caesar, Claudius, xxix. 2.
canere tibiis, vii. 4.
Cannae, ix. 1.
capitalis res, xxx. 9.
caput, xix. 1.
Cato, xvii. 1.
censeo (parenthetically), xvi. 12.
censores, xl. 24.
Chares, vi. 2.
Cicero, xxxiii. 1.
cinctus, xxi. 17.
Circus Maximus, xxviii. 1.
Cispius Mons, xxxiv. 3.
cognati, xxvi. 5.
comoediarum certamina, ii. 2.
comparare hominem in aliquem, xvii. 3.
congerere (absolutely), xxv. 3.149
contestari litem, xxxix. 12.
Coruncanius, xx. 4.
Crotoniensis, x. 1.
Crotona, x. 1.
cruor, xxix. 23.
curia, xi. 1.
Curius Dentatus, xx. 3.
dative of purpose (predicative dat.), viii. 4.
Demades, xxxii. 4.
Demosthenes, xxxii. 4.
dependent interrogatives, x. 6.
desinere artem, x. 3.
deveho (de = to land), xxxvi. 7.
disciplina, xxii. 2.
dissimulanter, xxxvi. 12.
dum with subj., xxv. 5.
Electra, xxxi. 5.
Ennius, xxxviii. 9.
ephippium, ix. 6.
Euander, xx. 9.
exerceor, in middle sense, iv. 7.
Fabricius, viii. 1.
fac eas, xxv. 11.
facto ... opus est, xiv. 18.
falcibus (currus cum), ix. 4.
familias, xii. 3.
Favorinus, xx. 1.
felix (fruitful), xxxvii. 18.
foculus, xv. 7.
forum, xxiii. 21.
frequentative verbs, xviii. 4.
frenis ... fulgentem, ix. 6.
genitive denoting “nature,” “duty” of, xxxiii. 12.
genitive after gerund (causarum orandi cupidus), xxxix. 1.
gerunds and gerundives, xiii. 1.
gratiae, xxxvii. 13.
Hannibal, ix. 1.
haurire pectus, xxii. 9.
hercle, iii. 1.
Hispanicus gladius, xxii. 7.
historic infinitive, xxv. 15.
Horatii, xx. 5.
hospita, xv. 2.
id temporis, xviii. 7.
imperium proconsulare, xxix. 5.
inceptive or inchoative verbs, ii. 5.
ingentis, (acc. plur.), ix. 2.
in iure stare, xviii. 18.
inmittere (absolutely), vi. 9.
insula (lodging-house), xxxiv. 4.
interrogatives, dependent, x. 6.
ire infitias, xxxvi. 18.
ius dicere, xviii. 16.
iusiurandum aliquem adigere, xl. 6.
locative case, xi. 1.
loci (nusquam), xv. 19.
(e) mediis hostibus, vi. 12.
Menander, ii. 1.
mens and animus, v. 5.
Methymna, xxxv. 1.
middle signification of passive voice, iv. 7.150
mihi and ad me after verbs, xxvii. 13.
Milo, x. 1.
Mitridates, xxxviii. 1.
monilia, ix. 6.
-ne pleonastic, xi. 10.
ne ... quis, xi. 4.
nemo, xiv. 9.
nobilis, xxxv. 1.
noctis extremo, xviii. 3.
nonne, num, -ne, ii. 5.
nudus, xxi. 7.
nusquam loci, xv. 16.
Orestes, xxxi. 5.
Oresti (genitive), xxxi. 6.
orthium carmen, xxxv. 21.
Palatium, xxxiii. 1.
pareo, pario, paro, i. 2.
passives with middle signification, iv. 7.
Pelasgi, xx. 6.
per contemptum, xxiii. 5.
Periander, xxxv. 1.
Pericles, vii. 1.
phalerae, ix. 6.
Philemon, ii. 1.
Piraeus, xxxiv. 15.
plague of Athens, v. 10.
Plutarchus, iii. 1.
Poenus, ix. 8.
Pomptinus ager, xxiii. 1.
possies, xxiv. 13.
postliminium, xl. 12.
(in) praesens, xxxiii. 2.
praetextatus, xi. 2.
predicative dative, viii. 4.
priusquam with subjunctive, xxxiii. 4.
proconsulare imperium, xxix. 5.
Protagoras, xxxix. 3.
purpose, dative of, viii. 4.
Pyrrus, xxvii. 1.
Pythagoras, x. 1.
quadrati versus, xxiv. 10.
quae dicas (indefinite), xx. 11.
quaeso (parenthetically), ii. 4.
quasi, xv. 6.
quid ... sibi vult, xii. 6.
(si) quid rei, xxv. 7.
quin with indicative, xxvi. 4.
quis (indefinite), xi. 4.
quisquam and ullus, x. 6.
re in composition, i. 6.
Samnites, viii. 1.
satira, xxiv. 10.
scatebat iris, iv. 3.
Scipio Asiaticus, xvii. 5.
scutum, xxi. 17.
securus with genitive, vi. 14.
sed enim, xv. 10.
Sertorius, xiii. 1.
Sibyllini libri, xv. 1.
Sicani, xx. 6.151
Socrates, iv. 1, 4.
sol oriens, v. 3.
sollemnis, xvi. 18.
Sophocles, xxx. 5.
Sulla, L., xxxiv. 15.
Sulla, P., xxxiii. 2.
Taenarum, xxxvi. 6.
talentum, xxxii. 19.
Tarquinius Superbus, xv. 1.
tibiae, vii. 4.
Torquatus, xxi. 1.
torquis, xxi. 3.
tribunus militaris, xxiii. 8.
tribunus plebis, xvi. 1.
turribus (elephanti cum), ix. 5.
ullus, x. 6.
vadari, xviii. 22.
vadimonium, xviii. 19.
venum dare, xxxiv. 10.
Vergilius, i. 1.
vertitur in, xxvi. 20.
videres, xxviii. 15.
vult, quid sibi, xii. 6.
Zama, ix. 1.